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How a Khairpur date is born and sold

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How a Khairpur date is born and sold by Mu Khan

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How a Khairpur date is born an... by user270701894

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How a Khairpur date is born ... by user270701894 1

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Khewra Salt Mine by Mu Khan

Khewra Salt Mine The Khewra Salt Mine (or Mayo Salt Mine) is located in Khewra, north of Pind Dadan Khan,[1] an administrative subdivision of Jhelum District,Punjab Region, Pakistan, which rises from the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[2] It is Pakistan's largest and oldest salt mine[3] and the world's second largest.[4][5][6] It is a major tourist attraction, drawing up to 250,000 visitors a year.[7] Its history dates back to its discovery by Alexander's troopsin 320 BC, but it started trading in the Mughal era.[8] The main tunnel at ground level was developed by Dr. H. Warth, a mining engineer, in 1872 during British rule. After independence, the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation took over the mine, which still remains the largest source of salt in the country, producing more than 350,000 tons per annum[9] of about 99% pure halite.[7] Estimates of the reserves of salt in the mine vary from 82 million tons[10] to 600 million tons.[11]   Contents   [hide]  1History 2Location 3Production 4Tourism 5Other projects 6Flooding in 2010 7Gallery 8References 9External links   History[edit] The Khewra Salt Mine is also known as Mayo Salt Mine, in honour of Lord Mayo, who visited it as Viceroy of India.[12] The mine is a part of a salt range that originated about 800 million years ago, when evaporation of a shallow sea followed by geological movement formed a salt range that stretched for about 300 kilometers (185 miles).[8][13] The salt reserves at Khewra were discovered when Alexander the Great crossed the Jhelum and Mianwali region during his Indian campaign. The mine was discovered, however, not by Alexander, nor by his allies, but by his army's horses, when they were found licking the stones.[14]Ailing horses of his army also recovered after licking the rock salt stones.[15] During the Mughal era the salt was traded in various markets, as far away as Central Asia.[16] On the downfall of the Mughal empire, the mine was taken over by Sikhs. Hari Singh Nalwa, the Sikh Commander-in-Chief, shared the management of the Salt Range with Gulab Singh, the Raja of Jammu. The former controlled the Warcha mine, while the latter held Khewra. The salt quarried during Sikh rule was both eaten and used as a source of revenue.[citation needed] In 1872, some time after they had taken over the Sikhs' territory, the British developed the mine further.[8] They found the mining to have been inefficient, with irregular and narrow tunnels and entrances that made the movement of labourers difficult and dangerous. The supply of water inside the mine was poor, and there was no storage facility for the mined salt. The only road to the mine was over difficult, rocky terrain. To address these problems the government levelled the road, built warehouses, provided a water supply, improved the entrances and tunnels, and introduced a better mechanism for excavation of salt. Penalties were introduced to control salt smuggling.

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New7Wonders of the World by Mu Khan

New7Wonders of the World This article is about the New7Wonders Foundation list. For other uses, see Wonders of the World. From left to right, top to bottom: Chichen Itza, Christ the Redeemer, Great Wall of China, Machu Picchu, Petra, Taj Mahal, and Colosseum. New7Wonders of the World (2000–2007) was an initiative started in 2000 to choose Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments.[1] The popularity poll was led by Canadian-Swiss Bernard Weber and organized by the New7Wonders Foundation based in Zurich, Switzerland, with winners announced on 7 July 2007 in Lisbon.[2][3] The New7Wonders Foundation claimed that more than 100 million votes were cast through the Internet or by telephone. Voting via the Internet was limited to one vote for seven monuments per person/identity, but multiple voting was possible through telephone.[4] Hence the poll was considered unscientific.[5] According to John Zogby, founder and current President/CEO of the Utica, New York-based polling organization Zogby International, New7Wonders Foundation drove "the largest poll on record".[6][5] After supporting the New7Wonders Foundation at the beginning of the campaign by providing advice on nominee selection, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), by its bylaws having to record all and give equal status to world heritage sites, distanced itself from the undertaking in 2001 and again in 2007.[7][8] The New7Wonders Foundation, established in 2001, relied on private donations and the sale of broadcast rights and received no public funding or taxpayers' money.[9] After the final announcement, New7Wonders said it didn't earn anything from the exercise and barely recovered its investment.[10] Although N7W describes itself as a not-for-profit organization, the company behind it—the New Open World Corporation (NOWC)—is a commercial business. All licensing and sponsorship money is paid to NOWC. The foundation has run two subsequent programs: New7Wonders of Nature, the subject of voting until 2011, and New7WondersCities, which wound up in 2014 Winners[edit] Location of the New7Wonders winners The Great Pyramid of Giza, largest and oldest of the three pyramids at the Giza Necropolis in Egypt and the only surviving (and oldest) of the original Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was granted honorary status. WonderLocationImageYear Great Pyramid of Giza (honorary status) Giza Necropolis, Egypt 2560 BCE Great Wall of China China

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Bermuda Triangle by Mu Khan

Bermuda Triangle The Bermuda Triangle, also known as the Devil's Triangle, is a loosely-defined region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean, where a number of aircraft and ships are said to have disappeared under mysterious circumstances. Most reputable sources dismiss the idea that there is any mystery. The vicinity of the Bermuda Triangle is one of the most heavily traveled shipping lanes in the world, with ships frequently crossing through it for ports in the Americas, Europe, and the Caribbean islands. Cruise ships and pleasure craft regularly sail through the region, and commercial and private aircraft routinely fly over it. Popular culture has attributed various disappearances to the paranormal or activity by extraterrestrial beings. Documented evidence indicates that a significant percentage of the incidents were spurious, inaccurately reported, or embellished by later authors. Triangle area In 1964, Vincent Gaddis wrote in the pulp magazine Argosy of the boundaries of the Bermuda Triangle:[1] three vertices, in Miami, Florida peninsula, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and in the mid-Atlantic island of Bermuda. Subsequent writers did not necessarily follow this definition.[2] Some writers gave different boundaries and vertices to the triangle, with the total area varying from 1,300,000 to 3,900,000 km2 (500,000 to 1,510,000 sq mi).[2] Consequently, the determination of which accidents occurred inside the triangle depends on which writer reported them.[2] The United States Board on Geographic Names does not recognize the Bermuda Triangle.[2] Origins The earliest suggestion of unusual disappearances in the Bermuda area appeared in a September 17, 1950 article published in The Miami Herald (Associated Press)[3] by Edward Van Winkle Jones.[4] Two years later, Fate magazine published "Sea Mystery at Our Back Door",[5][6] a short article by George X. Sand covering the loss of several planes and ships, including the loss of Flight 19, a group of five U.S. Navy Grumman TBM Avenger torpedo bombers on a training mission. Sand's article was the first to lay out the now-familiar triangular area where the losses took place. Flight 19 alone would be covered again in the April 1962 issue of American Legion magazine.[7] In it, author Allan W. Eckert wrote that the flight leader had been heard saying, "We are entering white water, nothing seems right. We don't know where we are, the water is green, no white." He also wrote that officials at the Navy board of inquiry stated that the planes "flew off to Mars."[8] Sand's article was the first to suggest a supernatural element to the Flight 19 incident. In the February 1964 issue of Argosy, Vincent Gaddis' article "The Deadly Bermuda Triangle" argued that Flight 19 and other disappearances were part of a pattern of strange events in the region.[1] The next year, Gaddis expanded this article into a book, Invisible Horizons.[9] Others would follow with their own works, elaborating on Gaddis' ideas: John Wallace Spencer (Limbo of the Lost, 1969, repr. 1973);[10] Charles Berlitz (The Bermuda Triangle, 1974);[11] Richard Winer (The Devil's Triangle, 1974),[12] and many others, all keeping to some of the same supernatural elements outlined by Eckert.[13] Criticism of the concept Larry Kusche  Lawrence David Kusche, author of The Bermuda Triangle Mystery: Solved (1975)[14] argued that many claims of Gaddis and subsequent writers were often exaggerated, dubious or unverifiable. Kusche's research revealed a number of inaccuracies and inconsistencies between Berlitz's accounts and statements from eyewitnesses, participants, and others involved in the initial incidents. Kusche noted cases where pertinent information went unreported, such as the disappearance of round-the-world yachtsman Donald Crowhurst, which Berlitz had presented as a mystery, despite clear evidence to the contrary. Another example was the ore-carrier recounted by Berlitz as lost without trace three days out of an Atlantic port when it had been lost three days out of a port with the same name in the Pacific Ocean. Kusche also argued that a large percentage of the incidents that sparked allegations of the Triangle's mysterious influence actually occurred well outside it. Often his research was simple: he would review period newspapers of the dates of reported incidents and find reports on possibly relevant events like unusual weather, that were never mentioned in the disappearance stories. Kusche concluded that: The number of ships and aircraft reported missing in the area was not significantly greater, proportionally speaking, than in any other part of the ocean. In an area frequented by tropical cyclones, the number of disappearances that did occur were, for the most part, neither disproportionate, unlikely, nor mysterious. Furthermore, Berlitz and other writers would often fail to mention such storms or even represent the disappearance as having happened in calm conditions when meteorological records clearly contradict this. The numbers themselves had been exaggerated by sloppy research. A boat's disappearance, for example, would be reported, but its eventual (if belated) return to port may not have been. Some disappearances had, in fact, never happened. One plane crash was said to have taken place in 1937 off Daytona Beach, Florida, in front of hundreds of witnesses; a check of the local papers revealed nothing.[citation needed] The legend of the Bermuda Triangle is a manufactured mystery, perpetuated by writers who either purposely or unknowingly made use of misconceptions, faulty reasoning, and sensationalism.[14] In a 2013 study, the World Wide Fund for Nature identified the world’s 10 most dangerous waters for shipping, but the Bermuda Triangle was not among them.[15][16] Further responses When the UK Channel 4 television program The Bermuda Triangle (1992)[17] was being produced by John Simmons of Geofilms for the Equinox series, the marine insurance market Lloyd's of London was asked if an unusually large number of ships had sunk in the Bermuda Triangle area. Lloyd's determined that large numbers of ships had not sunk there.[18] Lloyd's does not charge higher rates for passing through this area. United States Coast Guard records confirm their conclusion. In fact, the number of supposed disappearances is relatively insignificant considering the number of ships and aircraft that pass through on a regular basis.[14] The Coast Guard is also officially skeptical of the Triangle, noting that they collect and publish, through their inquiries, much documentation contradicting many of the incidents written about by the Triangle authors. In one such incident involving the 1972 explosion and sinking of the tanker SS V. A. Fogg, the Coast Guard photographed the wreck and recovered several bodies,[19] in contrast with one Triangle author's claim that all the bodies had vanished, with the exception of the captain, who was found sitting in his cabin at his desk, clutching a coffee cup.[10] In addition, V. A. Fogg sank off the coast of Texas, nowhere near the commonly accepted boundaries of the Triangle. The NOVA/Horizon episode The Case of the Bermuda Triangle, aired on June 27, 1976, was highly critical, stating that "When we've gone back to the original sources or the people involved, the mystery evaporates. Science does not have to answer questions about the Triangle because those questions are not valid in the first place ... Ships and planes behave in the Triangle the same way they behave everywhere else in the world."[20] Skeptical researchers, such as Ernest Taves[21] and Barry Singer,[22] have noted how mysteries and the paranormal are very popular and profitable. This has led to the production of vast amounts of material on topics such as the Bermuda Triangle. They were able to show that some of the pro-paranormal material is often misleading or inaccurate, but its producers continue to market it. Accordingly, they have claimed that the market is biased in favor of books, TV specials, and other media that support the Triangle mystery, and against well-researched material if it espouses a skeptical viewpoint. Explanation attempts Persons accepting the Bermuda Triangle as a real phenomenon have offered a number of explanatory approaches.

