View Blog:

9+ International Borders Around The World

View Blog:

9+ International Borders Aroun... by M.Yaseen Khan

View Blog:

9+ International Borders Aroun... by user270533305

View Blog:

9+ International Borders Aro... by user270533305 1

View Blog:

Kanji Indian Probiotic Drink by M.Yaseen Khan

View Blog:

Kanji Indian Probiotic Drink by user270533305

View Blog:

DISTRIBUTION OF REAL LOVE TO MANKIND

Kanji Indian Probiotic Drink   How to Make Kanji Indian Probiotic Drink     I’m pretty bananas for fermented foods—the flavors, the health benefits, the aliveness you can taste with each bite, and of course, the creative possibilities. In this post, I’m going to walk you through how to make kanji, a traditional Indian probiotic drink similar to beet kvass that also yields zingy, fermented “pickles” that can be enjoyed alone, or added to salads and wraps. It’s a two-for-one recipe, really. Kanji is usually a combination of water, mustard seeds, beetroot and carrots. In northern India, purple carrots are plentiful during wintertime and used to create a rich, purple-colored beverage, so give those a try if you can find them. Kanji is often enjoyed before a meal, likely because it’s full of digestion-boosting friendly bacteria and enzymes—great for breaking down and assimilating a meal to come. In India, during the “spring festival of colors” known as Holi, vibrant-colored kanji is added to chickpea dumplings or fritters—this is something I’d like to try for sure. Kanji has a pungent, zingy flavor that will be enjoyed by folks who like pickled foods, and beets. I know some of you are still on the fence about beets and if you’re going to try them, it will probably be in Cocoa-Beet Cupcakes first. That’s a-ok, I’ve listed some other fermented recipes you may want to try below. Tools: 3–4 pint-sized Mason jars, or 1 half-gallon Mason jar Mortar & pestle or Spice grinder* Cheesecloths** Rubberbands *If you don’t have any of these, fill a plastic bag with seeds, seal, place flat

View Blog:

7 Natural Wonders of Uganda

7 Natural Wonders of Uganda The "Seven Natural Wonders Organization" is currently asking for the public to cast their votes for what they consider to be the 7 natural wonders of Uganda.  Let's face it, Uganda is a stunning country which boasts a lot of natural beauty but after some careful consideration, we came up with our list.  Here's what we consider to be Uganda's top 7 natural wonders.  #1 - Murchison Falls The Nile River is a natural beauty on its own but there is no mistaking that to see the mighty river force its way through a 7 metre gap in the rocks and fall 43 metres is a sight to behold.  From the top of Murchison Falls the water violently thunders past crashing and surging, blowing a fine mist high into the sky filled with dancing rainbows.  The view from a boat below also gives a sensational view of the majestic falls, while surrounded by crocodiles, hippos and other game. Truly a stunner! Murchison Falls #2 - Rwenzori Mountains The Rwenzori Mountains sometimes referred to as the Mountains of the Moon climb high from the Albertine Rift Valley floor and provide a stunning backdrop to the Queen Elizabeth National Park.  The highest peaks are permanently snow capped and although

View Blog:

Beautiful Ethiopia

Beautiful EthiopiaTop natural attractions Have you ever wondered what natural attractions Africa holds outside of the usual safari circuit? Well, wonder no more, as below you can find out all about the natural wonders of Ethiopia.     A destination that falls far from the beaten track for most tourists, Ethiopia possesses great cultural and historical wealth. Contrasting and complementing these qualities are its terrific natural landscapes, which house yet more treasures of their own in the form of their wonderful endemic wildlife. So, today we are going to introduce you to Ethiopia’s most incredible natural attractions, which, for the sake of simplicity, we will be splitting into two – the Simien National Park and the Bale Mountains National Park. The Simien National Park

View Blog:

5 Places You Must Visit in Kenya by M.Yaseen Khan

5 Places You Must Visit in Kenya Travel Planning & Tips, Kenya, Amboseli, Maasai Mara, Great Rift Valley, Mombasa, Mount Kenya, Great Migration Whatever you want to do, from an incredible Kenya safari to a challenging climb, the country has a huge variety of wonders and Kenya attractions to take your breath away.   To help you plan your own adventure, we’ve put our heads together and agreed on our five favourite places to visit in Kenya. Take a look to see what this unique destination has to offer.     5. Mount Kenya    Located in the heart of central Kenya, this giant edifice rises to 5,199m - an impressive 17,057 feet - above sea level. It’s by far the tallest mountain in Kenya and the second-highest in Africa, after Mount Kilimanjaro. One of Kenya’s most iconic and popular attractions, this ancient volcano has been eroded by ice for thousands of years to produce incredible chasms, jagged peaks and waterfalls across its surface.    First scaled in 1899, it definitely presents a worthy challenge to all avid climbers. There are several different routes ranging from a relatively easy hike to a challenging climb – accompanied by trained and capable guides. The north side is best tackled in August and September, whilst the south face is easily navigable around January or February.   But Mount Kenya is not just about the climb and the incredible views, or the varied geological formations, glaciers and diverse vegetation; the Mount Kenya National Park is home to an amazing diversity of wildlife and includes some unusual and rare species - look out for:   Water Buck

View Blog:

Motorways of Pakistan by M.Yaseen Khan

Motorways of Pakistan Motorways of Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان کی موٹروے‎) are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed, limited-access or controlled-access highways in Pakistan, which are owned, maintained and operated federally by Pakistan's National Highway Authority. The total length of Pakistan's motorways is 1010 km as of feb 4, 2017. Around 3690 km of motorways are currently under construction at different parts of country. Most of these motorway projects will be completed by 2019.   Contents   [hide]  1History 2List of motorways 3Patrolling and enforcement 3.1Emergency runways 4Network map 5See also 6References 7External links   History[edit] Pakistan's motorways are part of Pakistan's "National Trade Corridor Project",[1] which aims to link Pakistan's three Arabian Sea ports (Karachi Port, Port Bin Qasim and Gwadar Port) to the rest of the country through its national highways and motorways network and further north with Afghanistan, Central Asia and China. The project was planned in 1990. The China Pakistan Economic Corridor project aims to link Gwadar Port and Kashgar (China) using Pakistani motorways, national highways, and expressways. List of motorways[edit] Name & Sign

View Blog:

Beautiful Pakistan Pictures - Amazing Makran Coast

Beautiful Pakistan Pictures - Amazing Makran Coastal Highway Makran Coastal Highway is a 653 km-long coastal highway along Pakistan’s Arabian Sea coastline. It runs primarily through Balochistan province between Karachi and Gwadar, passing near the port towns of Ormara and Pasni. Prior to the construction of the Makran Coastal Highway in 2004, the port city of Karachi was linked to the port town of Gwadar via an uncarpeted “jeep” or “dirt” track. The journey between Karachi and Gwadar used to take at least two days and took a heavy toll on the “wear and tear” of vehicles. It was considered preferable to take the safer but longer route via Quetta.

View Blog:

Mohenjo-daro by M.Yaseen Khan

Mohenjo-daro This article is about the archaeological site Mohenjo-daro. For the 2016 film, see Mohenjo Daro  Mohenjo-daro موھن جو دڙو     موئن جو دڑو The excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Sindh, Pakistan, in 2010. Shown within Pakistan Location Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan Coordinates 27°19′45″N 68°08′20″E Type Settlement. Area 250 ha (620 acres)[1] History Founded 26-25th century BCE Abandoned 19-17th century BCE Cultures Indus Valley Civilization   UNESCO World Heritage Site Official name Archaeological Ruins of Mohenjo-daro Type Cultural Criteria ii, iii Designated 1980 (4th session) Reference no. 138 State Party  Pakistan Region Asia-Pacific Mohenjo-daro (Sindhi: موھن جو دڙو‎, Urdu: موئن جو دڑو‎, IPA: [muˑənⁱ dʑoˑ d̪əɽoˑ], lit. Mound of the Dead Men;[2]English pronunciation: /moʊˌhɛn.dʒoʊ ˈdɑː.roʊ/) is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Built around 2500 BCE, it was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley civilization, and one of the world's earliest major urban settlements, contemporaneous with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Minoan Crete, and Norte Chico. Mohenjo-daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE as the Indus Valley Civilization declined, and the site was not rediscovered until the 1920s. Significant excavation has since been conducted at the site of the city, which was designated an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980.[3] The site is currently threatened by erosion and improper restoration.[4] Etymology[edit] Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, has been variously interpreted as "Mound of the Dead Men" in Sindhi, and as "Mound of Mohan" (where Mohan is Krishna).[2][5] The city's original name is unknown. Based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the city's ancient name could have been Kukkutarma ("the city [-rma] of the cockerel [kukkuta]").[6] Cock-fighting may have had ritual and religious significance for the city, with domesticated chickens bred there for sacred purposes, rather than as a food source. Mohenjo-daro may also have been a point of diffusion for the eventual worldwide domestication of chickens.[7] Location[edit]

View Blog:

Sydney Opera House by M.Yaseen Khan

Sydney Opera House The opera house is a multipurpose performing arts facility. Its largest venue, the 2679-seat Concert Hall, is host to symphony concerts, choir performances and popular music shows. It attracts huge numbers of local and international tourists every year. The building today is described on the Australian government's own website as "an architectural icon of the 20th century", yet not many visitiors would be aware that the NSW goverment of the time villified its creator to the point where he was forced to close his office and leave the country.   The opera house may well be an international icon today, but history tells us it was the centre of huge controversey during its construction. The irony of the opera house story is that its creator never got to see it when completed.  In 1957, Danish architect Jorn Utzon unexpectedly won a competition to design the Sydney Opera House, his submission being chosen ahead of 233 designs from 32 countries - some of these from the most famous architects of the time. One of the judges described Utzon's design as a work of genius.  Utzon's design was considered a sculpture: on one hand, it was graced with a series of "sails" that symbolised the thousands of yachts that sail Sydney Harbour's waterways; on the other hand, its shape could be interpreted as huge "sea shells" that act as a metaphor for Sydney and Australia's relationship with beaches and ocean. The Australian government's website pays tribute to the structure: " It was his [Utzon's] intention to create a sculptural form that would relate as naturally to the harbour as the sails of its yachts."  The opera house can even resemble a butterfly when lit up with coloured projections during Sydney's annual Vivid Festival

View Blog:

Clock Tower, Faisalabad

Clock Tower, Faisalabad Location Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan Type Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture Completion date 14 November 1903 The Faisalabad Clock Tower is a clock tower in Faisalabad,

View Blog:

Rose and Jasmine Garden, Islamabad

  Rose and Jasmine Garden, Islamabad  

View Blog:

Khewra Salt Mine by M.Yaseen Khan

Khewra Salt Mine The Khewra Salt Mine (or Mayo Salt Mine) is located in Khewra, north of Pind Dadan Khan,[1] an administrative subdivision of Jhelum District, Punjab Region, Pakistan, which rises from the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[2] It is Pakistan's largest and oldest salt mine[3] and the world's second largest.[4][5][6] It is a major tourist attraction, drawing up to 250,000 visitors a year.[7] Its history dates back to its discovery by Alexander's troops in 320 BC, but it started trading in the Mughal era.[8] The main tunnel at ground level was developed by Dr. H. Warth, a mining engineer, in 1872 during British rule. After independence, the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation took over the mine, which still remains the largest source of salt in the country, producing more than 350,000 tons per annum[9] of about 99% pure halite.[7] Estimates of the reserves of salt in the mine vary from 82 million tons[10] to 600 million tons.[11] History[edit] The Khewra Salt Mine is also known as Mayo Salt Mine, in honour of Lord Mayo, who visited it as Viceroy of India.[12] The mine is a part of a salt range that originated about 800 million years ago, when evaporation of a shallow sea followed by geological movement formed a salt range that stretched for about 300 kilometers (185 miles).[8][13] The salt reserves at Khewra were discovered when Alexander the Great crossed the Jhelum and Mianwali region during his Indian campaign. The mine was discovered, however, not by Alexander, nor by his allies, but by his army's horses, when they were found licking the stones.[14] Ailing horses of his army also recovered after licking the rock salt stones.[15] During the Mughal era the salt was traded in various markets, as far away as Central Asia.[16] On the downfall of the Mughal empire, the mine was taken over by Sikhs. Hari Singh Nalwa, the Sikh Commander-in-Chief, shared the management of the Salt Range with Gulab Singh, the Raja of Jammu. The former controlled the Warcha mine, while the latter held Khewra. The salt quarried during Sikh rule was both eaten and used as a source of revenue.[citation needed] In 1872, some time after they had taken over the Sikhs' territory, the British developed the mine further.[8] They found the mining to have been inefficient, with irregular and narrow tunnels and entrances that made the movement of labourers difficult and dangerous. The supply of water inside the mine was poor, and there was no storage facility for the mined salt. The only road to the mine was over difficult, rocky terrain. To address these problems the government levelled the road, built warehouses, provided a water supply, improved the entrances and tunnels, and introduced a better mechanism for excavation of salt. Penalties were introduced to control salt smuggling.[17] While working with Geological Survey of India in the 1930s and 1940s, Birbal Sahni found evidence of angiosperms, gymnosperms and insects from the Cambrian period inside the mine.[18]   Location[edit]

View Blog:

Tourism in Chakwal

Tourism in Chakwal Chakwal District has been bestowed by rich culture, history, art and extravagant environment. Once been known as a picnic spot for the Mughal dynasty and the British Lords also holds the record for producing fine men like Colonel Muhammad Khan, Tabish Kamal, India's prime minister Manmohan Sing and many other well reputed people. Kallar Kahar[edit] Resting in the mountains of the salt range the valley of Kallar Kahar holds beautiful environment, dazzling scenery, wonderful historic and prehistoric spots and museums. Kallar Kahar has Pakistan's first fossil museum, But the mainstay of tourist attraction is the Kallar Kahar lake that lies in the heart of the valley. Other attraction spots are Bagh e sufa, Takht e Babri, the famous shrines and other gardens and mountain ranges. View of lake from Motorway M2   Another view of lake from Motorway M2   Takht-e-Babri Katas Raj[edit] Katas Raj is a 3000-year-old town sacred to the Hindus and lies about 5 km west of Choa Saidan Shah on the Choa-Kallar Kahar road. It contains over 100 temples built over more than 1000 years by its Hindu Rajas. Some of these temples are dilapidated but a large number of them have been well maintained. Hindu pilgrims from all over Pakistan and India frequently visit this town to worship. Katas Raj at its peak time was the well renowned university; famous mathematician Alberuni measured the circumference of the earth while he was studying the Sanskrit there. Katasraj Mandir   Katas Raj Temple   General view of Katas village, with old temples in foreground, 1875.  

View Blog:

Harappa by M.Yaseen Khan

Harappa Harappa (Punjabi pronunciation: [ɦəɽəppaː]; Urdu/Punjabi: ہڑپّہا) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River. The current village of Harappa is 6 km (3.7 mi) from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a legacy railway station from the period of the British Raj, it is today just a small crossroads town of population 15,000. The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, centered in Sindh and the Punjab.[1]The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied about 150 hectares (370 acres) with clay sculptured houses at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600–1900 BC), which is considered large for its time.[2][3] Per archaeological convention of naming a previously unknown civilization by its first excavated site, the Indus Valley Civilization is also called the Harappan Civilization. The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore-Multan Railway. In 2005, a controversial amusement park scheme at the site was abandoned when builders unearthed many archaeological artifacts during the early stages of building work. A plea from the Pakistani archaeologist Ahmad Hasan Dani to the Ministry of Culture resulted in a restoration of the site.[4] Contents   [hide]  1History 2Culture and economy 3Archaeology 4Early symbols similar to Indus script 5Notes 6See also 7References 8External links  

View Blog:

13 Amazing Benefits Of Soybeans

13 Amazing Benefits Of Soybeans Soybeans have a wealth of health benefits, including the ability to improve the metabolism, help people gain weight in a healthy way, protect heart health, defend against cancer, reduce the effects of menopause, improve digestive health, promotes bone health, protect against birth defects, increase circulation, decrease the risk of diabetes, and generally tones up the body. Soybeans, which are also known as soya beans, are a species of legume that have become one of the most widely consumed foods in the world. They are extremely useful for human health, and they are easy to cultivate as well. They are produced in greatest numbers in the United States and South America, but they are actually native to East Asia. Their scientific name is Glycine max, and they are classified as an oil seed, rather than a pulse, like most legumes. Soybeans have become so wildly important and popular in recent decades because of the rise of soy food’s popularity, including soy milk and textured vegetable protein. The high levels of protein make it an ideal protein source for vegetarians, and the wide variety of soy products has created a massive new market. One of the reasons it is so widely cultivated is because it contains more protein per acre of land than any other crop. They grow up to 2 meters in height and is a green, low-lying plant. The soy protein are so universally useful that this small, unassuming bean has become globally significant. Furthermore, soybeans are packed with other essential nutrients, making it extremely important for people on diets, those who need to improve their general health, and vegetarians and vegans throughout the world. We can talk about the importance of soybeans all day, but why are they so important? What exactly is contained in these wonderful beans? Let’s take a closer look at the nutritional facts of soybeans. Nutritional Value Of Soybeans The many health benefits of soybeans comes from the wealth of nutrients, vitamins, organic compounds, and other nutrients, including a significant amount of dietary fiber and a very large amount of protein. In terms of vitamins, soybeans contains vitamin K, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B6, thiamin, and vitamin C. As for minerals, soybeans contain significant amounts of iron, manganese, phosphorous, copper, 

View Blog:

Miraculous Benefits Of Lychee

 Miraculous Benefits Of Lychee Lychee is a strange and wonderful fruit with a wealth of health benefits, including its ability to boost the immune system, prevent cancer, improve digestion, build strong bones, lower blood pressure, defend the body against viruses, improve circulation, aid in weight loss, protect the skin, and optimize metabolic activities. Lychee, which has the scientific name Litchi chinensis is in the soapberry family, but is the only member of its genus, meaning that it is quite unique in the world. It is a fruit tree that can grow in tropical and subtropical climates, and is native to China. It smells very much like a flower, and is often used to flavor cocktails and dishes because of its unique scent, which is lost if not consumed fresh. The fruit is almost primarily eaten as a dessert food in Asian nations, but it has begun to make the leap into more western markets, especially in luxury or high-end restaurants. The fruit has been cultivated for more than 4,000 years in China, and was once considered a great delicacy of the Imperial Court. It is now cultivated in many nations around the world, but the main production still resides in Southeast Asia, China, India, and parts of Southern Africa. Lychee is soft and pulpy, white or pink in color, and the size is usually about 2 inches high and 2 inches wide. They are highly celebrated in countries around the world because of their health and medicinal benefits, which are due to the wealth of nutrients and organic compounds present in this fascinating fruit. However, far more nutrients are present in dried lychee than in fresh lychee, so if you want to consume this for your overall health, forgo the sweet smell and allow the fruit to dry. Most vitamin and mineral contents more than double when eaten as a dried fruit. Nutritional Value Of Lychee

View Blog:

Nathia Gali by M.Yaseen Khan

Nathia Gali Nathia Gali or Nathiagali (Pashto: نتھیا گلی‎, Urdu: نتھیا گلی‎) is a mountain resort town or hill station in Abbottabad District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is a part of the Galyat range, where several hill-stations are situated, closely connected to each other, and with their names mostly ending in 'Gali'. Nathiagali is known for its scenic beauty, hiking tracks and pleasant weather, which is much cooler than the rest of the Galyat due to it being at a greater altitude. It is situated 34 kilometers at one hour's drive away from both Murree and Abbottabad, lying midway between these two places. The drive time from Islamabad is usually about two hours, unless there is a lot of traffic.[2][3] History[edit] During British rule Nathia Gali, then part of Abbottabad tehsil of Hazara District, served as the summer headquarters of the Chief Commissioner of the (then) Peshawar division of the Punjab.[4] The town along with Dunga Gali constituted a notified area under the Punjab Municipalities Act, 1891. The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,000 chiefly derived from a house tax, whilst expenditure was Rs. 1,900.[2]

View Blog:

Thandiani by M.Yaseen Khan

Thandiani Thandiani (literally meaning "very cold") is a hill station in the Galyat area of Pakistan. Contents    1History 2Location 3Tourism 4Forests and wildlife 52005 earthquake 6References 7External links History Thandiani was originally granted as a lease to some members of the Battye family[1] in British India, who were Christian missionaries and also found in civil and military service, and who produced scions such as Wigram Battye[2] and Quintin Battye.[3] The Battyes subsequently gifted the location to the church authorities, where a sanatorium and various other facilities were set up during the British rule, mostly for the convenience of missionaries, Anglican church personnel and officers stationed at the neighbouring cantonment of Abbottabad. It also contained some private European houses, a camping ground, a small bazaar, and the small seasonal church of St. Xavier in the Wilderness[4] which were occupied only during the summer months.[5] Location Thandiani is located in the northeast of Abbottabad District at 34°13'60N 73°22'0E[6] and is about 31 kilometres from Abbottabad in the foothills of the Himalayas. To the east beyond theKunhar River lies the snow-covered Pir Panjal mountain range of Kashmir. Visible to the north and northeast are the mountains of Kohistan and Kaghan. To the northwest are the snowy ranges of Swat and Chitral. The hills of Thandiani are about 9,000 feet (2,750 m) above sea level. Most of the people residing here belong to the Sadaat (Syed), Qureshi,Abbasi,JadoonGujjar, and Karlal tribes. The nearest villages are Bandi Sarara Mara Rehmat Khan, Inderseri, Birnagalli, Chattri, Chamaili, Sialkot, Pattan, Okharela, Dheri, Darer and Kukmang. Tourism Main article: Hill stations in Pakistan Thandiani is characterized by excellent weather and lush greenery in the summer months, and snow-covered vistas and hills in the winter. Many tourists from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and all over Pakistan visit here, especially in the summer season. Being at a high altitude, with attractive scenery and several hiking trails into the forests and other nearby locations, it is a very attractive prospect. A beautiful trek leads to Thandiani from Abbottabad that passes through Dagri naka.[7] Forests and wildlife The mountains around Thandiani are quite thickly forested compared to most other hill stations in the locality, which have suffered some degree of deforestation over time. The local wildlife includes leopards, monkeys, several kinds of pheasants and the increasingly rare flying squirrel and pine marten, to name only a few. 2005 earthquake The area and its surrounding villages were damaged by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake   Galary

View Blog:

Daman-e-Koh by M.Yaseen Khan

Daman-e-Koh Daman-e-Koh is a viewing point and hill top garden north of Islamabad and located in the middle of the Margalla Hills. Its name is a conjunction of two Persian words, which together means foot hills. It is about 2400ft from sea level and almost 500ft from the city of Islamabad. It is a popular destination for the residents as well as the visitors to the capital. Daman-e-Koh is a midpoint for tourists on their way to the higher view point Pir Sohawa which is located at the top of Margalla Hills at an elevation of about 3600ft. There is a plan to construct a chairlift from Daman-e-Koh to Pir Sohawa. Monkeys are a common sight during winter. Cheetahs are frequently reported to descend from higher hills of Murree during snowfall. Airblue Flight 202 crashed near here on July 28, 2010. Panoramic view of Islamabad[edit]

View Blog:

Simly Dam

Naran, Kaghan Valley Naran (Urdu: ناران ‎) is a medium sized town in upper Kaghan Valley in Mansehra District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of the Pakistan. It is located 119 kilometers (74 mi) from Mansehra city at the altitude of 8,202 feet (2,500 m). Naran is one of the most scenic towns in Pakistan, attracting thousands of tourists, trekkers, photographers and nature-enthusiast, every year. The Kunhar River, swollen by glacial melt, passes through this town as it meanders its way through the valley.[1]   Kunhar river in Naran during the month of June as viewed from PTDC motel Naran can be considered as base station to scenic destinations like Lake Saif-ul-Malook, Lalazar Babusar, Noori Valley and Purbi Valley.   Contents   [hide]  1Accommodation 2Transportation 3Weather 4Hiking, trekking, and off-roading 4.1Lake Saif-ul-Maluk 4.2Ansu Lake 4.3Lalazar 5Gallery 6See also 7References   Accommodation

View Blog:

Broccoli (Vegitable)

Broccoli (Vegitable) Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowering head is eaten as a vegetable. The word broccoli comes from the Italian plural of broccolo, which means "the flowering crest of a cabbage", and is the diminutive form of brocco, meaning "small nail" or "sprout".[3] Broccoli is often boiled or steamed but may be eaten raw.[4] Broccoli is classified in the Italica cultivar group of the species Brassica oleracea. Broccoli has large flower heads, usually green in color, arranged in a tree-like structure branching out from a thick, edible stalk. The mass of flower heads is surrounded by leaves. Broccoli resembles cauliflower, which is a different cultivar group of the same species. Broccoli is a result of careful breeding of cultivated Brassica crops in the northern Mediterranean starting in about the 6th century BC.[5] Since the time of the Roman Empire, broccoli has been considered a uniquely valuable food among Italians.[6] Broccoli was brought to England from Antwerp in the mid-18th century by Peter Scheemakers.[7] Broccoli was first introduced tothe United States by Southern Italian immigrants, but did not become widely popular until the 1920s.[8]d   Varieties Broccoli plants in a nursery There are three commonly grown types of broccoli. The most familiar is Calabrese broccoli, often referred to simply as "broccoli", named after Calabria in Italy. It has large (10 to 20 cm) green heads and thick stalks. It is a cool season annual crop. Sprouting broccoli has a larger number of heads with many thin stalks. Purple cauliflower is a type of broccoli sold in southern Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. It has a head shaped like cauliflower, but consisting of tiny flower buds. It sometimes, but not always, has a purple cast to the tips of the flower buds. Other cultivar groups of Brassica oleracea include cabbage (Capitata Group), cauliflower and Romanesco broccoli (Botrytis Group), kale and collard greens (Acephala Group), kohlrabi (Gongylodes Group), Brussels sprouts (Gemmifera Group), and kai-lan (Alboglabra Group).[9] Rapini, sometimes called "broccoli raab" among other names, forms similar but smaller heads, and is actually a type of turnip (Brassica rapa). Broccolini or "Tenderstem broccoli" is a cross between broccoli and Chinese broccoli. Beneforté is a variety of broccoli containing 2–3 times more glucoraphanin that was produced by crossing broccoli with a wild Brassica variety, Brassica oleracea var villosa.[10] Production Major producers of broccoli[11] (combined with cauliflowers) in millions of tonnes CountryProduction  People's Republic of China 9.1

View Blog:

Pakistan Railways by M.Yaseen Khan

Industrial Estate Gadoon Amazai 1 LOCATION Industrial Estate Gadoon Amazai, Distric Swabi 2 LAND ACQURIED 116 (Acres) 3 OPRATIONAL UNITS 98 Nos. 4 INVESTMENT(Rs. In million) 49014.861 5 EMPLOYMENT 15345 Nos. 6 PLOT SIZE One Acre, or Multiple of One Acre 7 PRICE OF PLOT Rs.10,00,000 per Acre 8 INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES i WAPDA Grid Station, 132KVA ii WAPDA PESCO Office iii Sui-Gas Station iv Telephone Exchange, 1000 lines v Mobile Phone BTS Station, 05 Nos. vi Police Station vii Custom Office viii Sale Tax Office ix Post Office

View Blog:

10 Health Benefits of Mangos by M.Yaseen Khan

10 Health Benefits of Mangos Health Benefits 1.  Prevents Cancer:  Research has shown antioxidant compounds in mango fruit have been found to protect against colon, breast, leukemia and prostate cancers. These compounds include quercetin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, fisetin, gallic acid and methylgallat, as well as the abundant enzymes. 2.  Lowers Cholesterol:  The high levels of fiber, pectin and vitamin C help to lower serum cholesterol levels, specifically Low-Density Lipoprotein (the bad stuff). 3.  Clears the Skin:  Can be used both internally and externally for the skin. Mangos help clear clogged pores and eliminate pimples.

View Blog:

Hiran Minar by M.Yaseen Khan

Hiran Minar Hiran Minar; Urdu: ہرن مینار (Minaret of Antelope) is set in peaceful environs near Lahore in a town called Sheikhupura, Pakistan. It was constructed by the Mughal Emperor Jahangir as a monument to Mansiraj (lit: 'Light of the Mind'), his favourite pet deer or antelope.[1] The structure consists of a large, almost-square water tank with an octagonal pavilion in its center, built during the reign of his son, Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan.[2] A causeway with its own gateway connects the pavilion with the mainland and a 100-foot (30 m)-high minar, or minaret. At the center of each side of the tank, a brick ramp slopes down to the water, providing access for royal animals and wild game.[2]   Unique features of this particular complex are the antelope's grave and the distinctive water collection

View Blog:

APRIL YASEEN BLOGS

    APRIL YASEEN BLOGS Shalimar Gardens, Lahore The Shalimar Gardens (Punjabi, Urdu: شالیمار باغ‎), sometimes spelled Shalamar Gardens, is a Mughal garden complex located in Lahore, capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab.[1] Construction of the gardens began in 1637 C.E. during the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan,[2] and was completed in 1641. The Shalimar Gardens were laid out as a Persian paradise garden. The gardens measure 658 metres by 258 metres, and cover an area of 16 hectares east of Lahore's Walled City. The gardens are enclosed by a brick wall that is famous for its intricate fretwork. In 1981 the Shalimar Gardens were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as they embody Mughal garden design at the apogee of its development.[3] The gardens date from the period when the Mughal Empire was at its artistic and aesthetic zenith.[3]   Contents   [hide]  1Location 2Background 3History 4Layout 5Architecture 5.1Fountains 5.2Buildings of the Gardens 5.3Trees of the Gardens 6Conservation 7Gallery 8See also 9References 10External links Location[edit] The Shalimar Gardens are located near Baghbanpura along the Grand Trunk Road some 5 kilometers northeast of the main Lahore city. Background[edit] Lahore's Shalimar Gardens were influenced by the older Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir that were built by Shah Jahan's father, Emperor Jahangir. Shah Jahan was involved in construction of the gardens in Kashmir. The most correct etymology of Shalimar's name is Arabic or, more precisely, Arabic-Persian. This etymology has been proposed by the Russian scholar Anna Suvorova who derives the garden’s name from the Arabic expression shah al-‘imarat (Master of Buildings). It should be kept in mind that the word ‘imarat’ (building) was historically used for park architecture and gardens in general.[4] History[edit]

View Blog:

Keenjhar Lake by M.Yaseen Khan

View Blog:

Lake Manasarovar

Lake Manasarovar Lake Manasarovar (also Manas Sarovar, Mapam Yumtso; , Tibetan: མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ།, Wylie: ma pham g.yu mtsho; Sanskrit: मानसरोवर ) is a freshwater lake in Tibet. This lake is considered very sacred by Tibetans Buddhist, Hindus, and Jains. This lake is considered very holy by Tibetans and appears excessively in Tibetan folk songs and dances. Lake Manasarovara is the lake in which a great Tibetan monk saw " Aha" " Kha" " Mha". These three initials helped the search team to locate the current the 14th Dalia Lama of Tibet. The three intitails stand for the province, the district, and the Monastary in the current Dalai Lama was born, i.e. Ahamdho, Khunbum, and Taktser respectively. In Tibetan folk songs Mt. Kailash and lake Manasarovar appear hand in hand. In some it says, " The highest mountain is Mt. Kailash" " The largest lake is lake Manasarovar". Mt. Kailash and lake Manasarovar are iconic representation of Western Tibet which is Ngari but it is considered holy and sacred by all Tibetans through out Tibet. Tibetans from all nooks and corner come to Mt. Kailsh and lake Manasarovar for pilgrimage at least once in a life time! Hindus and Jains also visit this lake and bathe in this lake to wash away their sins! These days tourist from all over the world pour into this place to catch the Tibetan spiritual vibe which helps to calm our mind and body. Manasarovar Mapham Yumtso मानस सरोवरः July 2006 Location Tibet Coordinates 30.65°N 81.45°ECoordinates: 30.65°N 81.45°E   Surface area 410 km2 (160 sq mi) Max. depth 90 m (300 ft) Surface elevation 4,590 m (15,060 ft)   Frozen Winter Geography[edit] Map of the region Lake

View Blog:

Margalla Hills

Margalla Hills The Margalla Hills is a hill range part of the foothills Himalayas located within the Margalla Hills National Park, north of Islamabad, Pakistan. Margalla Range has an area of 12,605 hectares. The hills are a part of Murree hills. It is a range with many valleys as well as high mountains. It is part of the Margalla Hills National Park. The hill range nestles between an elevation of 685 meters at the western end and 1,604 meters on its east with average height of 1000 meters. Its highest peak is Tilla Charouni. The range gets snowfall in winters. On 6 January 2012, after almost six years, Pir Sohawa, the city’s highest tourist spot, received few inches of snowfall.[1] Another measurable snow event occurred on 11 February 2016 where 2 inches fell after four years.[2]      Etymology[edit] Two different legends describe the origin of the word 'Margalla'. According to the first legend, these hills have always been known as an abode of snakes. Mar means 'snake' in Pashto and Persian galla means 'herd', therefore Margalla means a place with a lot of snakes. According to the second legend, the word 'Margalla' was derived from Mar Galla, meaning 'to strangulate'.[citation needed] Mar means 'hit' and Galla means 'neck'. It is believed that there were lots of bandits and robbers who used these hills as a sanctuary and would strangle travelers in order to rob them.[citation needed]. It has also been suggested that the name derived from Mārĩkalā, the Persian equivalent of Takshaśilã (Taxila).[3] Roads and Communication[edit] View of margalla hills Khayaban-e- Iqbal, arises on the north east side from the 4th Avenue (Nur Pur Shahan), runs between E and F sectors and ends at Service road West of F 11 and E 11 (Golra) sectors in the south east. It will be extended up to Grand Trunk (GT) road in the near future and then it will be able to connect Nur Pur Shahan with the GT road.[4] Pir Sohawa road starts from Khayaban-e-Iqbal, near the zoo and traverses across the Margalla hills and connects with Jabbri road. Margalla road starts from setor D 12 and runs across the Margallas to connect with Jabbri road near Khanpur. Grand Trunk road (GT road) passes through Margallas through Tarnol pass near Nicholson's obelisk. Paleontology and archeology[edit] The hills' rock formations are 40 million years old, and fossils of marine life abound, indicating that the Margalla Hills were at one time under the sea. According to the research carried out by scientists and archaeologists of the project "Post-Earthquake Explorations of Human Remains in Margalla Hills”, the formation of the Margalla Hills dates to the Miocene epoch. The dominant limestone of the Margalla is mixed with sandstone and occasional minor beds of shale. The archaeologists of the project have also found two human footprints over one million years old here, preserved in sandstone.[5] Saidpur is a Mughal-era village on the slopes of the Margalla Hills and located off the Hill Road to the east of Daman-e-Koh in Islamabad. The village has the footprints of various civilizations, including Gandhara, Greek, Buddhist, Mughal, Ashoka and the British colonial periods, and now serving as a popular recreational spot for both local and foreign visitors. Flora and fauna[edit] Blue region on the Islamabad map denotes the Margalla Hills region. The plant species on Margalla hills belong to various families of trees, shrubs, herbs, climbers, grasses and fodder crops. The vegetation of the southern slopes is deciduous and evergreen trees with most of flowering trees like Bauhinia variegata, Ficus carica, and trees like Pinus roxburghii, Quercus leucotrichophora. In the north stand pines, eucalyptus, peepal trees (Ficus religiosa), paper mulberry and groves of oak, e.g. silver oaks. Over the years, however, the hills have suffered considerably from illegal logging and wood collection used for cooking and heating. But, the CDA has planted 385,000 saplings every spring.

View Blog:

Kohat Tunnel

Kohat Tunnel The Kohat Tunnel is a 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) long road tunnel located in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Constructed with Japanese assistance, it is also known as the Pak-Japan Friendship Tunnel. Construction on the tunnel began in 1999, and opened to traffic in June 2003. As part of the developing Indus Highway system, the tunnel serves as a shorter, alternate route to the Kohat Pass, situated between the cities of Peshawar and Kohat. The new route decreases the time required to travel through the Kotal Pass by about 20 minutes. The main advantage of the tunnel is that long bodied vehicles can now use the Indus Highway whereas previously the hairpin bends on the Kotal Pass made it impossible for such vehicles to travel. It also helps alleviate traffic congestion, improve traffic safety and promote economic development. The tunnel was at the centre of a military confrontation between the Pakistan Army and pro-Taliban militants in early 2008. The militants had taken control of the tunnel around 24 January, after hijacking trucks carrying supplies and ammunition for security forces in South Waziristan. On 27 January, Pakistan Army brought the tunnel back under control of the security forces, after "fierce fighting" involving artillery, helicopter gunships and heavy machine guns during which 24 militants were reported to have been killed.[1][2] Kohat Tunnel Due to demand from the people for a tunnel through the Kotal hills, the Government recently sanctioned a huge amount for this project, benefiting all the southern districts. The tunnel was completed in 2004. The following are some salient features of the project. Total project cost: 6626.75 millions Total length of approached road: 29.8 kilometres Length of north section: 7.7 kilometres Length of south section: 22.20 kilometres Length of tunnel: 1.89 kilometres Width of tunnel: 10.3 meters Black topped: 7.3 meters Shoulders: 3.0 meters Time of completion: 48 months   GALLERY

View Blog:

Bhurban

Bhurban Bhurban (Urdu: بھوربن ‎) is a small town and a hill station in Punjab province, Pakistan. The resort town is named after a nearby forest. It is located approximately 9 kilometres from Murree city. [1] Government[edit] Bhurban has a wide range of tourist facilities. Pearl Continental Bhurban - 5 star hotel in the town The Rawat Union Council is also responsible for managing Bhurban. Rawat village is the headquarters of the Union Council of Rawat, which is an administrative sub-division of Murree Tehsil, in the Rawalpindi District of Punjab. Location[edit] Bhurban is situated in between Murree and Kashmir Road at a height of about 6000 feet. It has recently been made accessible by the dual Islamabad-Murree Expressway, making it a 45-minute drive from Islamabad, the federal capital of Pakistan. Tourism[edit] Bhurban is one of the more picturesque places in the country, and is a tourist paradise with unique flora, and a fauna with a variety species not found elsewhere in Pakistan. It is known for scenic hiking trails in the nearby Ayubia National Park. The '5 star' Pearl Continental Hotel - Mount Pleasant Apartments is one of several resorts in Bhurban that serve tourists visiting the Murree Hills and

View Blog:

Tumblr by M.Yaseen Khan

  Tumblr Tumblr is a microblogging and social networking website founded by David Karp in 2007, and owned by Yahoo! since 2013.[1][3][4][5][6] The service allows users to post multimedia and other content to a short-form blog. Users can follow other users' blogs. Bloggers can also make their blogs private.[7][8] For bloggers, many of the website's features are accessed from a "dashboard" interface. As of April 1, 2017, Tumblr hosts over 341.8 million blogs.[9] As of January 2016, the website had 555 million monthly visitors.[2] History Founder and CEO, David Karp Former CTO, Marco Arment Development of Tumblr began in 2006 during a two-week gap between contracts at David Karp's software consulting company, Davidville (housed at Karp's former internship with producer/incubator Fred Seibert's Frederator Studios which was located a block from Tumblr's current headquarters).[10][11] Karp had been interested in tumblelogs (short-form blogs) for some time and was waiting for one of the established blogging platforms to introduce their own tumblelogging platform. As no one had done so after a year of waiting, Karp and developer Marco Arment began working on their own tumblelogging platform.[12][13] Tumblr was launched in February 2007[14][15] and within two weeks, the service had gained 75,000 users.[16] Arment left the company in September 2010 to focus on Instapaper.[17] In early June 2012, Tumblr featured its first major brand advertising campaign in conjunction with Adidas. Adidas launched an official soccer Tumblr blog and bought placements on the user dashboard. This launch was only two months after Tumblr announced it would be moving towards paid advertising on its site.[18] On May 20, 2013, it was announced that Yahoo! and Tumblr had reached an agreement for Yahoo! to acquire Tumblr for $1.1 billion in cash.[19][20] Many of Tumblr's users were unhappy with the news, causing some to start a petition, achieving nearly 170,000 signatures.[21]David Karp remained CEO and the deal was finalized on June 20, 2013.[22][23] Features Blog management Dashboard: The dashboard is the primary tool for the typical Tumblr user. It is a live feed of recent posts from blogs that they follow.[24] Through the dashboard, users are able to comment, reblog, and like posts from other blogs that appear on their dashboard. The dashboard allows the user to upload text posts, images, video, quotes, or links to their blog with a click of a button displayed at the top of the dashboard. Users are also able to connect their blogs to their Twitter and Facebook accounts, so whenever they make a post, it will also be sent as a tweet and a status update.[25] Queue: Users are able to set up a schedule to delay posts that they make. They can spread their posts over several hours or even days.[25] Tags: Users can help their audience find posts about certain topics by adding tags. If someone were to upload a picture to their blog and wanted their viewers to find pictures, they would add the tag #picture, and their viewers could use that word to search for posts with the tag #picture. HTML editing: Tumblr allows users to edit their blog's theme HTML coding to control the appearance of their blog. Users are also able to use a custom domain name for their blog. Mobile With Tumblr's 2009 acquisition of Tumblerette, an iOS application created by Jeff Rock and Garrett Ross, the service launched its official iPhone app.[26][27] The site became available to BlackBerry smartphones on April 17, 2010 via a Mobelux application in BlackBerry World. In June 2012, Tumblr released a new version of its iOS app, Tumblr 3.0 allowing support for Spotify, hi-res images and offline access.[28] An app for Android is also available.[29] A Windows Phone app was released on April 23, 2013.[30] An app for Google Glass was released on May 16, 2013.[31] Inbox and messaging Tumblr blogs may optionally allow users to submit questions, either as themselves or anonymously, to the blog for a response. Tumblr also offered a "fan mail" function, allowing users to send messages to blogs that they follow.[32][33] On November 10, 2015, Tumblr introduced an integrated instant messaging function, allowing users to chat between other Tumblr users. The feature is being rolled out in a "viral" manner; it was initially made available to a group of 1500 users; other users may receive access to the messaging system if they are sent a message by any user that has received access to the system itself. The messaging system only supports text-based conversations, although other features (such as group chat and image embeds) will be added in the future. The messaging platform will also replace the fan mail system, which has been deprecated.[34]

View Blog:

Ozone layer by M.Yaseen Khan

Ozone layer The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It contains high concentrations of ozone (O3) in relation to other parts of the atmosphere, although still small in relation to other gases in the stratosphere. The ozone layer contains less than 10 parts per million of ozone, while the average ozone concentration in Earth's atmosphere as a whole is about 0.3 parts per million. The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere, from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth, although its thickness varies seasonally and geographically.[1] The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson. Measurements of the sun showed that the radiation sent out from its surface and reaching the ground on Earth is usually consistent with the spectrum of a black body with a temperature in the range of 5,500–6,000 K (5,227 to 5,727 °C), except that there was no radiation below a wavelength of about 310 nm at the ultraviolet end of the spectrum. It was deduced that the missing radiation was being absorbed by something in the atmosphere. Eventually the spectrum of the missing radiation was matched to only one known chemical, ozone.[2] Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson, who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobsonmeter) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground. Between 1928 and 1958, Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations, which continue to operate to this day. The "Dobson unit", a convenient measure of the amount of ozone overhead, is named in his honor. The ozone layer absorbs 97 to 99 percent of the Sun's medium-frequency ultraviolet light (from about 200 nm to 315 nm wavelength), which otherwise would potentially damage exposed life forms near the surface.[3] The United Nations General Assembly has designated September 16 as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer. Venus also has a thin ozone layer at an altitude of 100 kilometers from the planet's surface.[4] Sources[edit] The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were discovered by the British physicist Sydney Chapman in 1930. Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere is created by ultraviolet light striking ordinary oxygen molecules containing two oxygen atoms (O2), splitting them into individual oxygen atoms (atomic oxygen); the atomic oxygen then combines with unbroken O2 to create ozone, O3. The ozone molecule is unstable (although, in the stratosphere, long-lived) and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of O2 and an individual atom of oxygen, a continuing process called the ozone-oxygen cycle. Chemically, this can be described as: O2 + ℎνuv → 2OO + O2 ↔ O3 About 90 percent of the ozone in the atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. Ozone concentrations are greatest between about 20 and 40 kilometres (66,000 and 131,000 ft), where they range from about 2 to 8 parts per million. If all of the ozone were compressed to the pressure of the air at sea level, it would be only 3 millimetres (1⁄8 inch) thick.[5] Ultraviolet light[edit] UV-B energy levels at several altitudes. Blue line shows DNA sensitivity. Red line shows surface energy level with 10 percent decrease in ozone

View Blog:

Khunjerab Pass

Khunjerab Pass Khunjerab Pass or Khunjerav (elevation 4,693 metres or 15,397 feet) is a high mountain pass in the Karakoram Mountains in a strategic position on the northern border of Pakistan's Gilgit–Baltistan Hunza – Nagar District on the southwest border of the Xinjiang region of China. Its name is derived from two words of the local Wakhi language : 'Khun' means Home and 'Jerav' means a creek coming from spring water/water falling. Sino-Pakistani border crossing Main article: Karakoram Highway The Khunjerab Pass is the highest paved international border crossing in the world and the highest point on the Karakoram Highway. The roadway across the pass was completed in 1982, and has superseded the unpaved Mintaka and Kilik Passes as the primary passage across the Karakoram Range. The choice of Khunjerab Pass for Karakoram Highway was decided in 1966: China citing the fact that Mintaka would be more susceptible to air strikes recommended the steeper Khunjerab Pass instead.[1] On the Pakistani side, the pass is 42 km (26 mi) from the National Park station and checkpoint in Dih, 75 km (47 mi) from the customs and immigration post in Sost, 270 km

View Blog:

Orange Line (Lahore Metro)

Orange Line (Lahore Metro) Orange Line (Urdu: نارنجی خط‎) is an under-construction rapid transit line being built as part of the Lahore Metro, in Lahore, Pakistan. The Orange Line will be Pakistan's first modern rail-based mass rapid transit transit system,[2][3] and will be a fully automated and driverless system.[4] It will be Lahore's second rapid transit line, after the Lahore Metrobus, which was completed in 2013. The Orange Line is the first of the three proposed rail lines of the proposed Lahore Metro. The line spans 26.23 km (16.3 mi). 24.38 km (15.1 mi) of the line is to be elevated, while 1.15 km (0.7 mi) km will be underground, and 0.7 km (0.4 mi) of track will be laid in the transition zone between elevated and underground sections.[5]Riders will be served by 26 stations that in total are expected to handle 250,000 passenger daily. Though the project is frequently mentioned as a part of the wider China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), the project is financed separately from CPEC, and is being undertaken by the Government of Punjab.[6] History[edit] The project was initiated with a signed a memorandum of understanding between the governments of Pakistan and China in May 2014.[7] Financing for the project was secured in December 2015 when China's Exim Bank agreed to provide a soft loan of $1.55 billion for the project.[8] Construction works on the project began in October 2015.[9] This project is under construction and is expected to be completed by October 2019.[10] Habib Construction Services was awarded the first Phase of civil works in October 2015 for 21.49 billion rupees.[11] In October 2016, Phase 2 of the project was awarded to ZKB Engineers and Constructors for civil works between Chauburji and Ali Town at a cost of 11.39 billion rupees.[12] On 12 January 2017, 7 labourers perished at a makeshift residence for Orange Line construction workers.[13] Design[edit] Stations[edit] The project will have 26 stations. Anarkali and Central stations will be underground, while the remaining 24 will be elevated.[14] The rail line will run through the centre of each station, with platforms flanking the track.[5] Elevated stations will have a width of 22.5 metres, while Anarkali Station will be 16 metres wide, and Central Station 49.5 metres wide.[15] Elevated stations will all be 102 metres long, while Anarkali and Central Stations will be 121.5 and 161.6 metres long, respectively.[16] Anarkali and Central Stations were initially planned to have two underground levels,[17] Anarkali Station will now both feature a ground-level concourse with one underground level, while Central Station will have a single underground level, in order to reduce the maximum gradient for trains from 35% to 30%.[18] Rail tracks will be 9.7m below street level at Central Station, and 8.7m below street level at Anarkali Station.[19] Underground stations will feature automated doors between platforms and trains. Public areas of the station will be air conditioned during warm months.[20] Elevated stations will feature natural ventilation throughout the platforms, with localized air conditioning in public areas of the ticket-hall level.[21] Rolling stock[edit] Orange Line trains will be composed of five wagons manufactured by China's Norinco,[22] and will be automated and driverless.[23] A standard Chinese "Type B" train-set consisting

View Blog:

Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant

  Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant The Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant is part of an under construction run-of-the-river hydroelectric power scheme designed to divert water from the Neelum River to a power station on the Jhelum River. The power station is located in Azad Kashmir, 22 km (14 mi) south of Muzaffarabad and will have an installed capacity of 968 MW. Construction on the project began in 2008 after a Chinese consortium was awarded the construction contract in July 2007. The first generator is scheduled to be commissioned in July 2017 and the entire project is expected to be complete in December 2017. Background[edit] After being approved in 1989, the design was improved, increasing the tunnel length and generation capacity. The project was intended to begin in 2002 and be completed in 2008 but this time-frame experienced significant delays to rising costs and funding.[2] Additionally, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which devastated the region required a redesign of the project to conform to more stringent seismic standards.[3] On 7 July 2007, the Chinese consortium CGGC-CMEC (Gezhouba Group and China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation) were awarded the contract to construct the dam and power station. The construction contract was settled by the end of the year and in January 2008, the letter of commencement was issued. On 8 February, Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf announced that the project would begin.[4] In October 2011, the diversion tunnel intended to divert the Neelum River around the dam site was completed.[5] On 1 November, Pakistan's Prime Minister Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani publicly stated his concern for the project's delay. At its appraisal in 1989, it was to cost $167 million USD (2011) and after another redesign in 2005, that cost rose to $935 million USD (2011). Currently costs have risen to $2.89 billion USD (2011).[6] The project is being constructed under the supervision of the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and funding is being achieved through the Neelum Jhelum Hydropower Company, taxes, bond offerings, Middle Eastern and Chinese banks. WAPDA has successfully secured loans from a consortium of Chinese banks and from Middle East. Tunnel-boring machines (TBM) were brought to help speed up the excavation of the remaining tunnels. They became operational in February 2013.[7] In mid-2014 Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif visited the construction site in mid-2014 and hoped to have at least one generator operational by mid-2015. The project was 66 percent complete as of August 2013 while at the same time the diversion tunnel was 75 percent complete. US$475 million in funding was still not secured by the Economic Affairs Division at that time.[8] On 24 December 2014 a wall near the diversion tunnel's intake collapsed, killing four workers including a Chinese engineer.[9] On November 05, 2016, the project entered into terminal phase with 100 percent perfect design while achieving 85.5 percent progress and is heading towards completion despite all delays in release of funds, weather conditions, non-availability of power during early stage of construction and delays in land acquisition. [10] Impact of India's Kishanganga Project[edit] N– J Dam N–J Plant Kish. Dam Kish. Station Location of the Neelum–Jhelum and Kishanganga projects in Jammu and Kashmir

View Blog:

Tarbela Dam by M.Yaseen Khan

Tarbela Dam Tarbela Dam Tarbela Dam during the 2010 floods Official name Tarbela Dam Location Tarbela, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan Coordinates 34°05′23″N 72°41′54″E Construction began 1968 Opening date 1976 Construction cost USD 1.497 billion [1] Dam and spillways Impounds Indus River Height 143.26 metres (470 ft) from river level Length 2,743.2 metres (9,000 ft) Reservoir Creates Tarbela reservoir Total capacity 13.69 cubic kilometres (3.28 cu mi) Catchment area 168,000 km2(65,000 sq mi) Surface area 250 km2 (97 sq mi) Power station Turbines 10 × 175 MW 4 × 432 MW Installed capacity 3,478 MW 6,298 MW (max) Tarbela Dam (Urdu/Pashto:تربیلا بند) is an earth fill dam located on the Indus River in Pakistan. It's the largest earth-filled dam in the world and fifth-largest by structural volume.[2][3][4] It is named after the town Tarbela, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 50 kilometres (31 mi) northwest of Islamabad. The dam is 485 feet (148 m) high above the riverbed. The dam forms the Tarbela Reservoir, with a surface area of approximately 250 square kilometres (97 sq mi). The dam was completed in 1976 and was designed to store water from the Indus River for irrigation, flood control, and the generation of hydroelectric power.[5] The primary use of the dam is for electricity generation, the installed capacity of the 3,478 MW Tarbela hydroelectric power stations will increase to 6,298MW after completion of the ongoing fourth extension and the planned fifth extension financed by Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the World Bank.[6]   Contents   [hide]  1Project description 2Background 3Construction 3.1Stage 1 3.2Stage 2 3.3Stage 3 4Re-settlement of people affected by Tarbela Dam 5Lifespan 6Project benefits 7Tarbela-IV Extension Project 7.1Financing 8Tarbela-V extension project 8.1Financing 9See also 10External links 11Notes

View Blog:

Parachinar by M.Yaseen Khan

Parachinar Parachinar Parachinar, Pārachinār,Tutkai City Parachinar Coordinates: 33°53′57″N 70°6′3″E Country  Pakistan Extra Provincial Subdivision FATA Tribal Agency Kurram Valley Elevation 1,705 m (5,597 ft) Time zone PST (UTC+5) Website www.parachinar.pk [1] Parachinar (Urdu: پاڑاچنار‎, Pashto: پاړا چنار‎) is the capital of Kurram Agency, and the largest city of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Parachinar is situated on a neck of Pakistani territory south of Peshawar, that juts into Paktia Province of Afghanistan. It is the closest point in Pakistan to Kabul and borders on the Tora Bora region of Afghanistan. Turi, Bangash, Orakzai, Zazai, Mangal and Para Tsamkani are the major tribes and Christian, Hindus and Sikhs are the Minorities of Parachinar. Parachinar has four seasons. Parachinar is very famous for its fresh fruits and fresh vegetables.   Contents   [hide]  1History 2Climate 3Durand Line Agreement at Parachinar 4Demography 5Health Department 6See also 7External links 8References   History The name Parachinar may derive from a large Chinar tree at a place now encompassed by the headquarters of Kurram Agency. Alternatively, there is in the Kurram Agency a tribe known as the Para-chamkani (Lisyani), which is remembered to have convened meetings under a Chinar tree to resolve their social matters.[2] The previous name, used for Kurram was Tutki, which is still used by some Afghan people. The inhabitants of Tutki were called Tutkiwal. The Kurram Valley, which is drained by the Kurram River and its affluents, lies to the south of the lofty Safed Koh range, and reaches from Thal in Kohát to the Peiwar Kotal on the borders of Afghán Khost. It has an area of nearly 1300 square miles and in 1911 the population was estimated at 60,941 people. Though under British administration, it does not form a part of any British district. The people are Pathans of various clans, the predominant element being the Turis, who are Shias by religion and probably of Turkish origin. It was at their request that the valley was annexed in 1892. The political agent has his headquarters at Parachinar in Upper Kurram, which is divided from Lower Kurram by a spur of the Khost hills, through which the river has cut a passage. Such part of the Indian penal law as is suitable has been introduced, and civil rights are governed by the customary law of the Turís (Turizona). Upper Kurram is a wide and fertile valley set in a frame of pine-clad hills. It is not fully cultivated, but has great possibilities, especially in the matter of fruit growing. The snowfall is heavy in winter, but the summer climate is excellent. Lower Kurram is a poor and narrow glen unpleasantly hot and cold according to the season of the year. Parachinár is connected with the railhead at Thal by a good _tonga_ road. reference Parachinar originated as a summer residence for nomadic tribes who wintered their livestock at lower altitudes, and the district had originally been a summer residence for Moghul emperors from Delhi. The Parachinar region was part of Durrani empire before the Second Afghan War of 1878-79, but was not firmly annexed by the British until 1892. During the colonial era and 1947, Parachinar became a hill station for people from Peshawar; as it is relatively cool in the summer and very easy to reach from the plains despite its high altitude since there are no steep ascents on the route from Peshawar. Because of its proximity to the border of Afghanistan, in recent years, the economy of Parachinar has been adversely affected, with tourism in steep decline. The region is known for sectarian clashes between Taliban and Shiites since 2004 when the US-led invasion of Afghanistan forced Taliban and Al-Qaeda militants to flee across the border. Climate[edit] Parachinar has a moderate humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with much higher rainfall than most areas of Pakistan. Although the city’s southeasterly aspect relative to the valley in which it is situated allows it to receive on occasions significant monsoonal rainfall, the most frequent source of rain is western depressions and related thunderstorms. During the winter, snowfall is common, and frosts occur on most mornings. Snow closes the Peiwar Pass, located on the Paktia border just over 20 km west of Parachinar, for up to five months per year. [hide]Climate data for Parachinar MonthJanFebMarAprMay

View Blog:

Ziarat

Ziarat Ziarat (Urdu: زیارت‎) the capital of Ziarat District, Balochistan Province, Pakistan. It is a holiday resort, is about 130 km from the capital city of Balochistan province Quetta. The famous Quaid-e-Azam Residency is also there in the valley, where our Quaid spent few of his most memorable days. Tourists from all over Balochistan and also from Sindh province vists the valley in the harsh summers. It's overall cold weather, fascinating sceneries, lush green forests and mighty mountains attracts tourists of all kinds. Months from May to September are months experience peak tourists visit. Specially in the days of Eid festive and other national or religional the valley is full packed. The 2016's Eid experienced about 0.4 million peoples visited. The hill station is easily accessible from Quetta through a Highway. While accessing it from Loralai is little difficult due to bad road conditions. The third way of accessing the valley is through Harnai District although it is pretty dangerous near Dumiara waterfall. 4X4 Road to Dumiara waterfall The main road of the station is Jinnah road which also called the red zone of the valley due to a large numbers of government and askari resorts and buildings there, few of which are, Frontier Corps Resthouse Governor House IG Police House Panther Lodge (Army) Juniper Lodge (Army) Quaid-e-Azam Residency Commissioner House CM Balochistan House Jinnah road near Governor House   Contents   [hide]  1Ziarat Juniper Forest 2Tourist areas 3Hotels 4Tribes 5Shrines 6Climate 7Earthquake 8See also 9References   Ziarat Juniper Forest[edit] Near Ziarat is a juniper forest also called sanober, which features the species Juniperus excelsa polycarpos.[1] Juniper trees at Baba Khrwari Hayatullah Khan Durrani and Mohammad Abubakar Durrani "Juniper Defenders" in snow Camp Ziarat Pakistan’s largest juniper forest is located in this reserve. The ecosystem is of inestimable value for biodiversity conservation. It is also of great ecological significance, providing local, regional, and global benefits. Washed green juniper forests in a rainy day alongside of Jinnah Road The biosphere reserve is home to the largest area of juniper forest (Juniperus excelsa) in Pakistan, covering about 110,000 hectares. It is believed that the forest is the second largest of its kind in the world.[2] The juniper species found there are of global significance because of their advanced age and slow growth rate. In fact, the junipers of Ziarat are among the oldest living trees in the world. Although no dendrological study has yet been conducted, according to one estimate, the age of a mature tree in Ziarat can exceed 5,000 years. Local people refer to the trees as "living fossils". Their remarkable longevity allows research on past weather conditions in the region, making the species of particular significance for studies on climate change and ecology. Juniper trees in the parking area of the Quaid-e-Azam Residence on a cloudy day The juniper forest ecosystem of Ziarat provides a habitat for endangered wildlife species and supports a rich variety of plant species. Because of the ecosystem's biodiversity, various parts of it have been designated protected areas, including wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves. The mountain ranges, including the Khilafat Hills, consist of a core habitat that reportedly

View Blog:

Torkham by M.Yaseen Khan

Torkham  Torkham (Pashto: تورخم Tūrkham‎) is one of the major International border crossings between Pakistan and Afghanistan, located on the Torkham international border. It connects Nangarhar province of Afghanistan with Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is the busiest port of entry between the two countries, serving as a major transporting, shipping, and receiving site.[1][2] Highway 7 connects Torkham to Kabul through Jalalabad.[3] On the Pakistani side, the border crossing is at the end of the N-5 National Highway, which connects it to Peshawar in the east and further connects it to Islamabad by other routes. The Afghan Border Police and Pakistan's Frontier Corps are the main agencies for controlling Torkham. They are backed by the Pakistani and Afghan Armed Forces. There is also some presence of NATO forces on the Afghan side of the crossing, mainly personnel of the U.S. Armed Forces. The American Forward Operating Base Torkham (FOB Torkham) is located a few miles from the crossing in Nangarhar province. Torkham belongs to the Momand Dara district of Nangarhar. Torkham Torkham border crossing in September 2011 Kabul, Peshawar, and some cities in Nangarhar Coordinates: 34°6′53″N 71°5′5″EE Countries  Pakistan  Afghanistan Elevation 2,579 ft (78       Contents   [hide]  1History 2Climate

View Blog:

Cane Furniture Industry in Pakistan

Cane Furniture Industry in Pakistan Cane furniture has totally changed the idea of bulky and ponderous wooden furniture. Cane is a stuff that is derived from bamboo core. It is a lot more stylish, simple and comfortable than the traditional brown or black wood stuff. It’s more durable and earth friendly. Housewives today prefer cane furniture because they can easily change its location as they love to modify room’s appearance once in a while. There are many dealers who are manufacturing cane furniture in Pakistan and worldwide. The Cane furniture tradition was firstly invented and adopted in east. It has taken a start from small decorative things like wall panels and corner racks. Then cane furniture came into existence and beautifully taken the place of traditional bulky wooden furniture. Now it is becoming popular in west because it is quite durable and easy to manage. Cane is a stuff that comes from bamboo core or wicker. For household items cane gives the best alternate of wood and a stylish modern look to your home décor. Furthermore window blinds, center tables, baskets and bird cages made of cane are also very popular. Cane stuff is also affordable and convenient for those who have to shift their place in short whiles because taking iron or wood items with them is really difficult. Another good thing about cane furniture is that it is absolutely easy to polish and color. You can easily manage to polish and clean this furniture at your own home. There are many cleaning items and polishes available at those stores which deal in cane stuff. In Pakistan this industry is increasing day by day. People are changing their wooden stuff into this durable stylish furniture. There are many companies who are dealing nationally and internationally in cane furniture industry. One of the largest cane furniture industries is ‘Alamgir Cane Furniture’ company Karachi. They are one of the best dealers of cane designing and manufacturing. It was established in 1988. Since the time it was formed, they are dealing in this industry nationally and internationally and getting good response from customers. The furniture they manufacture is really dependable for variety and durability. Another dealer of Lahore is ‘Kids Line Cane Furniture’. They not only deal with kid’s furniture but the complete home furniture stuff like beds, sofa sets, tables, racks, baskets and even more. Every company has its own price specifications but as this industry is increasing day by day in Pakistan, you can get it at reasonable prices. Faisalabad is also famous for cane furniture manufacturing and you can get good furniture from ‘BAHIR’. It’s the name of manufacturing company which especially deals with outdoor furniture made of cane and other material. As it is mentioned before that cane material is earth friendly, people mostly prefer cane furniture for their gardens and Patios. It looks beautiful and remains durable with atmospheric change. You can also search for cane furniture dealers of Pakistan at Alibaba.com, here is the link. They offer you the online order placing facility and complete information about dealers GALLERY    

View Blog:

Agricultural machinery

Agricultural machinery Agricultural machinery is machinery used in farming or other agriculture. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that they tow or operate. Diverse arrays of equipment are used in both organic and nonorganic farming. Especially since the advent of mechanised agriculture, agricultural machinery is an indispensable part of how the world is fed.   Contents   [hide]  1History of agricultural machinery 1.1The Industrial Revolution 1.2Steam power 1.3Internal combustion engines 2Types 3New technology and the future 3.1Open Source Agricultural Equipment 4See also 5Notable Manufacturers 6References 7External links   History of agricultural machinery The Industrial Revolution With the coming of the Industrial Revolution and the development of more complicated machines, farming methods took a great leap forward.[1]Instead of harvesting grain by hand with a sharp blade, wheeled machines cut a continuous swath. Instead of threshing the grain by beating it with sticks, 

View Blog:

Orbit of the Moon

Orbit of the Moon The Moon orbits Earth in the prograde direction and completes one revolution relative to the stars in approximately 27.323 days (a sidereal month). Earth and the Moon orbit about their barycentre (common center of mass), which lies about 4,600 km (2,900 mi) from Earth's center (about 3/4 of the radius of Earth). On average, the Moon is at a distance of about 385,000 km (239,000 mi) from Earth's centre, which corresponds to about 60 Earth radii. With a mean orbital velocity of 1.022 km/s (2,290 mph),[8] the Moon appears to move relative to the stars each hour by an amount roughly equal to its angular diameter, or by about half a degree. The Moon differs from most satellites of other planets in that its orbit is close to the plane of the ecliptic, and not to Earth's equatorial plane. The plane of the lunar orbit is inclined to the ecliptic by about 5°, whereas the Moon's equatorial plane is inclined by only 1.5° to the ecliptic.  Properties The properties of the orbit described in this section are approximations. The Moon's orbit around Earth has many irregularities (perturbations), whose study (lunar theory) has a long history.[9] Comparison of the Moon's apparent size at lunar perigee–apogee Elliptic shape The orbit of the Moon is distinctly elliptical, with an average eccentricity of 0.0549. The non-circular form of the lunar orbit causes variations in the Moon's angular speed and apparent size as it moves towards and away from an observer on Earth. The mean angular movement relative to an imaginary observer at the barycentre is 13.176° per day to the east (Julian day 2000. Elongation The Moon's elongation is its angular distance east of the Sun at any time. At new moon, it is zero and the Moon is said to be in conjunction. At full moon, the elongation is 180° and it is said to be in opposition. In both cases, the Moon is in syzygy, that is, the Sun, Moon and Earth are nearly aligned. When elongation is either 90° or 270°, the Moon is said to be in quadrature. Rotation Apsidal precession—the Moon's orbit rotates once every 8.85 years. Orbital inclination—the Moon's orbit is inclined by 5.14° to the ecliptic.

View Blog:

Aswan Low Dam

Aswan Low Dam The Aswan Low Dam or Old Aswan Dam is a gravity masonry buttress dam on the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. The dam was built at the former first cataract of the Nile, and is located about 1000 km up-river and 690 km (direct distance) south-southeast of Cairo. When initially constructed between 1899 and 1902, nothing of its scale had ever been attempted; on completion, it was the largest masonry dam in the world. The dam was designed to provide storage of annual floodwater and augment dry season flows to support greater irrigation development[1] and population growth in the lower Nile. The dam, originally limited in height by conservation concerns, worked as designed, but provided inadequate storage capacity for planned development and was raised twice, between 1907–1912 and again 1929–1933. These heightenings still did not meet irrigation demands and in 1946 it was nearly over-topped in an effort to maximize pool elevation. This led to the investigation and construction of the Aswan High Dam 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) upstream.[2] Background The earliest recorded attempt to build a dam near Aswan was in the 11th century, when the Arab polymath and engineer Ibn al-Haytham (known as Alhazen in the West) was summoned to Egypt by the Fatimid Caliph, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, to regulate the flooding of the Nile, a task requiring an early attempt at an Aswan Dam.[3] After his field work convinced

View Blog:

Great Wall of China by M.Yaseen Khan

Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC;[2] these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are now collectively referred to as the Great Wall.[3] Especially famous is the wall built 220–206 BC by Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. Little of that wall remains. Since then, the Great Wall has been rebuilt, maintained, and enhanced; the majority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). Other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor. The Great Wall stretches from Dandong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi).[4] This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers.[4] Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measure out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi).[5] Names The collection of fortifications now known as "The Great Wall of China" has historically had a number of different names in both Chinese and English. In Chinese histories, the term "Long Wall(s)" (長城, changcheng) appears in Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, where it referred to both the separate great walls built between and north of the Warring States and to the more unified construction of the First Emperor.[6] The Chinese character 城 is a phono-semantic compound of the "place" or "earth" radical 土 and 成, whose Old Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as *deŋ.[7] It originally referred to the rampart which surrounded traditional Chinese cities and was used by extension for these walls around their respective states; today, however, it is much more often simply the Chinese word for "city".[8] The longer Chinese name "Ten-Thousand-Mile Long Wall" (萬里長城, Wanli Changcheng) came from Sima Qian's description of it in the Records, though he did not name the walls as such. The ad 493 Book of Song quotes the frontier general Tan Daoji referring to "the long wall of 10,000 miles", closer to the modern name, but the name rarely features in pre-modern times otherwise.[9] The traditional Chinese mile (里, lǐ) was an often irregular distance that was intended to show the length of a standard village and varied with terrain but was usually standardized at distances around a third of an English mile (540 m).[10] Since China's metrication in 1930, it has been exactly equivalent to 500 metres or 1,600 feet,[11] which would make the wall's name describe a distance of 5,000 km (3,100 mi). However, this use of "ten-thousand" (wàn) is figurative in a similar manner to the Greek and English myriad and simply means "innumerable" or "immeasurable".[12] Because of the wall's association with the First Emperor's supposed tyranny, the Chinese dynasties after Qin usually avoided referring to their own additions to the wall by the name "Long Wall".[13] Instead, various terms were used in medieval records, including "frontier(s)" (塞, sāi),[14] "rampart(s)" (垣, yuán),[14] "barrier(s)" (障, zhàng),[14] "the outer fortresses" (外堡,wàibǎo),[15] and "the border wall(s)" (t 邊牆, s 边墙, biānqiáng).[13] Poetic and informal names for the wall included "the Purple Frontier" (紫塞, Zǐsāi)[16] and "the Earth Dragon" (t 土龍, s 土龙,Tǔlóng).[17] Only during the Qing period did "Long Wall" become the catch-all term to refer to the many border walls regardless of their location or dynastic origin, equivalent to the English "Great Wall".[18] The current English name evolved from accounts of "the Chinese wall" from early modern European travelers.[18] By the 19th century,[18] "The Great Wall of China" had become standard in English, French, and German, although other European languages continued to refer to it as "the Chinese wall".[12] History Early walls The Great Wall of the Qin