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RUBBER PLANT

RUBBER PLANT  (Ficus elastica) Ficus elastica, the rubber fig, rubber bush, rubber tree, rubber plant, or Indian rubber bush, is a species of plant in the fig genus, native to northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, China (Yunnan), Malaysia, and Indonesia. It has become naturalized in Sri Lanka, the West Indies, and the US State of Florida.   Contents   [hide]  1Description 2Pollination and fruiting 3Cultivation and uses 3.1Ornamental 3.2Latex 4Gallery 5References   Description Leaves of Ficus elastica It is a large tree in the banyan group of figs, growing to 30–40 metres (98–131 ft) (rarely up to 60 metres or 200 feet) tall, with a stout trunk up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) in diameter. The trunk develops aerial and buttressing roots to anchor it in the soil and help support heavy branches. It has broad shiny oval leaves 10–35 centimetres (3.9–13.8 in) long and 5–15 centimetres (2.0–5.9 in) broad; leaf size is largest on young plants (occasionally to 45 centimetres or 18 inches long), much smaller on old trees (typically 10 centimetres or 3.9 inches long). The leaves develop inside a sheath at the apical meristem, which grows larger as the new leaf develops. When it is mature, it unfurls and the sheath drops off the plant. Inside the new leaf, another immature leaf is waiting to develop.

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23 Spots You Shouldn’t Miss in Amsterdam If You Lo

23 Spots You Shouldn’t Miss in Amsterdam If You Love Architecture 1. WoZoCo Architect: MVRDV Location: Ookmeerweg + Reimerswaaltstraat (Google) Year: 1997 Description: This building was the first housing complex realized by MVRDV. WoZoCo’s Apartments for Elderly People open up 100 living units in an area. Its very powerful image is the result of urban policy: the architects couldn’t place all the 100 apartments in a linear building, because there was a height restriction. Thus the overhang volumes: all the apartments that couldn’t fit into the linear volume where hang on the northern side, with a east-west orientation. Read more here. 2. Science Center NEMO Architect: Renzo Piano Location: Oosterdok 2 (Google) Year: 1997 Description: Surrounded by water, this science and technology museum has a ship-like form and pre-oxidized copper-clad facades, referencing the surrounding port. A pedestrian ramp leads up onto the building’s sloping roof that serves as a public piazza for visitors and as a social focus for the neighborhood. Great skyline views from here from Tue-Sun (10-17.30). Read more here. 3. ARCAM Architect: René van Zuuk Location: Prins Hendrikkade 600 (Google) Year: 2003 Description: This art gallery is a compact, sculptural building existing of three layers which are connected by vides. The building is covered in coated aluminum that flows from bottom to roof and over, all around the building on opposite sides. A special feature is the sculptural glass facade around entrance at the city-side. Read more here. 4. Hubertus House Architect: Aldo van Eyck Location: Plantage Middenlaan 33-35 (Google) Year: 1957 Description: The 6-storey Hubertus House cannot be viewed in isolation, although its social success is clearly a result of the way its particular design was carried out. It is concerned with the spirit and the establishment of a comfortable scale for the building of this type and size—an open ‘home’ for single parents and their children. Read more here. 5. Koninklijk Paleis + Nieuwe Kerk + Dam Square Architect: Daniël Stalpaert,  Location: Plantage Middenlaan 33-35 (Google) Year: 13th Century Description: This is without doubt the most iconic spot in Amsterdam and a popular spot among locals. Dam square got built in approximately 1270, and formed the first connection between the settlements on the sides of the river. In 1450 Nieuwe Kerk was built as a church. Although is no longer used for church services, it’s used as an exhibition space. During the Dutch Golden Age the Palace got built (1665) as as a city hall and now is the Royal Palace of Amsterdam. Read more here. 6. Begijnhof Courtyard Architect: ?  Location: Begijnhof 30 (Google) Year: 13th Century Description: One of the most amazing places in Amsterdam is the Begijnhof. It was built around 1390 and is the oldest inner court in Amsterdam. It is surrounded by historical medieval buildings. The fact that it’s so quiet and peaceful adds to the experience. The entrance is located right to the bookstore. Check schedule because it closes early. Read more here. 7. Anne Frank House Architect: Dirk van Delft Location: Prinsengracht 263-267 (Google) Year: 1635 Description: It was originally a private residence, then a warehouse, and in the nineteenth century, the front warehouse with its wide stable-like doors was used to house horses. At the start of the 20th century a manufacturer of household appliances occupied the building, succeeded in 1930 by a producer of piano rolls, who vacated the property by 1939. On 1 December 1940 Anne’s father Otto Frank moved here. The Secret Annex is the rear extension of the building. They remained hidden here for two years and one month until they were anonymously betrayed to the Nazi authorities, arrested, and deported to their deaths in concentration camps. Read more here. 8. Rijksmuseum Asian Pavilion Architect: Cruz y Ortiz Arquitectos Location: Museumstraat 1 (Google) Year: 2013 Description: Built in 1885 by Pierre Cuypers as a museum dedicated to arts and history. The Asian pavilion was designed by Cruz y Ortiz and opened in 2013. The museum’s two inner courtyards have now been opened up, with the removal of galleries that were added in the 1950s and 1960s. A two-part, 2,250 square-metre Atrium has been created by sinking the floor of the two courtyards below ground level and connecting them via an underground zone beneath the original passageway through the building. Notable paintings include The Milkmaid (1657) by Vermeer. Read more here. 9. Stedelijk Museum Architect: Benthem Crouwel Architekten Location: Museumplein 10 (Google) Year: 2012 Description: The existing building of the Stedelijk Museum created in 1895 by the municipal architect A.W. Weismann, is celebrated for its majestic staircase, grand rooms and natural lighting. These strong points have been retained in the design by Benthem Crouwel Architects along with the color white. The contrast of the new building versus the old building is obvious from the outside; inside the museum you hardly notice strolling from the new building into the old. The museum’s collection includes modern art, contemporary art, and design. Read more here. 10. Silodam Architect: MVRDV Location: Silodam (Google) Year: 2002 Description: Built in 2002 as a housing building. Located next to two former grain warehouses (silos) that have been converted into housing. The 157 apartments, business units and public spaces in the Housing Silo are compressed within a 10 storey high and 20 meters deep urban envelope. The apartments, rental and owner in different sizes, are stacked, legible on the façade, each of which is expressed differently. Tours are available from 3€ sending an email to silodam.org 2 weeks in advance. Read more here. 11. Amsterdam Eye Museum Architect: Delugan Meissl Associated Architects Location: IJpromenade 1 (Google) Year: 2012 Description: Both the Eye Film Institute’s concept and urban implementation are based on an overlay of two creative disciplines which have at their core reality and fiction, illusion and real experience. The building concept becomes the story board, the architecture the scenography. By delivering a dynamic interplay, the building’s assigned role oscillates between acting as the urban scenery’s protagonist and as a dramaturgical element placed in front of a heterogeneous landscape setting. Read more here. 12. Qubic Architect: Delugan Meissl Associated Architects Location: Stavangerweg 50 – 877 (Google) Year: 2004 Description: Built in 2004 as a student residence designed by the own students. The architects made a prefabricated system out of containers of 9 by 3 meters. This system made the houses’ construction rapid, re-usable and costs were kept to a minimum. Six different façades with six different colours where chosen to make several changing combinations. Read more here. 13. REM Eiland Rooftop Architect: ? Location: Haparandadam 45 (Google) Year: 1964 Description: REM Island was a platform built in Ireland and towed off the Dutch coast in 1964 as the pirate broadcasting home of Radio and TV Noordzee. Both stations were dismantled by armed forces of the Netherlands and in 2004 it became a restaurant. Have a drink 22 meters above the IJ with views of Amsterdam from Zuid to Noord. Read more here. 14. Amsterdam Orphanage Architect: Aldo van Eyck Location: IJsbaanpad 7 (Google) Year: 1960 Description: Built in 1960 as an orphanage. Within the Orphanage, units of program are laid out on an orthogonal grid. The units project off two diagonal paths so that each unit has multiple exterior facades. By projecting off of a diagonal within the grid, van Eyck creates an equal amount of negative spaces from the positives he’s formed. Read more here. 15. iJ Tower Architect: Neutelings & Riedijk Location: 1019 dn, Oostelijke Handelskade 1213 (Google) Year: 1998 Description: Built in 1998 as a residential tower. The tower has 68 apartments in total, which are grouped to 4 per plant; around a central core. Setbacks of the building have two effects: Aesthetically give the tower a great character and monumental sculptures, and also ensure that all plants are different. It has 20 varieties of housing in total. Read more here. 16. Piet Hein Tunnel Building Architect: UN Studio Location: Oosterdok and Zeeburg (Google) Year: 1997 Description: Built in 1997 as a tunnel and building. This project consists mainly of two small service buildings. These technical constructions each have a concrete core, enveloped by an asymmetrical skin of perforated steel plates and titlted roof planes. Read more here. 17. The Whale Architect: de Architekten Cie. Location: Baron G. A. Tindalplein 1 (Google) Year: 2000 Description: The Whale is one of three big “meteorites” which have landed in-between the lowrise row houses on the Islands of Borneo and Sporenburg. Thanks to its sculptural shape, this building by Frits van Dongen is a real landmark. Inside are 194 apartments, office and retail space. The traditional closed block  has been transformed by lifting the two, so the public space flows through underneath. Inside the block there is a private garden, designed by West 8. Read more here. 18. Borneo + Sporenburg Bridges Architect:

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Incredible Benefits Of Broccoli

 Incredible Benefits Of Broccoli B’ is for Broccoli and for blissful health. This popular vegetable has a wide variety of nutritional and medicinal benefits, including its ability to prevent many types of cancer, improve our digestive system, lower cholesterol, detoxify the body, maximize vitamin and mineral uptake, prevent allergic reactions, boost the immune system, protect the skin, prevent birth defects, lower blood pressure, eliminate inflammation, and improve vision and ocular health. Table of Contents What is Broccoli? Broccoli Nutrition Facts Health Benefits of Broccoli Treats Cancer Detoxifies the Body Skin Care Protects from UV Rays Treats Stomach Disorders Prevents Heart Diseases Eye Care Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Improves Immunity Improves Bone Health Helps in Pregnancy Regulates Blood Pressure Treats Anemia What Is Broccoli? This green vegetable, which occasionally has some purple tinges, is a close relative of cabbage and cauliflower, and belongs to the Italica Cultivar group of Brassicaceae family. The most commonly eaten parts of broccoli are the flowering heads, which are shaped like a tree, coming off a thick, central, edible stalk.There are three main varieties which are popular in different parts of the world. Calabrese broccoli is the most common, and is typically simply shortened to “broccoli”, while sprouting broccoli and purple cauliflower are two other varieties of the vegetable mostly found in Europe and the Mediterranean countries. It is actually native to that region as well, and has been a part of cultural history dating back to the 6th Century BC. It was eventually spread throughout Europe and was widely cultivated. It didn’t make a significant appearance in the Americas until the early 20th century.  The largest cultivator of broccoli in the world is now China, followed closely by India, but the main consumers remain western nations. Broccoli is very common all over the world, particularly in Europe, America, and Australia, but not as much in Africa. It can also be found in some South Asian cuisines like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Brocoli can be eaten cooked or raw, but the best ways are to steam them, shallow fry them, or eat them raw as salad greens, because that preserves the nutrients contained in them. Some ways of cooking this vegetable enhances certain health benefits, such as the increased cholesterol-lowering properties that are gained when broccoli has been steamed. Let’s take a look at some of the nutritional assets contained in broccoli that make it such an important part of our diet! Broccoli Nutrition Facts The health benefits of broccoli are derived from the unique mixture of nutrients, organic compounds, minerals, and vitamins that are found in this lovely vegetable. These include significant amounts of vitamin C, vitamin K, dietary fiber, folate, potassium, selenium, vitamin A, 

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Oman by M Usama Khan

Oman   The Sultanate of Oman is in the Middle East, on the southeastern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It borders the United Arab Emirates in the northwest, Saudi Arabia in the west, and Yemen in the southwest. Oman has two exclaves separated from it by the United Arab Emirates, the Musandam Peninsula and Madha. Understand Until Sultan Qaboos bin Said exiled the previous Sultan in 1970, Oman was an under-developed nation, and almost completely closed to visitors. Since that time, education, public works and tourism have taken off throughout the country. Omanis are friendly people and are very helpful to tourists. In turn, tourists should respect the ways and traditions of the Omani people. Omanis are proud of both their country's rapid progress and their heritage as one of the great sea-faring nations. Excellent schools and hospitals, good governance, and on-going infrastructure improvement are all important characteristics of this once introverted and closed nation. History Before Islam The oldest known human settlement in Oman dates to the Stone Age. Sumerian tablets refer to a country called Magan, a name thought to refer to Oman’s ancient copper mines. The present-day name of the country is believed to originate from the Arab tribes who migrated to its territory from the Uman region of Yemen. Many tribes settled in Oman making a living by fishing, herding or stock breeding and some present day Omani families are able to trace their ancestral roots to other parts of Arabia. From the 6th century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, Oman was controlled and/or influenced by three Persian dynasties, the Achaemenids, Parthians and Sassanids. By about 250BCE, the Parthian dynasty brought the Persian Gulf under their control and extended their influence as far as Oman and established garrisons in Oman. In the third century CE, the Sasanids succeeded the Parthians and held the area until the rise of Islam four centuries later. Climate The climate of Oman is tropical desert, similar to that of cities such as Dubai and La Paz (Mexico). Summers are very hot and humid, with temperatures during the day reaching 38°C (100°F) and night time lows of 29°C (85°F). Springs and autumns are still warm-to-hot, with night time temperatures in the 21°C (70°F) and daytime temperatures anywhere from 29-35°C (85-95°F). Winters are pleasant, with nights around 16°C (60°F), low humidity, and days around 24°C (75°F). Oman is known for its beaches, with their white sand, turquoise waters, and year-round warm ocean temperatures. Regions Map of Oman with regions colour coded Northern Oman (Muscat, Bahla, Buraimi, Hajar Mountains, Madha, Matrah, Musandam Peninsula, Sohar) the capital city, fertile Al-Batinah coast, majestic Hajar Mountains and the Musandam Peninsula Central Coastal Oman (Ibra, Masirah Island, Sur, Wahiba Sands) awe-inspiring dunes, old forts and coastal scenery fringing the Indian Ocean Zufar (Dhofar) (Salalah) lush coastal lowlands and mountains bordering Yemen Empty Quarter huge desert wilderness including much of the largely undefined border area with Saudi Arabia. Cities Muscat - the historic capital and largest city Bahla - oasis town which is home to a UNESCO World Heritage Site Buraimi - border crossing town adjacent to Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates Ibra - gateway to the Wahiba Sands Matrah - adjoining the capital city and just as historic Nizwa - contains one of the best-known forts in Oman Salalah - the south, which is almost tropical at the time of the Kareef Sohar - one of the the legendary homes of Sindbad Sur - where dhows are still made by hand Other destinations Hajar Mountains - a majestic range, the highest in the Arabian Peninsula, which stretches into the United Arab Emirates. Madha - tiny exclave of Oman completely surrounded by the United Arab Emirates Masirah Island - a real desert island experience awaits on this haven for turtles and other wildlife Musandam Peninsula - a rocky exclave on the Straits of Hormuz with some magnificent wadis Wahiba Sands - massive rolling dunes as far as the eye can see Get in Visas Visa Restrictions: Entry will be refused to citizens of Israel. Israeli stamps are not a problem for entry. Citizens of Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates do not require a visa to visit Oman, and may use National ID Cards to enter the country. Those who hold a visa or entrance stamp of the Emirate of Dubai that is valid for at least 21 days are visa exempt. Similarly, those who hold a visa for Qatar that is valid for travel to Oman and valid for at least one month, and who are nationals of visa on arrival eligible countries, are visa exempt when arriving directly from Qatar. Citizens of New Zealand may obtain a visa on arrival valid for 3 months, which is extendable once for a fee. Citizens of the European Union, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Hong Kong, Iceland, Indonesia, Japan, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Macau, Macedonia, Malaysia, Moldova, Monaco, Norway, Paraguay, San Marino, Seychelles, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City and Venezuela may obtain a visa on arrival valid for

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Motorways of Pakistan by M Usama Khan

Motorways of Pakistan Motorways of Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان کی موٹروے‎‎) are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed, limited-access or controlled-access highways in Pakistan, which are owned, maintained and operated federally by Pakistan's National Highway Authority. The total length of Pakistan's motorways is 1010 km as of 4 February 2017. Around 3690 km of motorways are currently under construction at different parts of country. Most of these motorway projects will be completed by 2019. Motorways of Pakistan Pakistan Motorway symbol System information Length: 4,266 km (2,651 mi) Formed: 1997 Highway names System links Roads in Pakistan             Salt Range and Motorway M2   Contents   1History 2List of motorways 3Patrolling and enforcement 3.1Emergency runways 4See also 5References 6External links   History Pakistan's motorways are part of Pakistan's "National Trade Corridor Project",[1] which aims to link Pakistan's three Arabian Sea ports (Karachi Port, Port Bin Qasim and 