View Blog:

Dal Lake

  Dal Lake Dal is a lake in Srinagar (Dal Lake is a misnomer as Dal in Kashmiri means lake), the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. The urban lake, which is the second largest in the state, is integral to tourism and recreation in Kashmir and is named the "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir"[1] or "Srinagar's Jewel".[2] The lake is also an important source for commercial operations in fishing and water plant harvesting.[3][4][5] The shore line of the lake, is about 15.5 kilometres (9.6 mi), is encompassed by a boulevard lined with Mughal era gardens, parks, houseboats and hotels. Scenic views of the lake can be witnessed from the shore line Mughal gardens, such as Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir[6] and from houseboats cruising along the lake in the colourful shikaras.[7] During the winter season, the temperature sometimes reaches −11 °C (12 °F), freezing the lake.[5][8] The lake covers an area of 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi) and is part of a natural wetland which covers 21.1 square kilometres (8.1 sq mi), including its floating gardens. The floating gardens, known as "Rad" in Kashmiri, blossom with lotus flowers during July and August. The wetland is divided by causeways into four basins; Gagribal, Lokut Dal, Bod Dal and Nagin (although Nagin is also considered as an independent lake). Lokut-dal and Bod-dal each have an island in the centre, known as Rup Lank (or Char Chinari) and Sona Lank respectively.[8][9] At present, the Dal and its Mughal gardens, Shalimar Bagh and the Nishat Bagh on its periphery are undergoing intensive restoration measures to fully address the serious eutrophication problems experienced by the lake. Massive investments of approximately US$275 million (₹ 11 billion) are being made by the Government of India to restore the lake to its original splendour Topography A sunset view The lake is located within a catchment area covering 316 square kilometres (122 sq mi) in the Zabarwan mountain valley, in the foothills of the Shankracharya hills, which surrounds it on three sides. The lake, which lies to the east and north of Srinagar city covers an area of 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi), although including the floating gardens of lotus blooms, it is 21.2 square kilometres (8.2 sq mi) (an estimated figure of 22–24 square kilometres (8.5–9.3 sq mi) is also mentioned).[4][5][22] The main basin draining the lake is a complex of five interconnected basins with causeways; the Nehru Park basin, the Nishat basin, the Hazratbal basin, the Nagin basin and the Barari Nambad basin. Navigational channels provide the transportation links to all the five basins.[4][5][22] The average elevation of the lake is 1,583 metres (5,194 ft). The depth of water varies from 6 metres (20 ft) at its deepest in Nagin lake to 2.5 metres (8.2 ft), the shallowest at Gagribal. The depth ratio between the maximum and minimum depths varies with the season between 0.29 and 0.25, which is interpreted as flat bed slope.[4][5][23] The length of the lake is 7.44 kilometres (4.62 mi) with a width of 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi).[4][5][23] The lake has e basin hava shore length of 15.5 kilometres (9.6 mi) and roads run all along the periphery. Irreversible changes through urbanThe lake is located within a catchment area covering 316 square kilometres (122 sq mi) in the Zabarwan mountain vaplaced further restrictions on the flow of the lake and as a result, marshy lands have emerged on the peripheral zones, notably in the foothill areas of the Shankaracharya and Zaharbwan hills. These marshy lands have since been reclaimed and converted into large residential complexes. Geology Multiple theories explaining the origin of this lake have been formulated. One version is that it is the remnants of a post-glacial lake, which has undergone drastic changes in size over the years and the other theory is that it is of fluvial origin from an old flood spill channel or ox-bows of the Jhelum River.[7][23] The dendritic drainage pattern of the catchment signifies that its rock strata have low levels of porosity. Lithologically, a variety of rock types have been discerned namely, igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. The Dachigam Telbal Nallah system is conjectured to follow two major lineaments. Discontinuous surfaces seen in the terrain are attributed to the angular and parallel drainage pattern. The water table cuts the hill slopes, which is evidenced by the occurrence of numerous springs in the valley. Seismic activity in the valley is recorded under Zone V of the Seismic Zoning Map of India, the most severe zone where frequent damaging earthquakes of intensity IX could be expected. In the year 2005, Kashmir valley experienced one of the severe earthquakes measured at 7.6 on the Richter's scale, which resulted in deaths and the destruction of many properties, leaving many homeless.[11][24] Hrology Dal The shallow, open-drainage lake is fed by Dachigam-Telbal Nallah (with perennial flow), Dara Nallah ('Nallah' means "stream") and many other small streams. The lake is classified as 'warm monomictic' under the sub-tropical lake category. Spring sources also contribute to the flow, although no specific data is available to quantify their contribution. To address this, water balance studies to analyse and assess the characteristics of flow have been conducted in order to approximate the discharge contributed by the springs in the lake bed. The complex land use pattern of the valley is reflected in the urbanised Srinagar in its north, with rice fields, orchards and gardens in the lower slopes, and barren hills beyond steep sloping hills. The flat topography also affects drainage conditions. It receives an average annual rainfall of 655 millimetres (25.8 in) in the catchment, but during the summer, snow melt from the higher ranges of the catchment results in large inflows into the lake.[4][5][25] The maximum flood discharge of Telbal Nallah has been assessed as 141.5 metres3/s for a one in hundred return period; the 1973 observed flood in Telbal Nallah has been estimated as 113 metres3/s.[26] The average annual flow, according to discharge measurements, has been estimated as 291.9 million cubic metres, with Telbal Nalah accounting for 80% of the total and 20% contributed by other sources. The silt load has been estimated at 80,000 tonnes per year with 70% contribution from the Telabal nallah, with 36,000 tonnes recorded as settling in the lake.[25]

View Blog:

Kalam, Swat by M.Yaseen Khan

Kalam, Swat Kalam (Kalami/Pashto: کالام ‎) is a cool heaven for tourists which is located at distance of 99 km from Mingora in the northern upper reaches of Swat valley along the bank of Swat River in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Kalam Swat valley Kalam Boyun Kalam Swat valley Kalam is surrounded by lush green hills, thick forests and bestowed with mesmeric lakes, meadows and waterfalls which are worth seen features of the landscape. It is the birthplace of Swat river which forms with confluence of two major tributaries of Gabral river & Ushu river. It is a spacious sub-valley of Swat, at an elevation of about 2,000 meters (6,600 feet) above sea level, and providing rooms for a small but fertile plateau above the river for farming.[1]Here, the metalled road ends and shingle road leads to the Usho and Utror valleys. From Matiltan some snow-capped mountains are visible including Mount Falaksar 5,918 meters (19,416 feet), and another unnamed peak 6,096 meters (20,000 feet) high.[2] There are a lot of grand hotels in Kalam, where one can stay for night and enjoy the cool breeze of Swat river.[3] Climate

View Blog:

Mahodand Lake

Mahodand Lake Mahodand Lake (Pashto: د ماهو ډنډ‎ - "Lake of Fishes") is a lake located in the upper Usho Valley at a distance of about 40 km from Kalam, Swat District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The lake is accessible by a four-wheel drive vehicle, and is often utilized for fishing and boating Geography[edit] The Mahodand Lake lies at the foothills of Hindu kush mountains at an elevation of (9,603  ft), surrounded by the meadows, mountains and dense 

View Blog:

Neelam Valley

Neelam Valley Neelum Valley (also spelled Neelam Valley) (Urdu: وادیِ نیلم ‎) is a 144 km long bow-shaped thick forested region in Azad Jammu and Kashmir in Pakistan Administered Kashmir. It is named after the Neelum river, which flows through the length of the valley.[1] The valley is situated in the north-east of Muzaffarabad, running parallel to Kaghan Valley. The two valleys are only separated by snow-covered peaks, some over 4,000 meters (13,000 ft) above sea level. Neelum Valley وادیِ نیلم Valley View of Arang Kel, a village situated in Neelum valley. Neelum Valley Coordinates: 34.5891°N 73.9106°ECoordinates: 34.5891°N 73.9106°E Country  Pakistan Region  Azad Kashmir District Azad Kashmir District Elevation 1,615 m (5,299 ft) Time zone PST (UTC+5)

View Blog:

Ayub National Park Rawalpindi Attractions for Kids

23 reasons we love Pakistan   Pakistan Zindabad! 445  IMAGES STAFF UPDATED MAR 23, 2017 03:40PM C ricket matches and national holidays — these are two occasions when we see Pakistanis go all out in expressing their patriotic fervour. Here are 23 reasons why we love Pakistan. 1) PSL We actually did bring cricket home! Pakistani spectators at the final of the Pakistan Super League (PSL) at The Gaddafi Cricket Stadium in Lahore on March 5, 2017 — Aamir Qureshi/AFP 2) The Edhi Foundation Edhi Foundation has held the Guinness World Record for running the largest ambulance service in the world. And that's just one arm of its philanthropic works. The late Abdul Sattar Edhi waving as he journeys to his office in Karachi — AFP 3) Stuffed parathas! Nutella naan, FTW! We're not sure if we invented stuffed parathas but we love them like we did. These hot toasted flatbreads are best had when they are fresh out of the tandoor — Mahhah Qayyum Also read: Want a 'special' paratha? Maantu Gul Kitchen serves fare from Hunza with a

View Blog:

Great wall of sindh Ranikot Pakistan

Great wall of sindh Ranikot Pakistan   Ranikot Fort (Sindhi: رني ڪوٽ‎, Urdu: قلعہ رانی کوٹ‎) is a historical fort near Sann, Jamshoro District, Sindh, Pakistan.[1] Ranikot Fort is also known as The Great Wall of Sindh سنڌ جي عظيم ديوار and is believed to be among one of the world's largest forts[2] with a circumference of approximately 26 kilometres (16 mi). Kumbhalgarh Fort, a World Heritage Site as part of the Hill Forts of Rajasthan, with over 38 km long wall has the second longest wall in the world after the Great Wall of China. The fort has been compared to the Great Wall of China.[3] Since 1993, nominated by the Pakistan National Commission for UNESCO, Ministry of Education under the cultural criteria, it has been on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[4] The fort is listed as a historical site under the Antiquities Act, 1975 and its subsequent amendments and is provided protection.[5] Contents   1Location 2History 3Features 4Restoration 5Gallery 6See also 7References 8Bibliography 9Further reading Location   Ranikot Fort is 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the north of Hyderabad on the national highway.[3] There is also an easy access of about an hour's journey from Karachi to

View Blog:

Heer Ranjha by M.Yaseen Khan

Heer Ranjha   Heer Ranjha (Punjabi: ਹੀਰ ਰਾਂਝਾ, ہیر رانجھا, hīr rānjhā) is one of several popular tragic romances of Punjab. The others are Mirza Sahiba and Sohni Mahiwal. There are several poetic narrations of the story, the most famous being 'Heer' by Waris Shah written in 1766. It tells the story of the love of Heer and her lover Ranjha.[1] Heer Ranjha's Grave in Jhang Contents   1History 2Example from the epic poem 3Summary of the love story 4In films and TV shows 5In music 6See also 7References 8External links History  Heer Ranjha's tombstone Heer Ranjha was written by Waris Shah. Some historians say that the story was the original work of Shah, written after he had fallen in love with a girl named Bhag Bhari.[2] Others say that Heer and Ranjha were real personalities who lived under the Lodi dynasty and that Waris Shah later utilised these personalities for his story. Shah states that the story has a deeper meaning, referring to the unrelenting quest that man has towards God.[3] Example from the epic poem The invocation at the beginning,[4] in one version goes thus (The Legends of the Panjab by RC Temple, Rupa and Company, Volume two, page 606) Rag Hir Ranjha: Awal-akhir naam Allah da lena, duja dos Muhammad Miran Tija naun maat pita da lena, unha da chunga dudh sariran Chautha naun unn paani da lena, jis khaave man banhe

View Blog:

Shandur Polo Festival by M.Yaseen Khan

Shandur Polo Festival Shandur Polo Festival (Urdu: شندور میلہ) is one of the big festivals in Pakistan. This festival is held from 7th to 9 July every year on Shandur Top of Ghizer district, Gilgit Baltistan. The polo which is played between the polo teams of Gilgit-Baltistan and Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is experienced as a free-style polo match.   Historical Background   It is said that in 1935, UK Administrator for Northern Areas E. H. Cobb ordered Niat Qabool Hayat Kakakhel to make a well-constructed polo ground in Shandur. He constructed a polo ground with the help of the people of Koh-i-Ghizer. This polo ground was later on named as "Mas Junali". The word "Mass Junali" is derived from Khowar language. The word "Mas" means moon and "Junali" means polo ground. Cobb was impressed by Kakakhail's resourcefulness and efficiency and wished to reward him for his service, but Kakakhail refused to accept any reward for his work. Instead, for the common benefit, Kakakhail asked Cobb to bring trout to stock the local streams. Cobb ordered live trout from England and dropped them into the River Ghizer. Due to this little service, Directorate of Fisheries had been established and hundreds of people got employed. Now the weight of those fishes in Hundarap Lake cross 24 kg and in Baha Lake Khukush Nallah, their weight crossed 40 kg.[1] Shandoor Lake By Rakaposhi So Mas Junali became a source of relation between the people of Gilgit-Baltistan and Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Now Shandur Polo Festival opens a door step to the people of the world to enjoy their selves. Many of the people from entire world come here to watch polo match played between Chitral and Ghizer Polo at the Peak  Passion for Polo will be the highest on the world’s highest Polo ground. Every year, Shandur invites visitors to experience a traditional polo tournament between the teams of Chitral and Gilgit from 7 to 9 July. The festival also includes Folk music, Folk dance, traditional sports and a Camping Villages

View Blog:

Siachen Glacier

Siachen Glacier The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर) is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains at about 35.421226°N 77.109540°E, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.[2][3] At 76 km (47 mi) long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world's non-polar areas.[4] It falls from an altitude of 5,753 m (18,875 ft) above sea level at its head at Indira Col on the China border down to 3,620 m (11,875 ft) at its terminus. The entire Siachen Glacier, with all major passes, is currently under the administration of India since 1984.[5][6][7][8] Pakistan controls the region west of Saltoro Ridge with Pakistani posts located 3,000 ft below 100 Indian posts on Saltoro Ridge. The Siachen Glacier lies immediately south of the great drainage divide that separates the Eurasian Plate from the Indian subcontinent in the extensively glaciated portion of the Karakoram sometimes called the "Third Pole". The glacier lies between the Saltoro Ridge immediately to the west and the main Karakoram range to the east. The Saltoro Ridge originates in the north from the Sia Kangri peak on the China border in the Karakoram range. The crest of the Saltoro Ridge's altitudes range from 5,450 to 7,720 m (17,880 to 25,330 feet). The major passes on this ridge are, from north to south, Sia La at 5,589 m (18,336 ft), Bilafond La at 5,450 m (17,880 ft), and Gyong La at 5,689 m (18,665 ft). The average winter snowfall is more than 1000 cm (35 ft) and temperatures can dip to −50 °C (−58 °F). Including all tributary glaciers, the Siachen Glacier system covers about 700 km2 (270 sq mi). Etymolog UN map of Siachin AGPL shown with yellow-coloured dotted line "Sia" in the Balti language refers to the rose family plant widely dispersed in the region. "Chun" refers to any object found in abundance. Thus the name Siachen refers to a land with an abundance of roses. The naming of the glacier itself, or at least its currency, is attributed to Tom Longstaff. Dispute Both India and Pakistan claim sovereignty over the entire Siachen region.[2] US and Pakistani maps in the 1970s and 1980s consistently showed a dotted line from NJ9842 (the northernmost demarcated point of the India-Pakistan cease-fire line, also known as the Line of Control) to the Karakoram Pass, which India believed to be a cartographic error and in violation of the Shimla Agreement. In 1984, India launched Operation Meghdoot, a military operation that gave India control over all of the Siachen Glacier, including its tributaries.[2][9] Between 1984 and 1999, frequent skirmishes took place between India and Pakistan.[10][11] Indian troops under Operation Meghdoot pre-empted Pakistan's Operation Ababeel by just one day to occupy most of the dominating heights on Saltoro Ridge to the west of Siachen Glacier.[12][13] However, more soldiers have died from the harsh weather conditions in the region than from combat.[14] Pakistan lost 353 soldiers in various operations recorded between 2003 and 2010 near Siachen, including 140 Pakistani personnel killed in 2012 Gayari Sector avalanche.[15][16] Between January 2012 and July 2015, 33 Indian soldiers lost their lives due to adverse weather.[17] In December 2015, Indian Union Minister of State for Defence Rao Inderjit Singh said in a written reply in the Lok Sabha that a total of 869 Army personnel have lost their lives on the Siachen glacier due to climatic conditions and environmental and other factors till date since the Army launched Operation Meghdoot in 1984.[18] Both India and Pakistan continue to deploy thousands of troops in the vicinity of Siachen and attempts to demilitarise the region have been so far unsuccessful. Prior to 1984, neither country had any military forces in this area.[19]

View Blog:

Lake Saiful Muluk by M.Yaseen Khan

Lake Saiful Muluk Saiful Muluk (Urdu: جھیل سیف الملوک‎) is a mountainous lake located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran.[1] It is in the north east of Mansehra District in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan and feeds water to Kunhar river. At an elevation of 3,224 m (10,578 feet) above sea level, it is well above the

View Blog:

Mariana Trench by M.Yaseen Khan

View Blog:

Dump truck Body

Dump truck Body A dump truck (or, UK, dumper/tipper truck) is a truck used for transporting loose material (such as sand, gravel, or demolition waste) for construction. A typical dump truck is equipped with an open-box bed, which is hinged at the rear and equipped with hydraulic pistons to lift the front, allowing the material in the bed to be deposited ("dumped") on the ground behind the truck at the site of delivery. In the UK, Australia and India the term applies to off-road construction plant only, and the road vehicle is known as a tipper, tipper lorry (UK, India) or tip truck (AU). History The Graff & Hipple Wagon Dumper, ca. 1884, showing an early lever-based dumping mechanism The dump truck is thought to have been first conceived in the farms of late 19th century western Europe. Thornycroft developed a steam dust-cart in 1896 with a tipper mechanism.[1] The first motorized dump trucks in the United States were developed by small equipment companies such as The Fruehauf Trailer Corporation, Galion Buggy Co. and Lauth-Juergens among many others around 1910.[2] Hydraulic dump beds were introduced by Wood Hoist Co. shortly after. Such companies flourished during World War I due to massive wartime demand. August Fruehauf had obtained military contracts for his semi-trailer, invented in 1914 and later created the partner vehicle, the semi-truck for use in World War I. After the war, Fruehauf introduced hydraulics in his trailers. They offered hydraulic lift gates, hydraulic winches and a dump trailer for sales in the early 1920s. Fruehauf became the premier supplier of dump trailers and their famed "bathtub dump" was considered to be the best by heavy haulers, road and mining construction firms.[3][4][5] Companies like Galion Buggy Co. continued to grow after the war by manufacturing a number of express bodies and some smaller dump bodies that could be easily installed on either stock or converted (heavy-duty suspension and drivetrain) Model T chassis prior to 1920. Galion and Wood Mfg. Co. built all of the dump bodies offered by Ford on their heavy-duty AA and BB chassis during the 1930s.[6][7] Galion (now Galion Godwin Truck Body Co.) is the oldest known truck body manufacturer still in operation today. The first known Canadian dump truck was developed in Saint John, New Brunswick when Robert T. Mawhinney attached a dump box to a flat bed truck in 1920. The lifting device was a winch attached to a cable that fed over sheave (pulley) mounted on a mast behind the cab. The cable was connected to the lower front end of the wooden dump box which was attached by a pivot at the back of the truck frame. The operator turned a crank to raise and lower the box. The first dump bed apparatus on a wheeled vehicle patented in Canada [8][9] Types Today, virtually all dump trucks operate by hydraulics and they come in a variety of configurations each designed to accomplish a specific task in the construction material supply chain. Standard dump truck An Ashok Leyland Comet dump truck, an example of a very basic 4 x 2 dump truck used for payloads of 10 metric tons (11.0 short tons; 9.8 long tons) or less US 4-axle with lift axle EU 4-axle with 2 steering axles A standard dump truck is a truck chassis with a dump body mounted to the frame. The bed is raised by a vertical hydraulic ram mounted under the front of the body, or a horizontal hydraulic ram and lever arrangement between the frame rails, and the back of the bed is hinged at the back of the truck. The tailgate can be configured to swing up on top hinges (and sometimes also to fold down on lower hinges)[10] or it can be configured in the "High Lift Tailgate" format wherein pneumatic rams lift the gate open and up above the dump body. In the United States most standard dump trucks have one front steering axle and one (4x2[a] 4-wheeler)) or two (6x4 6-wheeler) rear axles which typically have dual wheels on each side. Tandem rear axles are almost always powered,[b] front steering axles are also sometimes powered (4x4, 6x6). Unpowered axles are sometimes used to support extra weight.[c] Most unpowered rear axles can be raised off the ground to minimize wear when the truck is empty or lightly loaded, and are commonly called “lift axles”.[11][12] European Union heavy trucks often have two steering axles. Dump truck configurations are 2, 3 and 4 axles. The 4-axle eight wheeler has two steering axles at the front and two powered axles at the rear[13] and is limited to 32 metric tons (35 short tons; 31 long tons) gross weight in most EU countries.[14] The largest of the standard European dump trucks is commonly called a "centipede" and has seven axles. The front axle is the steering axle, the rear two axles are powered, and the remaining four are lift axles.[15] The shorter

View Blog:

Harvester (forestry)

Harvester (forestry) A harvester is a type of heavy forestry vehicle employed in cut-to-length logging operations for felling, delimbing and bucking trees. A forest harvester is typically employed together with a forwarder that hauls the logs to a roadside landing. History Forest harvesters were mainly developed in Sweden and Finland and today do practically all of the commercial felling in these countries. The first fully mobile timber "harvester", the PIKA model 75, was introduced in 1973[1] by Finnish systems engineer Sakari Pinomäki and his company PIKA Forest Machines. The first single grip harvester head was introduced in the early 1980s by Swedish company SP Maskiner. Their use has become widespread throughout the rest of Northern Europe, particularly in the harvesting of plantation forests. Before modern harvesters were developed in Finland and Sweden, two inventors from Texas developed a crude tracked unit that sheared off trees at the base up to 30 inches in diameter was developed in the US called The Mammoth Tree Shears. After shearing off the tree, the operator could use his controls to cause the tree to fall either to the right or left. Unlike a harvester, it did not delimb the tree after felling it.[2] Uses Harvesters are employed effectively in level to moderately steep terrain for clearcutting areas of forest. For very steep hills or for removing individual trees, humans working with chain saws are still preferred in some countries. In northern Europe small and manoeuvrable harvesters are used for thinning operations, manual felling is typically only used in extreme conditions, where tree size exceeds the capacity of the harvester head or by small woodlot owners. The principle aimed for in mechanised logging is "no feet on the forest floor", and the harvester and forwarder allow this to be achieved. Keeping humans inside the driving cab of the machine provides a safer and more comfortable working environment for industrial scale logging. Harvesters are built on a robust all terrain vehicle, either wheeled, tracked or on Walking Excavator. The vehicle may be articulated to provide tight turning capability around obstacles. A diesel engine provides power for both the vehicle and the harvesting mechanism through hydraulic drive. An extensible, articulated boom, similar to that on an excavator, reaches out from the vehicle to carry the harvester head. Some harvesters are adaptations of excavators with a new harvester head, while others are purpose-built vehicles. "Combi" machines are available which combine the felling capability of a harvester with the load-carrying capability of a forwarder, allowing a single operator and machine to fell, process and transport trees. These novel type of vehicles are only competitive in operations with short distances to the landing. Felling head Harvester head Harvester head, chainsaw visible A typical harvester head consists of (from bottom to top, with head in vertical position) a chain saw to cut the tree at its base, and also cut it to length. The saw is hydraulically powered, rather than using the 2-stroke engine of a portable version. It has a more robust chain, and a higher power output than any saw that can be carried by a human. two or more curved delimbing knives

View Blog:

Agricultural machinery by M.Yaseen Khan

Agricultural machinery Agricultural machinery is machinery used in farming or other agriculture. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that they tow or operate. Diverse arrays of equipment are used in both organic and nonorganic farming. Especially since the advent of mechanised agriculture, agricultural machinery is an indispensable part of how the world is fed. Contents 1 History of agricultural machinery 1.1 The Industrial Revolution 1.2 Steam power 1.3 Internal combustion engines 2 Types 3 New technology and the future 3.1 Open Source Agricultural Equipment 4 See also 5 Notable Manufacturers 6 References 7 External links History of agricultural machinery The Industrial Revolution With the coming of the Industrial Revolution and the development of more complicated machines, farming methods took a great leap forward.[1] Instead of harvesting grain by hand with a sharp blade, wheeled machines cut a continuous swath. Instead of threshing the grain by beating it with sticks, threshing machines separated the seeds from the heads and stalks. The first tractors appeared in the late 19th century. [2] Steam power Power for agricultural machinery was originally supplied by ox or other domesticated animals. With the invention of steam power came the

View Blog:

Tomb of Jahangir by M.Yaseen Khan

Tomb of Jahangir The Tomb of Jahangir (Urdu: مقبرہُ جہانگیر‎, Punjabi: جہانگير دا مقبرہ) is a mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir. The mausoleum dates from 1637, and is located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, along the banks of the Ravi River.[1] While the tomb's exterior is restrained, the site is famous for its interiors that are extensively embellished with frescoes and marble. The tomb, along with the adjacent Akbari Sarai and the Tomb of Asif Khan, are part of an ensemble currently on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage status Background The tomb was built for the Emperor Jahangir, who ruled the Mughal Empire from 1605 to 1627 C.E.. His tomb is located at Shahdara, Lahore.[3] The region was a "favourite spot" of Jahangir and his wife Nur Jahan, when they lived in this city.[3] When Jahangir died in 1627 in Kashmir, he was initially buried in Nur Jahan's pleasure garden near Lahore, the Dilkusha Garden.[4] His son, the new Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, ordered that a "mausoleum befitting an Emperor" should be built in his father's honour to inter his remains.[3] History Façade of Jahangir's Tomb in 1880. Exterior view of the tomb from the surrounding gardens The tomb took ten years to build the tomb, and cost Rs 10 lakh.[5] Construction started in 1627, requiring ten years for completion.[3] Though contemporary historians attribute construction of the tomb to Jahangir's son Shah Jahan, the tomb may have been the result of Nur Jahan's vision.[5] Taking inspiration from her father's burial place, she is said to have designed the mausoleum in 1627,[5] and possibly helped fund it.[3] The tomb grounds were desecrated under Sikh rule when they were pillaged in the army of Ranjit Singh.[6] The pillaged grounds were then converted for use as a private residence for an officer in the army of Ranjit Singh, Señor Oms, who was also known as Musa Sahib.[7] Ranjit Singh further desecrated the mausoleum once more when he ordered that Musa Sahib be buried on the tomb's grounds after dying from cholera in 1828.[7] By 1880, a rumour had begun circulating which alleged that the tomb once was topped by a dome or second storey that was stolen by Ranjit Singh's army.[8] The tomb was then repaired by the British between 1889-1890.[9] Architecture

View Blog:

OLD Walled City of Lahore

OLD Walled City of Lahore The Walled City of Lahore, also known as the "Old City", or "Androon Shehr" (Urdu: اندرون شہر‎), (Literal meaning 'Interior City') is the section of Lahore, Punjab, in Pakistan, that was fortified by a city wall during the Mughal era. It is located in the northwestern part of the city. Origins See also: Origins of Lahore The Alamgiri Gate and Hazuri Bagh 1870 The origins of the original Lahore are unspecific. According to carbon dating evidence of archaeological findings in the Lahore Fort, the time period may start as early as 2,000 BCE. Lahore had many names throughout its history. Mohallah Maulian represents one of the two most probable sites of the original Lahore. Sootar Mandi (the yarn market) inside Lahori Gate, had been called Mohallah Chaileywala Hammam located in Machli Hatta Gulzar, just off Chowk Chalka. As late as 1864, the Lahori Mandi area had been known among the old folk of the Walled City as kacha kot, the mud fort, a name derived from the gradient of the land, the water flow, and the formation of mohallahs, kuchas, and kattrahs. The curve of Koocha Pir Bola merges with Waachowali Bazaar, the Lahori Bazaar merges with Chowk Lahori Mandi, and Chowk Mati merges with Papar Mandi, giving a sense of a mud fort. Along Lahori Bazaar, a short distance from Chowk Chakla, the street opens slightly, revealing a half-buried archway of pucca bricks and mud. The mud fort may have been built by Malik Ayaz, the first Muslim governor of Lahore. Lahori Gate served as the main entrance to Ayaz's mud fort. Chowk Sootar Mandi constituted one important center of Kacha Kot. The lay of the streets also suggest the boundaries. At the time of Mughal Emperor Akbar, the original wall of the Walled City of Lahore stood, on the western side, to the right of Bazaar Hakeeman in Bhati Gate. On the eastern side to the left of Shahalam Gate, curved eastwards and formed a "kidney-shaped" city that depended on the flow of the curving River Ravi. Thus the Lahore of the kacha kot era has continued to expand in three major leaps of expansion, each with an almost 400-year gap. The eras of Raja Jaipal of Akbar and of Maharaja Ranjit Singh mark the high points of that expansion. The expanding of the mud fort had its origins in three factors: the way the Ravi has flown and how and when it has been changing its course, the existence of the Lahore Fort and how power has flowed from the rulers, and the manner the population and economy of the old original Walled City has changed over time, grown, or even shrunk, depending of invasions, droughts and famines in the countryside. The story of kacha kot has been determined by those factors. The oldest buildings in the entire Walled City exist in this area, among them the old exquisite mosque known even now as Masjid Kohana Hammam Chaileywala. A huge hammam may have stood during the kacha kot period. The tomb of Pir Bola (Gali) still exists. Little remains of the original mud fort. Demographics See also: Demographics of Lahore The Walled City of Lahore covers an area of 256 ha with a population of 200,000. The city walls were destroyed shortly after the British annexed the Punjab in 1849 and were replaced with gardens, some of which exist today. The Circular Road links the old city to the urban network. Access to the Walled City is still gained through the 13 ancient gates, or their emplacements. The convoluted and picturesque streets of the inner city remain almost intact, but the rapid demolition and frequently illegal rebuilding taking place throughout the city is causing the historic fabric to be eroded and replaced by inferior constructions. Historic buildings are no exception, and some have been encroached upon. The few old houses in the city are usually two or three stories tall, with brick façades, flat roofs, richly carved wooden balconies and overhanging windows. Gates of Lahore Walled City of Lahore had 13 gates: Akbari Gate, Bhati Gate, Delhi Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Lahori Gate, Masti Gate, Mochi Gate, Mori Gate, Roshnai Gate, Shahalmi Gate, Shairanwala Gate, Taxali Gate, and Yakki Gate. All of these gates survived until the 19th century. In an effort to defortify the city, the British demolished almost all of the gates except Roshnai Gate. This was done in the aftermath of 1857 Uprising, after the Siege of Delhi, during which the same treatment was meted to the Walled City of Delhi, the Mughal Capital (5 of the 13 Gates of Old Delhi survive today, while the rest including Lahori Gate (not the Lahori Gate of Red Fort) were demolished by the British). Some were rebuilt in simple structures, except for Delhi Gate and Lahori Gate. Shahalmi Gate burnt to ground during the riots of 1947 while Akbari Gate was demolished for repairs but never built again. Today, out of 13, only Bhati Gate, Delhi Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Lahori Gate, Roshnai Gate, and Shairanwala Gate survive, yet many are in urgent need of repairs and restoration. Surviving gates Name Picture Description

View Blog:

Dominion of Ceylon

Dominion of Ceylon Between 1948 and 1972, Ceylon[1][2] was an independent country in the Commonwealth of Nations that shared a monarch with Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and certain other sovereign states for other years between 1948 and 1972. In 1948, the British Colony of Ceylon was granted independence as Ceylon. In 1972, the country became a republic within the Commonwealth, and its name was changed to Sri Lanka. It is an island country in South Asia, located about 31 kilometres (19.3 mi) off the southern coast of India. The country was a centre of the Buddhist religion and culture from ancient times as well as having a strong Hindu presence.[3] During World War II, Ceylon served as an important base for the Allied forces in the fight against the Japanese Empir History Independence and growth Following World War II, public pressure for independence increased. The British Colony of Ceylon achieved independence on 4 February 1948, with an amended constitution taking effect on the same date. Independence was granted under the Ceylon Independence Act 1947. Military treaties with the United Kingdom preserved intact British air and sea bases in the country; British officers also continued to fill most of the upper ranks of the Army. Don Senanayake became the first Prime Minister of Ceylon. Later in 1948, when Ceylon applied for United Nations membership, the Soviet Union vetoed the application. This was partly because the Soviet Union believed that the Ceylon was only nominally independent, and the British still exercised control over it because the white, educated elite had control of the government.[5] In 1949, with the concurrence of the leaders of the Sri Lankan Tamils, the UNP government disenfranchised the Indian Tamil plantation workers.[6][7] In 1950, Ceylon became one of the original members of the Colombo Plan, and remains a member as Sri Lanka. Don Senanayake died in 1952 after a stroke and he was succeeded by his son Dudley. However, in 1953 – following a massive general strike or 'Hartal' by the leftist parties against the UNP – Dudley Senanayake resigned. He was followed by John Kotelawala, a senior politician and an uncle of Dudley. Kotelawala did not have the personal prestige or the political acumen of D. S. Senanayake.[8] He brought to the fore the issue of national languages that D. S. Senanayake had suspended. The Queen of Ceylon, Elizabeth II, toured the island in 1954 from 10–21 April. (She also visited in 1981 (21–25 October) after the country became a republic.[9]) In 1956 the UNP was defeated at elections by the Mahajana Eksath Peramuna, which included the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) led by Solomon Bandaranaike and the Viplavakari Lanka Sama Samaja Party of Philip Gunawardena. Bandaranaike was a politician who had fostered the Sinhala nationalist lobby since the 1930s. He replaced English with Sinhalese as the official language. He was the chief Sinhalese spokesmen who attempted to counter the communal politics unleashed by G. G. Ponnambalam.[6] The bill was known as the Sinhala Only Bill, and also made Sinhalese the language taught in schools and universities. This caused Tamil riots, as they spoke the Tamil language and it had not been recognised as an official language. These riots culminated in the assassination of the prime minister, Bandaranaike. His widow, Sirimavo, succeeded her husband as leader of the SLFP and was elected as the world's first female prime minister. In 1957 British bases were removed and Sri Lanka officially became a "non-aligned" country. The Paddy Lands Act, the brainchild of Philip Gunawardena, was passed, giving those working the land greater rights vis-a-vis absentee landlords.[10] Reform Elections in July saw Sirimavo Bandaranaike become the world's first elected female head of government. Her government avoided further confrontations with the Tamils, but the anti-communist policies of the United States Government led to a cut-off of United States aid and a growing economic crisis. After an attempted coup d'état by mainly non-Buddhist right-wing army and police officers intent on bringing the UNP back to power, Bandaranaike nationalised the oil companies. This led to a boycott of the country by the oil cartels, which was broken with aid from the Kansas Oil Producers Co-operative. In 1962, under the SLFP's radical policies, many Western business assets were nationalised. This caused disputes with the United States and the United Kingdom over compensation for seized assets. Such policies led to a temporary decline in SLFP power, and the UNP gained seats in Congress. However, by 1970, the SLFP were once again the dominant power.[11] In 1964 Bandaranaike formed a coalition government with the LSSP, a Trotskyist party with Dr N.M. Perera as Minister of Finance. Nonetheless, after Sirimavo failed to satisfy the far-left, the Marxist People's Liberation Front attempted to overthrow the government in 1971. The rebellion was put down with the help of British, Soviet, and 