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Kalash Valley by M Usama Khan

Kalash Valley   Kalash Valley is a group of three small valleys: Brir, Bumburet and Rambur. Brir lies at the southern most tip of Chitral at a distance of 34 km (21 miles) and is easily accessible by jeep-able road via Ayun. It is especially ideal for those not used to trekking. Bumburet, the largest and the most picturesque valley of the Kafir Kalash, is 36 km.(22 miles) from Chitral and is connected by a jeep-able road. Rambur is 32 km (20 miles) from Chitral, the road is jeep-able. Foreign tourists require permits for visiting the Kalash valleys. Permits are issued free of cost by the Deputy Commissioner, Chitral, Tel: 1. Foreign visitors have to pay a toll tax of Rs.10 per person while Re. 1.00 per person is charged from domestic tourists. These valleys have an alpine climate. The people inhabiting these valleys are the primitive pagan tribes of Pakistan, who are known as Kafir Kalash, which means the wearers of the black robes. Their origin is cloaked in controversy. A legend says that soldiers from the legions of the Macedonian conqueror, Alexander, settled in Chitral and are the progenitors of the Kalash. They live in small villages built on the hillsides near the banks of streams. Their houses are constructed of rough-hewn

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Road roller

Road roller "Roller-compactor" redirects here. For other types of rolling compactors, see Compactor. Caterpillar soil compactor equipped with padfoot drum, being used to compact the ground before placing concrete An old diesel-powered road roller Road roller DS-31 (Beldоrtekhnika JSC )[1] A road roller (sometimes called a roller-compactor, or just roller) is a compactor type engineering vehicle used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations. Similar rollers are used also at landfills or in agriculture. In some parts of the world, road rollers are still known colloquially as steam rollers, regardless of their method of propulsion. This typically only applies to the largest examples (used for road-making).   Horse-drawn road roller from 1800 Steam-powered roller Zettelmeyer diesel-powered road roller The first road rollers were horse-drawn, and were probably just borrowed farm implements (see roller (agricultural tool)). Main article: steamroller Since the effectiveness of a roller depends to a large extent on its weight, self-powered vehicles replaced horse-drawn rollers from the mid-19th century. The first such vehicles were steam rollers. Single-cylinder steam rollers were generally used for base compaction and run with high engine revs in a low gear to promote bounce and vibration from the crankshaft through to the rolls in much the same way as a vibrating roller. The double cylinder or compound steam rollers became popular from around 1910 onwards and were used mainly for the rolling of hot-laid surfaces due to their smoother running engines, but both cylinder types are capable of rolling the finished surface. Steam rollers were often dedicated to a task by their gearing as the

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DREAMING IN ARABIC

DREAMING IN ARABIC TRADITIONAL HOUSES Lifestyle, climate and available building materials are major influences in the architectural style of traditional houses anywhere. The Bedouin, nomadic by nature, used to live in animal hide tents during the winter, and arish shelters during the hot summer months. These palm frond shelters were airy in summer, as it allowed for ventilation and were either square or rectangular with flat roofs, or triangular tent-like structures. Palm fronds have also been a commonly used building material in the fishing, pearling and trading settlements on the coast. Barasti or arish houses were built by first constructing wooden frames of mangrove poles, split-palm trunks or any other wood that was available. The palm fronds were then used in two different ways: as straight poles with the leaves stripped off for creating screens, and with the leaves still on as roof thatch.     Mangrove poles were imported from East Africa and used extensively in the construction of houses made from coral and coral rag (limestone composed of ancient coral material) that were built on the coast by the rich from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. A lime mixture

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O by M Usama Khan

Old Arabic Houses

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9 things you should know about the Zamzam well in

9 things you should know about the Zamzam well in Saudi Arabia The Zamzam well is a destination for millions of pilgrims each year, who visit specifically to drink the holy water. You've probably had a sip or two of Zamzam water that was brought back to you from someone who has visited Masjid al-Haram in Mecca . Located approximately two meters east of the Kaaba, the Zamzam well is a destination for millions of pilgrims each year, who visit specifically to drink the holy water. Here are some facts you might want to know about the well: 1. Muslims believe that the well is a miraculously generated source of water from God, which began thousands of years ago

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Reasons Why Health is Wealth

Reasons Why Health is Wealth Category: Blog, Health & Fitness On July 9, 2016 By InfiniteKnowledge You may have heard the phrase ‘Health is Wealth’, and here, we give you plenty of reasons in support of this idea. So read on to discover 25 reasons why health is wealth. What does ‘Health is Wealth’ mean? ‘Health is Wealth’ means that: The healthier you are, the wealthier you can be. A healthy body and mind are assets in their own right. A healthy body and mind are even better than material riches. Health is something valuable, and as such it is a metaphorical kind of wealth. Health is true wealth, something that money cannot buy 25 Reasons Why Health Is Wealth: 1. Medical bills are expensive. Healthy people save money on medical costs. Sick people spend their hard earned cash on medical bills rather than on things they enjoy. 2. Healthy workers are more productive. When we are in good health, we can work more productively. Studies have shown that people in good health are able to earn more money and work more productively. 3. A healthy body and mind are riches in their own right. It does not matter how much you are struggling to make ends meet, if you have your health you have an immeasurably valuable asset. 4. Beauty products do not come cheap. If you eat healthily and exercise your skin will glow and your hair will be in great condition. No need for those expensive beauty products! 5. Feeling great

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The Inner-workings of Conceptual Learning in Compe

The Inner-workings of Conceptual Learning in Competency-based Education Suz Wilhelm, RN, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, and T. Kim Rodehorst, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Nursing | September 24, 2015 in Higher Education Q. What is conceptual learning and how long has it been in existence? Suz Wilhelm: First, it is important to recognize that concept-based learning and curriculum design is not specific to nursing education. In fact, it is a well-documented consideration in educational theory in curriculum and instructional design. Educational Psychologist William M. Stinson, defines conceptual learning in this way:  Conceptual learning is a process by which students learn how to organize information in logical mental structures, thus challenging students to become increasingly skilled at thinking (Timpson & Bendel-Simso, 1996).   It may help to think about conceptual learning in the following manner, outlined by Erickson: It is a process by which students learn how to organize information in logical mental structures; It focuses on learning organizing principles that are threaded throughout learning environments; It includes; Classroom learning Clinical experiences Simulated experiences It provides context for concepts/exemplars. Kim Rodehorst: Concept-based curricula are not new to ​nursing either. Many nurse educators may recall a similar curricular movement more than 20 years ago. It just seems that in the last 6-8 years there has seen a resurgence of interest in concept-based curricular design in an effort to respond to the need to move away from content over-saturation in nursing education that continued unabated for years.  The focus of concept based curriculum in nursing 20 years ago was on concepts from nursing theories and now it is on concepts that are unifying classifications of information in the physiological, psychological, nursing and health care domains. Q. Tell us about conceptual teaching.

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Walnuts( Akhrot)