View Blog:

Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast Ivory Coast (i/ˌaɪvəri ˈkoʊst/) or Côte d'Ivoire (/ˌkoʊt dᵻˈvwɑːr/;[7] koht dee-vwahr; French: [kot divwaʁ] ( listen)), officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire[8][9] (French: République de Côte d'Ivoire), is a country located in West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro, and its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. Its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Burkina Faso and Mali in the north, and Ghana in the east. The Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) is located south of Ivory Coast. Prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Two Anyi kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi, attempted to retain their separate identity through the French colonial period and after independence.[10] Ivory Coast became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and was later formed into a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. The country maintained close political and economic association with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boigny's rule in 1993, Ivory Coast has experienced one coup d'état, in 1999, and two religion-grounded civil wars. The first took place between 2002 and 2007[11] and the second during 2010-2011. As a result, in 2000, the country adopted a new Constitution.[12] Ivory Coast is a republic with a strong executive power invested in its President. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Changing into the 21st-century Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant.[1] The official language is French, with local indigenous languages also widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin, and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. Popular religions include Islam, Christianity (primarily Roman Catholicism), and various indigenous religions. Independence Félix Houphouët-Boigny in the White House Entrance Hall with President John F. Kennedy in 1962 Félix Houphouët-Boigny,the son of a Baoulé chief, became Ivory Coast's father of independence. In 1944, he formed the country's first agricultural trade union for African cocoa farmers like himself. Angered that colonial policy favoured French plantation owners, they united to recruit migrant workers for their own farms. Houphouët-Boigny soon rose to prominence and within a year was elected to the French Parliament in Paris. A year later, the French abolished forced labour. Houphouët-Boigny established a strong relationship with the French government, expressing a belief that the Ivory Coast would benefit from the relationship, which it did for many years. France appointed him as a minister, the first African to become a minister in a European government. A turning point in relations with France was reached with the 1956 Overseas Reform Act (Loi Cadre), which transferred a number of powers from Paris to elected territorial governments in French West Africa and also removed the remaining voting inequalities. In 1958, Ivory Coast became an autonomous member of the French Community, which had replaced the French Union. At the time of Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the country was easily French West Africa's most prosperous, contributing over 40% of the region's total exports. When Houphouët-Boigny became the first president, his government gave farmers good prices for their products to further stimulate production. This was further boosted by a significant immigration of workers from surrounding countries. Coffee production increased significantly, catapulting Ivory Coast into third place in world output (behind Brazil and Colombia). By 1979, the country was the world's leading producer of cocoa.

View Blog:

Eurotunnel

  Jasminum sambac Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine) is a species of jasmine native to a small region in the eastern Himalayas in Bhutan and neighbouring India and Pakistan. It is cultivated in many places, especially across much of South and Southeast Asia. It is naturalised in many scattered locales: Mauritius, Madagascar, the Maldives, Cambodia, Java, Christmas Island, Chiapas, Central America, southern Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the Lesser Antilles.[3][4][5] Jasminum sambac is a small shrub or vine growing up to 0.5 to 3 m (1.6 to 9.8 ft) in height. It is widely cultivated for its attractive and sweetly fragrant flowers. The flowers may be used as a fragrant ingredient in perfumes and jasmine tea. It is known as the Arabian jasmine in English. It is the national flower of the Philippines, where it is known as sampaguita, as well as being one of the three national flowers of Indonesia, where it is known as melati putih. Taxonomy and nomenclature Despite the English common name of "Arabian jasmine", Jasminum sambac is not originally native to Arabia. The habits of Jasminum sambac support a native habitat of humid tropical climates and not the arid climates of the Middle East. Early Chinese records of the plant points to the origin of Jasminum sambac as eastern South Asia and Southeast Asia. Jasminum sambac (and nine other species of the genus) were spread into Arabia and Persia by man, where they were cultivated in gardens. From there, they were introduced to Europe where they were grown as ornamentals and were known under the common name "sambac" in the 18th century.[8][9] Medieval Arabic "zanbaq" meant jasmine flower-oil from the flowers of any species of jasmine. This word entered late medieval Latin as "sambacus" and "zambacca" with the same meaning as the Arabic, and then in post-medieval Latin plant taxonomy the word was adopted as a label for the J. sambac species.[10]The J. sambac species is a good source for jasmine flower-oil in terms of the quality of the fragrance and it continues to be cultivated for this purpose for the perfume industry today. The Jasminum officinale species is also cultivated for the same purpose, and probably to a greater extent. In 1753, Carl Linnaeus first described the plant as Nyctanthes sambac in the first edition of his famous book Systema Naturae. In 1789, William Aiton reclassified the plant to the genus Jasminum. He also coined the common English name of "Arabian jasmine",[11] cementing the misconception that it was Arabian in origin.[8] Other common names of Jasminum sambac include:[12] Arabic - Full (فل), and in Iraq "Razqi" (رازقي) Bengali - Bel/Beli (বেলীফুল) Catalan - Xamelera Cebuano - Manol Chamorro - Sampagita Chinese - Mo Li Hua (茉莉花) English - Arabian jasmine, Tuscan jasmine, Sambac jasmine Greek - Fouli (Φούλι) Gujarati - Mogro Hawaiian - Pikake Hindi and Marathi - Moghrā (मोगरा) Indonesian - Melati Putih Japanese - Matsurika (茉莉花, まつりか)

View Blog:

Ozone layer by M Yaseen Khan

Ozone layer The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It contains high concentrations of ozone (O3) in relation to other parts of the atmosphere, although still small in relation to other gases in the stratosphere. The ozone layer contains less than 10 parts per million of ozone, while the average ozone concentration in Earth's atmosphere as a whole is about 0.3 parts per million. The ozone layer is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere, from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth, although its thickness varies seasonally and geographically.[1] The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson. Measurements of the sun showed that the radiation sent out from its surface and reaching the ground on Earth is usually consistent with the spectrum of a black body with a temperature in the range of 5,500–6,000 K (5,227 to 5,727 °C), except that there was no radiation below a wavelength of about 310 nm at the ultraviolet end of the spectrum. It was deduced that the missing radiation was being absorbed by something in the atmosphere. Eventually the spectrum of the missing radiation was matched to only one known chemical, ozone.[2] Its properties were explored in detail by the British meteorologist G. M. B. Dobson, who developed a simple spectrophotometer (the Dobsonmeter) that could be used to measure stratospheric ozone from the ground. Between 1928 and 1958, Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations, which continue to operate to this day. The "Dobson unit", a convenient measure of the amount of ozone overhead, is named in his honor. The ozone layer absorbs 97 to 99 percent of the Sun's medium-frequency ultraviolet light (from about 200 nm to 315 nm wavelength), which otherwise would potentially damage exposed life forms near the surface.[3] The United Nations General Assembly has designated September 16 as the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer. Venus also has a thin ozone layer at an altitude of 100 kilometers from the planet's surface.[ Sources The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were discovered by the British physicist Sydney Chapman in 1930. Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere is created by ultraviolet light striking ordinary oxygen molecules containing two oxygen atoms (O2), splitting them into individual oxygen atoms (atomic oxygen); the atomic oxygen then combines with unbroken O2 to create ozone, O3. The ozone molecule is unstable (although, in the stratosphere, long-lived) and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of O2 and an individual atom of oxygen, a continuing process called the ozone-oxygen cycle. Chemically, this can be described as: O2 + ℎνuv → 2OO + O2 ↔ O3 About 90 percent of the ozone in the atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. Ozone concentrations are greatest between about 20 and 40 kilometres (66,000 and 131,000 ft), where they range from about 2 to 8 parts per million. If all of the ozone were compressed to the pressure of the air at sea level, it would be only 3 millimetres (1⁄8 inch) thick.[5] Ultraviolet light UV-B energy levels at several altitudes. Blue line shows DNA sensitivity. Red line shows surface energy level with 10 percent decrease in ozone Levels of ozone at various altitudes and blocking of different bands of ultraviolet radiation. Essentially all UVC (100–280 nm) is blocked by dioxygen (from 100–200 nm) or else by ozone (200–280 nm) in the atmosphere. The shorter portion of the UV-C band and the more energetic UV above this band causes the formation of the ozone layer, when single oxygen atoms produced by UV photolysis of dioxygen

View Blog:

Bermuda Triangle by M.Yaseen Khan

Bermuda Triangle The Bermuda Triangle, also known as the Devil's Triangle, is a loosely-defined region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean, where a number of aircraft and ships are said to have disappeared under mysterious circumstances. Most reputable sources dismiss the idea that there is any mystery. The vicinity of the Bermuda Triangle is one of the most heavily traveled shipping lanes in the world, with ships frequently crossing through it for ports in the Americas, Europe, and the Caribbean islands. Cruise ships and pleasure craft regularly sail through the region, and commercial and private aircraft routinely fly over it. Popular culture has attributed various disappearances to the paranormal or activity by extraterrestrial beings. Documented evidence indicates that a significant percentage of the incidents were spurious, inaccurately reported, or embellished by later authors. Triangle area In 1964, Vincent Gaddis wrote in the pulp magazine Argosy of the boundaries of the Bermuda Triangle:[1] three vertices, in Miami, Florida peninsula, in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and in the mid-Atlantic island of Bermuda. Subsequent writers did not necessarily follow this definition.[2] Some writers gave different boundaries and vertices to the triangle, with the total area varying from 1,300,000 to 3,900,000 km2 (500,000 to 1,510,000 sq mi).[2] Consequently, the determination of which accidents occurred inside the triangle depends on which writer reported them.[2] The United States Board on Geographic Names does not recognize the Bermuda Triangle.[2] Origins The earliest suggestion of unusual disappearances in the Bermuda area appeared in a September 17, 1950 article published in The Miami Herald (Associated Press)[3] by Edward Van Winkle Jones.[4] Two years later, Fate magazine published "Sea Mystery at Our Back Door",[5][6] a short article by George X. Sand covering the loss of several planes and ships, including the loss of Flight 19, a group of five U.S. Navy Grumman TBM Avenger torpedo bombers on a training mission. Sand's article was the first to lay out the now-familiar triangular area where the losses took place. Flight 19 alone would be covered again in the April 1962 issue of American Legion magazine.[7] In it, author Allan W. Eckert wrote that the flight leader had been heard saying, "We are entering white water, nothing seems right. We don't know where we are, the water is green, no white." He also wrote that officials at the Navy board of inquiry stated that the planes "flew off to Mars."[8] Sand's article was the first to suggest a supernatural element to the Flight 19 incident. In the February 1964 issue of Argosy, Vincent Gaddis' article "The Deadly Bermuda Triangle" argued that Flight 19 and other disappearances were part of a pattern of strange events in the region.[1] The next year, Gaddis expanded this article into a book, Invisible Horizons.[9] Others would follow with their own works, elaborating on Gaddis' ideas: John Wallace Spencer (Limbo of the Lost, 1969, repr. 1973);[10] Charles Berlitz (The Bermuda Triangle, 1974);[11] Richard Winer (The Devil's Triangle, 1974),[12] and many others, all keeping to some of the same supernatural elements outlined by Eckert.[13] Criticism of the concept Larry Kusche  Lawrence David Kusche, author of The Bermuda Triangle Mystery: Solved (1975)[14] argued that many claims of Gaddis and subsequent writers were often exaggerated, dubious or unverifiable. Kusche's research revealed a number of inaccuracies and inconsistencies between Berlitz's accounts and statements from eyewitnesses, participants, and others involved in the initial incidents. Kusche noted cases where pertinent information went unreported, such as the disappearance of round-the-world yachtsman Donald Crowhurst, which Berlitz had presented as a mystery, despite clear evidence to the contrary. Another example was the ore-carrier recounted by Berlitz as lost without trace three days out of an Atlantic port when it had been lost three days out of a port with the same name in the Pacific Ocean. Kusche also argued that a large percentage of the incidents that sparked allegations of the Triangle's mysterious influence actually occurred well outside it. Often his research was simple: he would review period newspapers of the dates of reported incidents and find reports on possibly relevant events like unusual weather, that were never mentioned in the disappearance stories. Kusche concluded that: The number of ships and aircraft reported missing in the area was not significantly greater, proportionally speaking, than in any other part of the ocean. In an area frequented by tropical cyclones, the number of disappearances that did occur were, for the most part, neither disproportionate, unlikely, nor mysterious. Furthermore, Berlitz and other writers would often fail to mention such storms or even represent the disappearance as having happened in calm conditions when meteorological records clearly contradict this. The numbers themselves had been exaggerated by sloppy research. A boat's disappearance, for example, would be reported, but its eventual (if belated) return to port may not have been. Some disappearances had, in fact, never happened. One plane crash was said to have taken place in 1937 off Daytona Beach, Florida, in front of hundreds of witnesses; a check of the local papers revealed nothing.[citation needed] The legend of the Bermuda Triangle is a manufactured mystery, perpetuated by writers who either purposely or unknowingly made use of misconceptions, faulty reasoning, and sensationalism.[14] In a 2013 study, the World Wide Fund for Nature identified the world’s 10 most dangerous waters for shipping, but the Bermuda Triangle was not among them.[15][16] Further responses When the UK Channel 4 television program The Bermuda Triangle (1992)[17] was being produced by John Simmons of Geofilms for the Equinox series, the marine insurance market Lloyd's of London was asked if an unusually large number of ships had sunk in the Bermuda Triangle area. Lloyd's determined that large numbers of ships had not sunk there.[18] Lloyd's does not charge higher rates for passing through this area. United States Coast Guard records confirm their conclusion. In fact, the number of supposed disappearances is relatively insignificant considering the number of ships and aircraft that pass through on a regular basis.[14] The Coast Guard is also officially skeptical of the Triangle, noting that they collect and publish, through their inquiries, much documentation contradicting many of the incidents written about by the Triangle authors. In one such incident involving the 1972 explosion and sinking of the tanker SS V. A. Fogg, the Coast Guard photographed the wreck and recovered several bodies,[19] in contrast with one Triangle author's claim that all the bodies had vanished, with the exception of the captain, who was found sitting in his cabin at his desk, clutching a coffee cup.[10] In addition, V. A. Fogg sank off the coast of Texas, nowhere near the commonly accepted boundaries of the Triangle. The NOVA/Horizon episode The Case of the Bermuda Triangle, aired on June 27, 1976, was highly critical, stating that "When we've gone back to the original sources or the people involved, the mystery evaporates. Science does not have to answer questions about the Triangle because those questions are not valid in the first place ... Ships and planes behave in the Triangle the same way they behave everywhere else in the world."[20] Skeptical researchers, such as Ernest Taves[21] and Barry Singer,[22] have noted how mysteries and the paranormal are very popular and profitable. This has led to the production of vast amounts of material on topics such as the Bermuda Triangle. They were able to show that some of the pro-paranormal material is often misleading or inaccurate, but its producers continue to market it. Accordingly, they have claimed that the market is biased in favor of books, TV specials, and other media that support the Triangle mystery, and against well-researched material if it espouses a skeptical viewpoint.