Walnuts( Akhrot) What's New and Beneficial about Walnuts Researchers are convinced—more than ever before—about the nutritional benefits of walnuts when consumed in whole form, including the skin. We now know that approximately 90% of the phenols in walnuts are found in the skin, including key phenolic acids, tannins, and flavonoids. Some websites will encourage you to remove the walnut skin—that whitish, sometimes waxy, sometimes flaky, outermost part of shelled walnuts. There can be slight bitterness to this skin, and that's often the reason that websites give for removing it. However, we encourage you not to remove this phenol-rich portion. The form of vitamin E found in walnuts is somewhat unusual, and particularly beneficial. Instead of having most of its vitamin E present in the alpha-tocopherol form, walnuts provide an unusually high level of vitamin E in the form of gamma-tocopherol. Particularly in studies on the cardiovascular health of men, this gamma-tocopherol form of vitamin E has been found to provide significant protection from heart problems. Most U.S. adults have yet to discover the benefits of walnuts. A recent study has determined that only 5.5% of all adults (ages 19-50) consume tree nuts of any kind! This small percentage of people actually do a pretty good job of integrating tree nuts (including walnuts) into their diet, and average about 1.25 ounces of tree nuts per day. But the other 94.5% of us report no consumption of tree nuts whatsoever. In a recent look at the nutritional differences between tree nut eaters and non-eaters, researchers have reported some pretty notable findings: on a daily average, tree nut eaters take in 5 grams more fiber, 260 milligrams more potassium, 73 more milligrams of calcium, 95 more milligrams of magnesium, 3.7 milligrams more vitamin E, and 157 milligrams less sodium! Many of us can go local for our supply of walnuts. According to the latest trade statistics, 38% of all walnuts are grown in the U.S. Of that 38%, the vast majority (almost 90%) come from California, and particularly from the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys. Buying walnuts closer to home can provide great benefits from the standpoint of sustainability. Phytonutrient research on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits of walnuts has moved this food further and further up the ladder of foods that are protective against metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular problems, and type 2 diabetes. Some phytonutrients found in walnuts—for example, the quinone juglone—are found in virtually no other commonly-eaten foods. Other phytonutrients—like the tannin tellimagrandin or the flavonol morin—are also rare and valuable as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory nutrients. These anti-inflammatory and antioxidant phytonutrients also help explain the decreased risk of certain cancers—including prostate cancer and breast cancer—in relationship to walnut consumption. WHFoods Recommendations Walnuts are part of the tree nut family. This food family includes Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts (filberts), macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts. It would be difficult to overestimate the potential health benefits associated with this food family! In the majority of dietary studies, approximately one ounce of tree nuts per day is the minimal amount needed to provide statistically significant benefits, and that's the amount we recommend that you incorporate into your daily diet. In the case of walnuts, one ounce means about 7 shelled walnuts, or 14 walnut halves. Of course, since tree nuts (including walnuts) are a high-calorie food, it's important to incorporate tree nuts into an overall healthy diet that remains on target in terms of calories. Luckily, research has shown that many people are able to take this step with good success in terms of overall caloric intake. Walnuts not only taste great but are a rich source of heart-healthy monounsaturated fats and an excellent source of those hard to find omega-3 fatty acids. Like most nuts, they can easily be added to your Healthiest Way of Eating. Just chop and add to your favorite salad, vegetable dish, fruit, or dessert.    Walnuts, English, dried pieces 0.25 cup (30.00 grams) Calories: 196 GI: low NutrientDRI/DV  omega-3 fats113%  copper53%  manganese51%  molybdenum20%  biotin19% This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Walnuts provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Walnuts can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Walnuts, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart. Health Benefits Description History How to Select and Store Tips for Preparing and Cooking How to Enjoy Individual Concerns Nutritional Profile References Health Benefits Cardiovascular Benefits No aspect of walnuts has been better evaluated in the research than their benefits for the heart and circulatory system. Some review studies have emphasized the very favorable impact of walnuts on "vascular reactivity," namely, the ability of our blood vessels to respond to various stimuli in a healthy manner. In order to respond to different stimuli in a healthy way, many aspects of our cardiovascular system must be functioning optimally. These aspects include: ample presence of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients, proper blood composition, correct balance in inflammation-regulating molecules, and proper composition and flexibility in our blood vessel walls. Researchers have determined the ability of walnuts to have a favorable impact on allof these aspects. The chart below summarizes some key research findings about walnuts and heart health:   Cardiovascular AspectWalnut Benefit Blood Quality decreased LDL cholesterol; decreased total cholesterol; increased gamma-tocopherol; increased omega-3 fatty acids in red blood cells (alpha-linolenic acid) Vasomotor Tone decreased aortic endothelin; improved endothelial cell function Risk of Excessive Clotting decreased maximum platelet aggregation rate; decreased platelet activation Risk of Excessive Inflammation decreased C reactive protein (CRP); decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) Research on the blood pressure benefits of walnuts has been mixed. We suspect that these mixed results are related to the surprising differences in mineral composition amongst different varieties of walnuts. Researchers have long been aware of the relationship between healthy blood pressure and intake of specific minerals, including potassium, calcium, and magnesium. In multiple studies, these minerals have a much greater impact on blood pressure than the mineral sodium (familiar to most people in its sodium chloride form, i.e., everyday table salt). We've seen studies showing the following ranges for key blood pressure-regulating minerals in walnuts:   MineralNatural Range Found Amongst Different Walnut Varieties (milligrams per 100 grams) Potassium 375-500 Calcium 13-91 Magnesium 189-278 Even though there are valuable amounts of these blood pressure-regulating minerals in virtually all varieties of walnuts, the ranges above may help explain why some studies have shown statistically significant benefits from walnuts on blood pressure while others have not. Not in question with respect to walnuts and cardiovascular support is their reliable omega-3 content. Adequate intake of omega-3s, including the alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) present in walnuts, has repeatedly been shown to help improve a wide variety of cardiovascular functions, including blood pressure. In at least one research study, adults have been able to significantly increase their blood level of ALA with as few as 4 walnuts per day. Walnuts Help Reduce Problems in Metabolic Syndrome In the United States, as many as 1 in 4 adults may be eligible for diagnosis with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). MetS isn't so much a "disease" as a constellation of problematic and overlapping metabolic problems including excessive blood fats (triglycerides), high blood pressure, inadequate HDL cholesterol, and obesity (as measured by waist circumference, and/or body mass index). Recent studies have shown that approximately one ounce of walnuts daily over a period of 2-3 months can help reduce several of these MetS-related problems. In addition, addition of walnuts to participant diets has also been shown to decrease "abdominal adiposity"—the technical term for the depositing of fat around the mid-section. Importantly, the MetS benefits of added walnuts have been achieved without causing weight gain in any the studies we've seen to date. Benefits in Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Although we think about type 2 diabetes as a problem primarily related to blood sugar control and insulin metabolism, persons diagnosed with type 2 diabetes typically have health problems in other related systems, and are at special risk for cardiovascular problems. An important part of the goal in designing a diet plan for persons with type 2 diabetes is lowering the risk of future cardiovascular problems. In this context, consumption of walnuts is establishing a more and more impressive research track record. Increased flexibility in the response of the cardiovascular system following meals has been a repeated finding in research on walnuts. A variety of different measurements on blood vessel functioning (including their measurement by ultrasound) show a relatively small amount of daily walnut intake (1-2 ounces) to provide significant benefits in this area for persons with type 2 diabetes. Better blood fat composition (including less LDL cholesterol and less total cholesterol) has also been demonstrated in persons with type 2 diabetes. Anti-Cancer Benefits Given the wide variety antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients found in walnuts, it's not surprising to see research on this tree nut showing measurable anti-cancer benefits. The antioxidant properties of walnuts help lower risk of chronic oxidative stress, and the anti-inflammatory properties help lower risk of chronic inflammation, and it is precisely these two types of risk, that, when combined, pose the greatest threat for cancer development. Prostate cancer and breast cancer are the best-studied types of cancer with respect to walnut intake, and their risk has been found to be reduced by fairly large amounts of walnut consumption. (Large in this case means approximately 3 ounces per day.) For prostate cancer, the evidence is somewhat stronger, and more studies have involved human subjects. For breast cancer, most of the evidence has been based on studies of rats and mice. Other Health Benefits The anti-inflammatory nutrients in walnuts may play a special role in support of bone health. A recent study has shown that large amounts of walnuts decrease blood levels of N-telopeptides of type 1 collagen (NTx). These collagen components provide a good indicator of bone turnover, and their decreased blood level in response to walnut intake is an indication of better bone stability and less mineral loss from the bone. "Large amounts" of walnuts (in this study, actually raw walnuts plus walnut oil) translated into 50% of total dietary fat. In an everyday diet that provided 2,000 calories and 30% of those calories from fat, this 50% standard for walnuts would mean about 67 grams of fat from walnuts or 4 ounces of this tree nut on a daily basis. While this amount is more than would most people would ordinarily consume, we expect the health benefits of walnuts for bone health to be demonstrated in future studies at substantially lower levels of intake. Walnuts have also produced a good track record in the research as a desirable food for support of weight loss and for prevention of obesity. That finding often surprises people because they think of high-fat, high-calorie foods as a primary contributing factor to obesity and to weight gain. In general, overconsumption of high-fat, high-calorie foods is a primary contributing factor to obesity and weight gain. However, obesity has also been clearly identified by researchers as involving chronic, unwanted inflammation. As discussed earlier in this Health Benefits section and throughout this walnuts' profile, walnuts are unique in their collection of anti-inflammatory nutrients. These nutrients include omega-3 fatty acids; phytonutrients including tannins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids; quinones like juglone; and other anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. These anti-inflammatory benefits can overshadow the high-calorie and high-fat risk posed by walnuts, and that's exactly what they have done in an increasing number of research studies involving risk and/or treatment of obesity. While it is definitely possible to overconsume walnuts, most everyday diets could remain correctly balanced in terms of calories and fat while still including fairly generous amounts of walnuts (in the range of 1-3 ounces). A limited (but increasing) number of studies have shown potential health benefits for walnuts in the area of memory and general thought processes (often referred to as "cognitive" processes). Thus far, most of the initial research in this area has involved rats and mice, but we expect to see cognitive benefits of walnuts for humans becoming a topic of increasing research interest. A final fascinating aspect of walnuts and their potential health benefits involves melatonin (MLT). MLT is a widely-active messaging molecule in our nervous system, and very hormone-like in its regulatory properties. MLT is critical in the regulation of sleep, daily (circadian) rhythms, light-dark adjustment, and other processes. It has also been found to be naturally occurring within walnuts. Average melatonin (MLT) content of walnuts is approximately 3.6 nanograms (ng) per gram (g), or 102ng/ounce. Other commonly eaten foods—for example, cherries—have also been found to measurable amounts of MLT. Researchers are not yet sure how everyday intake of MLT from walnuts is involved in our health, but several study authors have hypothesized about the MLT in walnuts as playing an important role (along with other walnut nutrients) in the anti-cancer benefits of this unusual food. Description Walnuts are a delicious way to add extra nutrition, flavor and crunch to a meal. While walnuts are harvested in December, they are available year round and a great source of those all-important omega-3 fatty acids. It is no surprise that the regal and delicious walnut comes from an ornamental tree that is highly prized for its beauty. The walnut kernel consists of two bumpy lobes that look like abstract butterflies. The lobes are off white in color and covered by a thin, light brown skin. They are partially attached to each other. The kernels are enclosed in round or oblong shells that are brown in color and very hard. While there are numerous species of walnut trees, three of the main types of walnuts consumed are the English (or Persian) walnut, Juglans regia; the black walnut, Juglans nigra; and the white (or butternut) walnut, Juglans cinerea. The English walnut is the most popular type in the United

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9 HEALTH BENEFITS OF PLAYING FOOTBALL

9 HEALTH BENEFITS OF PLAYING FOOTBALL   Has your general physician been repetitively telling you to do exercise and lose weight? You must have visited a gym too where you have spent hours running on the treadmill and hopping on the elliptical machine and, at last, returned home with body ache and tiredness. This is what happens to us when we do something we do not love. Moreover, gym is not the only place which gives you good health and a toned body. Seems unbelievable, right? What we keep ignoring when we enter into adulthood and develop the likelihood of suffering from health conditions is that there are more potent and cost-effective fitness plans in store for us such as sports. And, when it comes to natural fitness, no sport holds so much potential as football. Have you ever wondered what makes the popular football players, such as Lionel Messi, Cristiano Ronaldo and David Beckham, so fit and so popular? It is not only the artistic beauty of their managing the white ball on the field, but also their perseverance of practicing the game regularly which makes their physique so attractive. Football requires continuous running, faster footwork and physical agility which provide amazing benefits for both the mental and physical health. Therefore, bring out your sport shoe and grab the white ball because it is going to change your outlook on body fitness and well-being. Do you want to know what are the physical benefits of playing soccer? Keep reading… Find out below 9 amazing health benefits of playing soccer. 1. IMPROVE YOUR CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTIONS PLAYFULLY In the modern competitive world, we are gradually becoming inclined towards consuming junk and oily food. As a result, our cardiovascular health is greatly affected and there is an increased number of medical emergencies reported due to cardiovascular disorders such as brain stroke, heart attack, irregular heart rhythm, hyperglycemia etc. But, why race miles on a boring treadmill when you can cover 5 to 7 miles of running within a span of 90 minutes? Playing soccer requires you to breathe fast which leads your heart to pump blood faster and circulate it all across the body muscles. Better circulation of blood also prevents

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Victoria Falls by M Usama Khan

Victoria Falls Victoria Falls (Tokaleya Tonga: Mosi-oa-Tunya, "The Smoke that Thunders") is a waterfall in southern Africa on the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. Name origins David Livingstone gazing upon the Falls, in bronze, from the Zambian shore David Livingstone, the Scottish missionary and explorer, is believed to have been the first European to view Victoria Falls on 16 November 1855, from what is now known as Livingstone Island, one of two land masses in the middle of the river, immediately upstream from the falls near the Zambian shore.[1] Livingstone named his discovery in honour of Queen Victoria of Britain, but the indigenous Tonga name, Mosi-oa-Tunya—"The Smoke That Thunders"—continues in common usage as well. The World Heritage List officially recognizes both names.[2] The nearby national park in Zambia is named Mosi-oa-Tunya,[3] whereas the national park and town on the Zimbabwean shore are both named Victoria Falls.[4][5] Size aerial view   Victoria Falls seen from Zimbabwe in July. While it is neither the highest nor the widest waterfall in the world, Victoria Falls is classified as the largest, based on its combined width of 1,708 metres (5,604 ft)[6] and height of 108 metres (354 ft),[7] resulting in the world's largest sheet of falling water. Victoria Falls is roughly twice the height of North America's Niagara Falls and well over twice the width of its Horseshoe Falls. In height and width Victoria Falls is rivalled only by Argentina and Brazil's Iguazu Falls. See table for comparisons.[2] For a considerable distance upstream from the falls, the Zambezi flows over a level sheet of basalt, in a shallow valley, bounded by low and distant sandstone hills. The river's course is dotted with numerous tree-covered islands, which increase in number as the river approaches the falls. There are no mountains, escarpments, or deep valleys; only a flat plateau extending hundreds of kilometres in all directions. The falls are formed as the full width of the river plummets in a single vertical drop into a transverse chasm 1708 metres (5604 ft) wide, carved by its waters along a fracture zone in the basalt plateau. The depth of the chasm, called the First Gorge, varies from 80 metres (260 ft) at its western end to 108 metres (354 ft) in the centre. The only outlet to the First Gorge is a 110-metre (360 ft) wide gap about two-thirds of the way across the width of the falls from the western end. The whole volume of the river pours into the Victoria Falls gorges from this narrow cleft.[8] There are two islands on the crest of the falls that are large enough to divide the curtain of water even at full flood: Boaruka Island (or Cataract Island) near the western bank, and Livingstone Island near the middle—the point from which Livingstone first viewed the falls. At less than full flood, additional islets divide the curtain of water into separate parallel streams. The main streams are named, in order from Zimbabwe (west) to Zambia (east): Devil's Cataract[8] (called Leaping Water by some), Main Falls, Rainbow Falls (the highest) and the Eastern Cataract. The Zambezi river, upstream from the falls, experiences a rainy season from late November to early April, and a dry season the rest of the year. The river's annual flood season is February to May with a peak in April,[9] The spray from the falls typically rises to a height of over 400 metres (1,300 ft), and sometimes even twice as high, and is visible from up to 48 km (30 mi) away. At full moon, a "moonbow" can be seen in the spray instead of the usual daylight rainbow. During the flood season, however, it is impossible to see the foot of the falls and most of its face, and the walks along the cliff opposite it are in a constant shower and shrouded in mist. Close to the edge of the cliff, spray shoots upward like inverted rain, especially at Zambia's Knife-Edge Bridge.[10] As the dry season takes effect, the islets on the crest become wider and more numerous, and in September to January up to half of the rocky face of the falls may become dry and the bottom of the First Gorge can be seen along most of its length. At this time it becomes possible (though not necessarily safe) to walk across some stretches of the river at the crest. It is also possible to walk to the bottom of the First Gorge at the Zimbabwean side. The minimum flow, which occurs in November, is around a tenth of the April figure; this variation in flow is greater than that of other major falls, and causes Victoria Falls' annual average flow rate to be lower than might be expected based on the maximum flow.[10] Gorges

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Swimming (sport)

Swimming (sport) Swimming is an individual or team sport that uses arms and legs to move the body through water. The sport takes place in pools or open water (e.g., in a sea or lake). Competitive swimming is one of the most popular Olympic sports,[1] with varied distance events in butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, freestyle, and individual medley. In addition to these individual events, four swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or medley relay. Swimming each stroke requires specific techniques, and in competition, there are specific regulations concerning the acceptable form for different strokes.[2] There are also regulations on what types of swimsuits, caps, jewelry and injury tape are allowed at competitions. Although it is possible for competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from the sport -- such as tendinitis in the shoulder-- there are also multiple health benefits associated with the sport. History Leander swimming across the Hellespont. Detail from a painting by Bernard Picart. Evidence of recreational swimming in prehistoric times has been found, with the earliest evidence dating to Stone Agepaintings from around 10,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC, with some of the earliest references to swimming including the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, Beowulf, the Quran and others. In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming (Der Schwimmer oder ein Zweigespräch über die Schwimmkunst). Swimming emerged as a competitive recreational activity in the 1830s in England. In 1828, the first indoor swimming pool, St George's Baths was opened to the public.[3] By 1837, the National Swimming Society was holding regular swimming competitions in six artificial swimming pools, built around London. The recreational activity grew in popularity and by 1880, when the first national governing body, the Amateur Swimming Association, was formed, there were already over 300 regional clubs in operation across the country.[4] The routes taken by Webb and T.W. Burgess across the English Channel, in 1875 and 1911, respectively. In 1844 two Native American participants at a swimming competition in London introduced the front crawl to a European audience. Sir John Arthur Trudgen picked up the hand-over stroke from some South American natives and successfully debuted the new stroke in 1873, winning a local competition in England. His stroke is still regarded as the most powerful to use today.[5] Captain Matthew Webb was the first man to swim the English Channel (between England and France), in 1875. Using the breaststroke technique, he swam the channel 21.26 miles (34.21 km) in 21 hours and 45 minutes. His feat was not replicated or surpassed for the next 36 years, until T.W. Burgess made the crossing in 1911. Other European countries also established swimming federations; Germany in 1882, France in 1890 and Hungary in 1896. The first European amateur swimming competitions were in 1889 in Vienna. The world's first women's swimming championship was held in Scotland in 1892.[6] Men's swimming became part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902, the Australian Richmond Cavillintroduced the front crawl to the Western world. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA), was formed. Women's swimming was introduced into the Olympics in 1912; the first international tournament for women outside the Olympics was the 1922 Women's Olympiad. Butterfly was developed in the 1930s and was at first a variant of breaststroke, until it was accepted as a separate style in 1952. Competitive swimming Katie Ledecky set the Olympic records in 2016 for the 400 m and 800 m freestyle. Competitive swimming became popular in the 19th century. The goal of competitive swimming is to break personal or world records while beating competitors in any given event. Swimming in competition should create the least resistance in order to obtain maximum speed. However, some professional swimmers who do not hold a national or world ranking are considered the best in regard to their technical skills. Typically, an athlete goes through a cycle of training in which the body is overloaded with work in the beginning and middle segments of the cycle, and then the workload is decreased in the final stage as the swimmer approaches competition. The practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition is called tapering. A final stage is often referred to as "shave and taper": the swimmer shaves off all exposed hair for the sake of reducing drag and having a sleeker and more hydrodynamic feel in the water.[7] Additionally, the "shave and taper" method refers to the removal of the top layer of "dead skin", which exposes the newer and richer skin underneath. This also helps to "shave" off milliseconds on your time.[8] World record holder and Olympic gold medalist Michael Phelps in the 400 IM. Swimming is an event at the 

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Oil painting by M Usama Khan

Oil painting Mona Lisa, Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1503–06 Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, and safflower oil. The choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are also visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use several different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves also develop a particular consistency depending on the medium. The oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Although oil paint was first used for Buddhist paintings by Indian and Chinese painters in western Afghanistan sometime between the fifth and tenth centuries,[1] it did not gain popularity until the 15th century. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in Northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced the use of tempera paints in the majority of Europe. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has become available. Water-soluble paints are either engineered or an emulsifierhas been added that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows, when sufficiently diluted, very fast drying times (1–3 days) when compared with traditional oils (1–3 weeks).   Techniques Self-portrait, at work, Anders Zorn, 1897 Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint. Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. (Because these solvents thin the oil in the paint, they can also be used to clean paint brushes.) A basic rule of oil paint application is 'fat over lean', meaning that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the final painting will crack and peel. This rule does not ensure permanence; it is the quality and type of oil that leads to a strong and stable paint film. There are many other media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins, and varnishes. These additional media can aid the painter in adjusting the translucency of the paint, the sheen of the paint, the density or 'body' of the paint, and the ability of the paint to hold or conceal the brushstroke. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the expressive capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the painting surface using paintbrushes, but there are other methods, including using palette knives and rags. Oil paint remains wet longer than many other types of artists' materials, enabling the artist to change the color, texture or form of the figure. At times, the painter might even remove an entire layer of paint and begin anew. This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, but after a while the hardened layer must be scraped. Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks (some colors dry within days). It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year. History Self-portrait of Rembrandt, 1630. An example of oil painting on copper. Although the history of tempera (pigment mixed with either egg whites or egg yolks, then painted on a plastered section) and related media in Europe indicates that oil painting was discovered there independently, there is evidence that oil painting was used earlier in Afghanistan.[2][3][4][5] Outdoor surfaces and surfaces like shields—both those used in tournaments and those hung as decorations—were more durable when painted in oil-based media than when painted in the traditional tempera paints. Most Renaissance sources, in particular Vasari, credited northern European painters of the 15th century, and Jan van Eyck in particular, with the "invention" of painting with oil media on wood panel supports[6] ("support" is the technical term for the underlying backing of a painting). However, Theophilus (Roger of Helmarshausen?) clearly gives instructions for oil-based painting in his treatise, On Various Arts, written in 1125. At this period, it was probably used for painting sculptures, carvings and wood fittings, perhaps especially for outdoor use. However, early Netherlandish painting with artists like Van Eyck and Robert Campin in the 15th century were the first to make oil the usual painting medium, and explore the use of layers and glazes, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, and only then Italy. Early works were still panel paintings on wood, but around the end of the 15th century canvas became more popular as the support, as it was cheaper, easier to transport, allowed larger works, and did not require complicated preliminary layers of gesso(a fine type of plaster). Venice, where sail-canvas was easily available, was a leader in the move to canvas. Small cabinet paintings were also made on metal, especially copper plates. These supports were more expensive but very firm, allowing intricately fine detail. Often printing plates from 

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Health, Wealth and Happiness!

Health, Wealth and Happiness!   Exactly 17 months ago I walked away from a 17-year-long successful career working for big health care corporations as a marketing executive. I walked away because I got burnt out, my body hurt all over and I was unhappy. Yes, I did live on Wall Street in NYC and had a glamorous life, but that façade did not make me happy. I took a year off. I traveled around the world — Europe and Asia — mastering health and life. I am sharing this because I am seeing many busy professionals being exactly at the same place — they have a lot of success in their lives but they are unhappy and a majority of them unhealthy. Why is it that many people who are well off are not well? How should we live our lives so we can be healthy and happy and have it all? That became the purpose of my journey — discovering simple truths behind “good health, good life.” I discovered there are seven habit shifts that everyone needs to make in order to have it all — health, wealth and happiness: 1. Let go of the past. The first step is to truly understand our values and beliefs, and especially the limiting ones that have held us back. Perhaps we think, “If I lose those 15 pounds, then I will be beautiful.” Or “When I get that new job, then I will be successful.” In reality, once we get those things, then we want to lose another five pounds and need to get another promotion, and the target

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Our Top 15 Heart-

Our Top 15 Heart- Healthy Foods Best Heart-Healthy Foods Eating for a healthy heart means filling your plate with heart-healthy foods like fruits and vegetables, paying attention to fiber, eating fish a couple times a week, eating healthy fats and limiting unhealthy fats like trans fats, as well as salt. And although no single food is a cure-all, certain foods have been shown to improve your heart health. Find out how these 15 foods may help lower your risk of heart disease.     1. Yogurt Research shows yogurt may protect against gum disease. Left unchecked, gum disease may elevate a person’s risk for heart disease. Researchers from Japan analyzed dietary intakes from nearly 1,000 adults and found those who consumed the highest levels of dairy—specifically yogurt and yogurt-type drinks—had the healthiest gums. Their report, published in the Journal of Periodontology, credits probiotics (a.k.a. “good bacteria”) as one possible champion of gum health. Experts believe that probiotics may help to counter growth of the “unfriendly” bacteria in the mouth. Probiotics are live active cultures used to ferment foods, such as yogurt and kefir (fermented milk), and studies suggest that they may improve digestion and boost immunity too. As for gum health, it’s not yet clear how much yogurt (or other fermented dairy foods) one needs to consume to reap the benefits, says Yoshihiro Shimazaki, D.D.S., Ph.D., of Kyushu University, the study’s lead author.   2. Raisins Research has shown that antioxidants in raisins fight the growth of a type of bacteria that can cause inflammation and gum disease. People with gum disease—which affects up to 50 percent of American adults—are twice as likely to suffer from heart problems. So, dealing with one can help people avoid the other. Last summer, a major heart journal and a major periodontal journal simultaneously published a consensus paper that outlines the link between the two diseases: inflammation. As a result, choosing certain foods, such as raisins, may help you protect both your gums and your heart.   Pictured Recipe: Fresh Herb & Lemon Bulgur Pilaf 3. Whole Grains People who eat plenty of whole grains tend to be leaner and have a lower risk of heart disease than those who don’t. This is probably because whole grains contain antioxidants, phytoestrogens and phytosterols that are protective against coronary disease. The fiber in whole grains also has its benefits: various studies link a high-fiber diet with a lower risk of heart disease. In a Harvard study of female health professionals, people who ate a high-fiber diet had a 40 percent lower risk of heart disease than those who ate a low-fiber diet. Aim to include plenty of foods that are rich in soluble fiber, which, studies show, can help lower “bad” LDL. Soluble fiber binds bile acid, a key component in fat digestion that our bodies make from cholesterol. We can’t digest fiber, so when bile acids are bound to it, they get ushered out of the body as waste. This causes the body to convert more cholesterol into bile acids, which ultimately has the effect of lowering circulating cholesterol levels. Foods high in soluble fiber include oatmeal, barley, beans, okra and eggplant, and citrus fruit, such as oranges.  

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11 Beautiful Islands situated in

11 Beautiful Islands situated in Pakistan   Did you know Pakistan had islands? And oh, how breathtaking they are – they will definitely blow your mind away. Let’s take a look at 11 beautiful islands right here in our beloved Pakistan. 1. Astola Island, off the Balochistan Coast Flickr.com Astola Island is the largest island of Pakistan and is also known as Jazira Haft Talar, Island of the Seven Hills. It’s about 39 km southeast of Pakistani fishing port Pasni. Home to some exotic wildlife like the Green Turtle, this Island should be on your summer bucket list. 2. Malan Island, volcanic mud island off the Balochistan Coast dawn.com It’s a mud volcano island located near Hingol National Park in Balochistan. The natural phenomenon of the mud volcano is a thing to see at least once in your life. 3. Zalzala Jazeera, the island off the coast of Gwadar that appeared after a powerful earthquake geogarage.com

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Lighthouse by M Usama Khan

Lighthouse A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways. Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals, reefs, and safe entries to harbors; they also assist in aerial navigation. Once widely used, the number of operational lighthouses has declined due to the expense of maintenance and use of electronic navigational systems. Ancient lighthouses Graphic reconstruction of the Pharos according to a 2006 study The Tower of Hercules lighthouse Before the development of clearly defined ports, mariners were guided by fires built on hilltops. Since raising the fire would improve the visibility, placing the fire on a platform became a practice that led to the development of the lighthouse. In antiquity, the lighthouse functioned more as an entrance marker to ports than as a warning signal for reefs and promontories, unlike many modern lighthouses. The most famous lighthouse structure from antiquity was the Pharos of Alexandria, Egypt, although it collapsed during an earthquake centuries later. The intact Tower of Hercules at A Coruña, Spain gives insight into ancient lighthouse construction; other evidence about lighthouses exists in depictions on coins and mosaics, of which many represent the lighthouse at Ostia. Coins from Alexandria, Ostia, and Laodicea in Syria also exist. Modern construction The modern era of lighthouses began at the turn of the 18th century, as lighthouse construction boomed in lockstep with burgeoning levels of transatlantic commerce. Advances in structural engineering and new and efficient lighting equipment allowed for the creation of larger and more powerful lighthouses, including ones exposed to the sea. The function of lighthouses shifted toward the provision of a visible warning against shipping hazards, such as rocks or reefs. Winstanley's lighthouse at the Eddystone Rocks marked the beginning in a new phase of lighthouse development. The Eddystone Rocks were a major shipwreck hazard for mariners sailing through the English Channel.[1] The first lighthouse built there was an octagonal wooden structure, anchored by 12 iron stanchions secured in the rock, and was built by Henry Winstanley from 1696 to 1698. His lighthouse was the first tower in the world to have been fully exposed to the open sea.[2] The civil engineer, John Smeaton, rebuilt the lighthouse from 1756–59;[3] his tower marked a major step forward in the design of lighthouses and remained in use until 1877. He modelled the shape of his lighthouse on that of an oak tree, using granite blocks. He rediscovered and used "hydraulic lime," a form of concrete that will set under water used by the Romans, and developed a technique of securing the granite blocks together using dovetail joints and marble dowels.[4] The dovetailing feature served to improve the structural stability, although Smeaton also had to taper the thickness of the tower towards the top, for which he curved the tower inwards on a gentle gradient. This profile had the added advantage of allowing some of the energy of the waves to dissipate on impact with the walls. His lighthouse was the prototype for the modern lighthouse and influenced all subsequent engineers.[5] John Smeaton's rebuilt version of the Eddystone Lighthouse, 1759. This represented a great step forward in lighthouse design. One such influence was Robert Stevenson, himself a seminal figure in the development of lighthouse design and construction.[6] His greatest achievement was the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in 1810, one of the most impressive feats of engineering of the age. This structure was based upon Smeaton's design, but with several improved features, such as the incorporation of rotating lights, alternating between red and white.[7] Stevenson worked for the Northern Lighthouse Board for nearly fifty years[6] during which time he designed and oversaw the construction and later improvement of numerous lighthouses. He innovated in the choice of light sources, mountings, reflector design, the use of Fresnel lenses, and in rotation and shuttering systems providing lighthouses with individual signatures allowing them to be identified by seafarers. He also invented the movable jib and the balance crane as a necessary part for lighthouse construction. Alexander Mitchell designed the first screw-pile lighthouse – his lighthouse was built on piles that were screwed into the sandy or muddy seabed. Construction of his design began in 1838 at the mouth of the Thames and was known as the Maplin Sands lighthouse, and first lit in 1841.[8] Although its construction began later, the Wyre Light in Fleetwood, Lancashire, was the first to be lit (in 1840).[8] Lighting improvements The source of illumination had generally been wood pyres or burning coal. The Argand lamp, invented in 1782 by the Swiss scientist, Aimé Argand, revolutionized lighthouse illumination with its steady smokeless flame. Early models used ground glass which was sometimes tinted around the wick. Later models used a mantle of thorium dioxide suspended over the flame, creating a bright, steady light.[9] The Argand lamp used whale oil, colza, olive oil[10] or other vegetable oil as fuel which was supplied by a gravity feed from a reservoir mounted above the burner. The lamp was first produced by Matthew Boulton, in partnership with Argand, in 1784 and became the standard for lighthouses for over a century.

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Top 7 Ways Carrot & Carrot Juice

Top 7 Ways Carrot & Carrot Juice Benefit Your Body Carrots are one of the most popular, versatile vegetables in the world! Whether they are eaten raw, cooked or juiced, people from nearly every culture have consumed carrots — in their many forms — throughout history. While carrots are known for their signature orange color, they actually come in a variety of colors. They can be found in shades of purple, yellow, white and red; however, you will most often see these in the U.S. when you shop at your local farmer’s market. Skeptical of the juicing craze? Check out these 7 undeniable carrot juice benefits before you write it off.   Carrots get their color from antioxidants called carotenoids. One of these carotenoids is beta carotene, a precursor to active vitamin A that is responsible for many of the carrot and carrot juice benefits that we know about today. Many studies have shown that beta carotene is crucial for improving immunity in the body, protecting skin and eye health, and fighting free radical damage that can cause various forms of chronic diseases like cancer and heart disease. (1) Carrots have a wealth of valuable nutrition and when you juice them, you can get a concentrated dose of their healing power. From balancing blood sugar, improving blood health, relieving congestion, fighting inflammation and cleansing the kidneys to protecting eyesight, brain function and fighting Leukemia, carrot juice benefits can help nearly every part of your body! Carrot & Carrot Juice Nutrition Carrots are one of the highest contributors of vitamin A — the powerhouse vitamin for so much of our body — in the American diet. Carrots also provide ample amounts of vitamins C, D, E and K, as well as many minerals such as magnesium, potassium and calcium. Carrots are also highly nutritious and cleansing due to their high fiber content.   Top 7 Proven Carrot Juice Benefits Regularly consuming carrots or carrot juice benefits the body in so many amazing ways. Here are some great reasons to include this superfood vegetable in your diet: 1. Protects Eye Health Three crucial nutrients — beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin — within carrots considerably boost eye health. For example, without beta carotene (a form of vitamin A), various forms of eye disorders can occur — including macular degeneration and even blindness. Lutein and zeaxanthin, meanwhile, both work to reduce the risk of age-related vision loss. Just one cup of chopped carrots provides 400% of your vitamin A needs! Carrots contain vitamin A in the form of beta carotene. Vitamin A is one of the most crucial nutrients necessary for protecting eye health and vision, especially as someone ages. Vitamin A deficiency can lead first to night blindness, then permanent blindness. Vitamin A deficiency is actually the number one cause of preventable blindness world-wide. Carrots can also reduce your risk of cataracts and macular-degeneration, a common cause of age-related vision loss. (2) Eating carrots carrot juice regularly will help you maintain healthy eyes and vision throughout your life. If consuming carrots in raw form does not appeal to you, bear in mind that drinking carrot juice carries over the same eye health benefits. 2. High Source of Antioxidants (Especially Beta Carotene) Carotenoids, found in carrots and other orange vegetables, are potent antioxidants that can help reduce your risk of various forms of temporary illnesses and serious chronic diseases. Carrots and carrot juice benefit the immune system by helping to defend the body from free radical damage, harmful bacteria, viruses and inflammation. The antioxidants that are responsible for carrot and carrot juice benefits include: vitamin C, beta carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin. Carrots are one of the highest natural sources of carotenoid phytochemicals and antioxidant beta

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Mariana Trench by M Usama Khan

Mariana Trench The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench[1] is the deepest part of the world's oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, an average of 200 kilometres (124 mi) to the east of the Mariana Islands, in the Western Pacific East of Philippines. It is a crescent-shaped scar in the Earth's crust, and measures about 2,550 km (1,580 mi) long and 69 km (43 mi) wide on average. It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10,994 metres (36,070 ft) (± 40 metres [130 ft]) at a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep, at its southern end,[2] although some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11,034 metres (36,201 ft).[3] For comparison: if Mount Everest were dropped into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over 1.6 kilometres (1 mi) underwater. In 2009, Marianas Trench was established as a United States National Monument.[4] At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), more than 1,000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure, the density of water is increased by 4.96%, so that 95 litres of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep would contain the same mass as 100 litres at the surface. The temperature at the top is 1 to 4 °C (34 to 39 °F).[5] The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the Earth. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere; its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) less at the poles than at the equator.[6] As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth's center than the Challenger Deep seafloor. Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 kilometres (6.6 mi) below the sea surface.[7] On 17 March 2013, researchers from the Scottish Association for Marine Science reported data that suggested microbial life forms thrive within the trench.[8][9] Names The Mariana Trench is named for the nearby Mariana Islands (in turn named Las Marianas in honor of Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of Philip IV of Spain). The islands are part of the island arc that is formed on an over-riding plate, called the Mariana Plate (also named for the islands), on the western side of the trench. Geology The Pacific plate is subducted beneath the Mariana Plate, creating the Mariana trench, and (further on) the arc of the Mariana islands, as water trapped in the plate is released and explodes upward to form island volcanoes and earthquakes . The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates. In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west. Crustal material at the western edge of the Pacific Plate is some of the oldest oceanic crust on earth (up to 170 million years old), and is therefore cooler and more dense; hence its great height difference relative to the higher-riding (and younger) Mariana Plate. The deepest area at the plate boundary is the Mariana Trench proper. The movement of the Pacific and Mariana plates is also indirectly responsible for the formation of the Mariana Islands. These volcanic islands are caused by Flux melting of the upper mantle due to release of water that is trapped in minerals of the subducted portion of the Pacific Plate. Measurements The trench was first sounded during the 

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The 10 most beautiful places by M Usama Khan

The 10 most beautiful places in the world 1. Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia The world's largest salt flats, spanning 4086 miles (10,582 sq. km), Salar de Uyuni is unlike anywhere else on earth. This awe-inspiring landscape is comprised of glistening white salt, and is completely flat creating the mesmerising reflections.   2. Moraine Lake, Canada Moraine Lake may only only half the size of its nearby neighbour Lake Louise, but it's even more scenic. Situated in the beautiful Valley Of The Ten Peaks in Banff National Park, this glacier-fed lake turns the most intense and vivid shade of turquoise blue. The setting of the surrounding majestic mountain peaks makes the scene almost surreal.  3. Iguazu Falls, Argentina/Brazil border One of the modern natural wonders of the world, this chain of mini waterfalls is one of the planet's most awe-inspiring sights. A visit is an awe-inspiring visceral experience, and the power and noise of the cascades – a chain of hundreds of waterfalls nearly 3km in extension – is something you won't forget. The falls lie split between Brazil and Argentina in a large expanse of national park, much of it rainforest teeming with unique flora and fauna.

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10 USES OF SCIENCE AND

10 USES OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN BUSINESS Scientific research and technological innovation are perhaps best appreciated when they work towards a common good and go a long way to benefit a whole gamut of communities. In other words we can say that meeting point where technological advancement meets a common demand is the absolute sweet-spot that can drive businesses. It has been pointed out quite rightly that technology and scientific investigation are the best drivers of change. This is perhaps why technology and business are interlinked so deeply. It is almost like one factor feeding into the other and one providing fuel for the other’s development. Here are some interesting insights into how science and technological advancement has made lives better and also brought about a strong business proposition with reasonable revenue generation module. Computers: I think this has been the single biggest use of technology and science in businesses and has been instrumental in changing the way business is conducted on a day to day basis. From integrating business across locations to creating centralised solution for business and working out common inventory options. Creating Direct Communication:

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Life in a Pakistani Village by M Usama Khan

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Golden period of life

  Golden period of life