View Blog:

Mauritius by M.Yaseen Khan

Mauritius Flag of Mauritius          Coat of arms Mauritius (i/məˈrɪʃəs/; French: Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (French: République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) off the southeast coast of the African continent. The country includes the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues [560 kilometres (350 mi) east of Mauritius], and the outer islands (Agaléga, St. Brandon and two disputed territories). The islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues form part of the Mascarene Islands, along with nearby Réunion, a French overseas department. The area of the country is 2,040 km². The capital and largest city is Port Louis. Formerly a Dutch colony (1638–1710) and a French colony (1715–1810), Mauritius became a British colonial possession in 1810 and remained on until 1968, the year in which it attained independence. The government uses English as its main language. The sovereignty over the Chagos Archipelago is disputed between Mauritius and the United Kingdom (UK). The UK excised the archipelago from Mauritian territory in 1965, three years prior to Mauritian independence. The UK gradually depopulated the archipelago's indigenous population and leased its biggest island, Diego Garcia, to the United States. Access to the archipelago is prohibited to casual tourists, the media, and its former inhabitants. Mauritius also claims sovereignty over Tromelin Island from France. The people of Mauritius are multiethnic, multi-religious, multicultural and multilingual. The island's government is closely modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, and Mauritius is highly ranked for democracy and for economic and political freedom. Along with the other Mascarene Islands, Mauritius is known for its varied flora and fauna, with many species endemic to the island. The island is widely known as the only known home of the dodo, which, along with several other avian species, was made extinct by human activities relatively shortly after the island's settlement. Mauritius is the only country in Africa where Hinduism is the largest religion Etymology The first historical evidence of the existence of an island now known as Mauritius is on a map produced by the Italian cartographer Alberto Cantino in 1502.[18] From this, it appears that Mauritius was first named Dina Arobi around 975 by Arab sailors, the first people to visit the island. In 1507 Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island. The island appears with a Portuguese name Cirne on early Portuguese maps, probably from the name of a ship in the 1507 expedition. Another Portuguese sailor, Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, gave the name Mascarenes to the Archipelago. In 1598 a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island Mauritius, in honour of Prince Maurice van Nassau, stadholder of the Dutch Republic. Later the island became a French colony and was renamed Isle de France. On 3 December 1810 the French surrendered the island to Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius i/məˈ

View Blog:

International Court of Justice

International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice (French: Cour internationale de justice; commonly referred to as the World Court, ICJ or The Hague[2]) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations (UN). Seated in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, the court settles legal disputes submitted to it by states and provides advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized international branches, agencies, and the UN General Assembly. Activities Established in 1945 by the UN Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court.[3] The Court's workload covers a wide range of judicial activity. After the court ruled that the United States's covert war against Nicaragua was in violation of international law (Nicaragua v. United States), the United States withdrew from compulsory jurisdiction in 1986 to accept the court's jurisdiction only on a case-by-case basis.[4] Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter authorizes the UN Security Council to enforce Court rulings. However, such enforcement is subject to the veto power of the five permanent members of the Council, which the United States used in the Nicaragua case.[5] Composition Main article: Judges of the International Court of Justice Public hearing at the ICJ. The ICJ is composed of fifteen judges elected to nine-year terms by the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council from a list of people nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration. The election process is set out in Articles 4–19 of the ICJ statute. Elections are staggered, with five judges elected every three years to ensure continuity within the court. Should a judge die in office, the practice has generally been to elect a judge in a special election to complete the term. No two judges may be nationals of the same country. According to Article 9, the membership of the Court is supposed to represent the "main forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems of the world". Essentially, that has meant common law, civil law and socialist law (now post-communist law). There is an informal understanding that the seats will be distributed by geographic regions so that there are five seats for Western countries, three for African states (including one judge of francophone civil law, one of Anglophone common law and one Arab), two for Eastern European states, three for Asian states and two for Latin American and Caribbean states.[6] The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (France, Russia, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States) always have a judge on the Court, thereby occupying three of the Western seats, one of the Asian seats and one of the Eastern European seats. The exception was China, which did not have a judge on the Court from 1967 to 1985 because it did not put forward a candidate. Article 6 of the Statute provides that all judges should be "elected regardless of their nationality among persons of high moral character" who are either qualified for the highest judicial office in their home states or known as lawyers with sufficient competence in international law. Judicial independence is dealt with specifically in Articles 16–18. Judges of the ICJ are not able to hold any other post or act as counsel. In practice, Members of the Court have their own interpretation of these rules and allow them to be involved in outside arbitration and hold professional posts as long as there is no conflict of interest. A judge can be dismissed only by a unanimous vote of the other members of the Court.[7] Despite these provisions, the independence of ICJ judges has been questioned. For example, during the Nicaragua case, the United States issued a communiqué suggesting that it could not present sensitive material to the Court because of the presence of judges from Eastern bloc states.[8] Judges may deliver joint judgments or give their own separate opinions. Decisions and Advisory Opinions are by majority, and, in the event of an equal division, the President's vote becomes decisive, which occurred in the Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict (Opinion requested by WHO), [1996] ICJ Reports 66. Judges may also deliver separate dissenting opinions. Ad hoc judges Article 31 of the statute sets out a procedure whereby ad hoc judges sit on contentious cases before the Court. The system allows any party to a contentious case if it otherwise does not have one of that party's nationals sitting on the Court to select one additional person to sit as a judge on that case only. It is thus possible that as many as seventeen judges may sit on one case. The system may seem strange when compared with domestic court processes, but its purpose is to encourage states to submit cases. For example, if a state knows that it will have a judicial officer who can participate in deliberation and offer other judges local knowledge and an understanding of the state's perspective, it may be more willing to submit to the jurisdiction of the court. Although this system does not sit well with the judicial nature of the body, it is usually of little practical consequence. Ad hoc judges usually (but not always) vote in favor of the state that appointed them and thus cancel each other out.[9] Chambers Generally, the Court sits as full bench, but in the last fifteen years, it has on occasion sat as a chamber. Articles 26–29 of the statute allow the Court to form smaller chambers, usually 3 or 5 judges, to hear cases. Two types of chambers are contemplated by Article 26: firstly, chambers for special categories of cases, and second, the formation of ad hoc chambers to hear particular disputes. In 1993, a special chamber was established, under Article 26(1) of the ICJ statute, to deal specifically with environmental matters (although it has never been used). Ad hoc chambers are more frequently convened. For example, chambers were used to hear the Gulf of Maine Case (Canada/US).[10] In that case, the parties made clear they would withdraw the case unless the Court appointed judges to the chamber acceptable to the parties. Judgments of chambers may either less authority than full Court judgments or diminish the proper interpretation of universal international law informed by a variety of cultural and legal perspectives. On the other hand, the use of chambers might encourage greater recourse to the court and thus enhance international dispute resolution.[11] Current composition As of 9 February 2015, the composition of the Court is as follow Jurisdiction Main article: Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice   Parties upon becoming a UN member   Parties prior to joining the UN under Article 93   UN observer states that are not parties As stated in Article 93 of the UN Charter, all 193 UN members are automatically parties to the Court's statute.

View Blog:

K2 by M.Yaseen Khan

K2    Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori K2, also known as Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori (Balti: چھوغوری),[3] is the second highest mountain in the world, after Mount Everest, at 8,611 metres (28,251 ft) above sea level. It is located on the China-Pakistan border between Baltistan, in the Gilgit-Baltistan portion of Kashmir under the administration of Pakistan, and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China.[4] K2 is the highest point of the Karakoram range and the highest point in both Kashmir and Xinjiang. K2 is known as the Savage Mountain due to the extreme difficulty of ascent. It has the second-highest fatality rate among the eight thousanders. With around 300 successful summits and 77 fatalities, about one person dies on the mountain for every four who summit.[5] It is more difficult and hazardous to reach the peak of K2 from the Chinese side; thus, it is usually climbed from the Kashmiri side. Unlike Annapurna, the mountain with the highest fatality-to-summit rate (191 summits and 61 fatalities),[6] or the other eight thousanders, K2 has never been climbed during winter. Mount Godwin-Austen K2, summer 2006 Name Montgomerie's original sketch in which he applied the notation K2 The name K2 is derived from the notation used by the Great Trigonometric Survey of British India. Thomas Montgomerie made the first survey of the Karakoram from Mount Haramukh, some 210 km (130 miles) to the south, and sketched the two most prominent peaks, labeling them K1 and K2.[8] The policy of the Great Trigonometric Survey was to use local names for mountains wherever possible[9] and K1 was found to be known locally as Masherbrum. K2, however, appeared not to have acquired a local name, possibly due to its remoteness. The mountain is not visible from Askole, the last village to the south, or from the nearest habitation to the north, and is only fleetingly glimpsed from the end of the Baltoro Glacier, beyond which few local people would have ventured.[10] The name Chogori, derived from two Balti words, chhogo ("big") and ri ("mountain") (چھوغوری)[11] has been suggested as a local name,[12] but evidence for its widespread use is scant. It may have been a compound name invented by Western explorers[13] or simply a bemused reply to the question "What's that called?"[10] It does, however, form the basis for the name Qogir (simplified Chinese: 乔戈里峰; traditional Chinese: 喬戈里峰; pinyin: Qiáogēlǐ Fēng) by which Chinese authorities officially refer to the peak. Other local names have been suggested including Lamba Pahar ("Tall Mountain" in Urdu) and Dapsang, but are not widely used.[10] Lacking a local name, the name Mount Godwin-Austen was suggested, in honor of Henry Godwin-Austen, an early explorer of the area, and while the name was rejected by the Royal Geographical Society,[10] it was used on several maps, and continues to be used occasionally.[14][15] The surveyor's mark, K2, therefore continues to be the name by which the mountain is commonly known. It is now also used in the Balti language, rendered as Kechu or Ketu[13][16] (Urdu: کے ٹو‎). The Italian climber Fosco Maraini argued in his account of the ascent of Gasherbrum IV that while the name of K2 owes its origin to chance, its clipped, impersonal nature is highly appropriate for so remote and challenging a mountain. He concluded that it was: ... just the bare bones of a name, all rock and ice and storm and abyss. It makes no attempt to sound human. It is atoms and stars. It has the nakedness of the world before the first man – or of the cindered planet after the last.[17] Andre Weil named K3 surfaces in mathematics partly after the mountain K2. Geographical setting Play media Virtual flight around K2 K2 lies in the northwestern Karakoram Range. It is located in the Baltistan region of Gilgit–Baltistan, Kashmir, and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China.[a] The Tarim sedimentary basin borders the range on the north and the Lesser Himalayas on the south. Melt waters from vast glaciers, such as those south and east of K2, feed agriculture in the valleys and contribute significantly to the regional fresh-water supply. K2 is merely ranked 22nd by topographic prominence, a measure of a mountain's independent stature, because it is part of the same extended area of uplift (including the Karakoram, the Tibetan Plateau, and the Himalaya) as Mount Everest, in that it is possible to follow a path from K2 to Everest that goes no lower than 4,594 metres (15,072 ft), at Mustang Lo. Many other peaks that are far lower than K2 are more independent in this sense. It is, however, the most prominent peak within the Karakoram range.[2] K2 is notable for its local relief as well as its total height. It stands over 3,000 metres (9,840 ft) above much of the glacial valley bottoms at its base. It is a consistently steep pyramid, dropping quickly in almost all directions. The north side is the steepest: there it rises over 3,200 metres (10,500 ft) above the K2 (Qogir) Glacier in only 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) of horizontal distance. In most directions, it achieves over 2,800 metres (9,200 ft) of vertical relief in less than 4,000 metres (13,000 ft).[18] A 1986 expedition led by George Wallerstein[19] made an inaccurate measurement incorrectly showing that K2 was taller than Mount Everest, and therefore the tallest mountain in the world. A corrected measurement was made in 1987, but by that point the claim that K2 was the tallest mountain in the world had already made it into many news reports and reference works.[20] Geology The mountains of K2 and Broad Peak, and the area westward to the lower reaches of Sarpo Laggo glacier consist of metamorphic rocks, known as the K2 Gneiss and part of the Karakroam Metamorphic Complex.[21][22] The K2 Gneiss consists of a mixture of orthogneiss and biotite-rich paragneiss. On the south and southeast face of K2, the orthogneiss consists of a mixture of a strongly foliated plagioclase-hornblende gneiss and a biotite-hornblende-K-feldspar orthogneiss, which has been intruded by garnet-mica leucogranitic dikes. In places, the paragneisses include clinopyroxene-hornblende-bearing psammites, garnet (grossular)-

View Blog:

Pakistani tourist spots you must visit in 2016

16   Pakistani tourist spots you must visit in 2016   2015 is about to end and it is time to plan for year 2016. Whenever we think of Pakistan, all that comes to our mind is terrorism, extremism, sectarianism, corruption, load shedding and inflation but despite all these issues, we immensely love our country. Amidst all the chaos we have forgotten the beauty of our landscape. Pakistan is full of breathtaking locations which will make you fall in love with this country all over again. If you are a tourist or love travelling then you must compile a list of places you plan to visit next year. Dawn.com frequently publishes pictures of stunning tourist spots and historic places of Pakistan to highlight the positive image of the country and to generate awareness among the people. Here are 16 destinations from our list which you must visit in 2016. Your experience would be, indeed, unforgettable: 1. Naltar valley Naltar is famous for its colourful lakes, it is situated at a drive of 2.5 hours from Gilgit. World’s tastiest potatoes are cultivated here. Covered with pine trees, this valley doesn’t seem to be a part of this world. If you really want to experience paradise in this world, you should visit Naltar at least once. This place will make you fall in love with it.     2. Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir Opposite to the Keran sector of Indian-held Kashmir. From the Chella Bandi Bridge – just north of Azaad Kashmir’s capital Muzaffarabad – to Tau Butt, a valley stretches out for 240 kilometres; it is known as the Neelum Valley (literally, the Blue Gem Valley). Neelum is one of the most beautiful valleys of Azaad Kashmir, and it hosts several brooks, freshwater streams, forests, lush green mountains, and a river. Here, you see cataracts falling down the mountains; their milky-white waters flowing over the roads and splashing against the rocks, before commingling with the muddy waters of River Neelum. Pakistan's blue gem: Neelum Valley.     3. Shangrila resort, Skardu In the extreme north of Pakistan, Skardu the central valley of Gilgit-Baltistan, is an epitome of beauty, serenity and wilderness. After Jaglot on the Karakoram Highway, a narrow road turns towards Skardu. During the seven-hour journey, one is greeted with several streams, springs, and the hospitality of the local people. After crossing the old wooden bridge built over the River Indus, one reaches Shangrila, a paradise on earth for tourists. It is a famous tourist spot in Skardu, which is about 25 minutes away by drive. Restaurant in Shangrila rest house is highlight of this place, which is built in the structure of an aircraft. Skardu: An embodiment of nature's perfection     4. Gojal Valley The Gojal Valley borders China and Afghanistan, with its border meeting the Chinese border at Khunjerab — 15,397 feet above sea level — and remains covered with snow all year long. In the north west, there is Chiporsun, whose border touches the Wakhan region of Afghanistan. Wakhan is about six square miles in area, after which starts Tajikistan. The Karakoram Highway which connects Pakistan to China also passes through Gojal Valley and enters China at Khunjerab. Gojal: Where Pakistan begins

View Blog:

Trans-Siberian Railway

Trans-Siberian Railway The Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR, Russian: Транссиби́рская магистра́ль, tr. Transsibirskaya Magistral; IPA: [trənsʲsʲɪˈbʲirskəjə məgʲɪˈstralʲ]) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East.[1] With a length of 9,289 kilometres (5,772 miles), it is the longest railway line in the world. There are connecting branch lines into Mongolia, China and North Korea. It has connected Moscow with Vladivostok since 1916, and is still being expanded. It was built between 1891 and 1916 under the supervision of Russian government ministers personally appointed by Tsar Alexander III and his son, the Tsarevich Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II). Even before it had been completed, it attracted travellers who wrote of their adventures.[2] Russia has expressed its desire for Pakistan to participate in the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor, by linking the Trans-Siberian Railway with Gwadar Port.[3] Route description he railway is often associated with the main transcontinental Russian line that connects hundreds of large and small cities of the European and Asian parts of Russia. At a Moscow-Vladivostok track length of 9,289 kilometres (5,772 miles),[4] it spans a record eight time zones.[5] Taking eight days to complete the journey, it is the third-longest single continuous service in the world, after the Moscow–Pyongyang 10,267 kilometres (6,380 mi)[6] and the Kiev–Vladivostok 11,085 kilometres (6,888 mi)[7] services, both of which also follow the Trans-Siberian for much of their routes. The main route of the Trans-Siberian Railway begins in Moscow at Yaroslavsky Vokzal, runs through Yaroslavl, Chelyabinsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Ulan-Ude, Chita, and Khabarovsk to Vladivostok via southern Siberia. A second primary route is the Trans-Manchurian, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian east of Chita as far as Tarskaya (a stop 12 km (7 mi) east of Karymskoye, in Chita Oblast), about 1,000 km (621 mi) east of Lake Baikal. From Tarskaya the Trans-Manchurian heads southeast, via Harbin and Mudanjiang in China's Northeastern Provinces (from where a connection to Beijing is used by one of the Moscow–Beijing trains), joining with the main route in Ussuriysk just north of Vladivostok. This is the shortest and the oldest railway route to Vladivostok. While there are currently no traverse passenger services (enter China from one side and then exit China and return to Russia on the other side) on this branch, it is still used by several international passenger services between Russia and China.[citation needed] The third primary route is the Trans-Mongolian Railway, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian as far as Ulan-Ude on Lake Baikal's eastern shore. From Ulan-Ude the Trans-Mongolian heads south to Ulaan-Baatar before making its way southeast to Beijing. In 1991, a fourth route running further to the north was finally completed, after more than five decades of sporadic work. Known as the Baikal Amur Mainline (BAM), this recent extension departs from the Trans-Siberian line at Taishet several hundred miles west of Lake Baikal and passes the lake at its northernmost extremity. It crosses the Amur River at Komsomolsk-na-Amure (north of Khabarovsk), and reaches the Tatar Strait at Sovetskaya Gavan. On 13 October 2011, a train from Khasan made its inaugural run to Rajin, North Korea. History In the late 19th century, the development of Siberia was hampered by poor transport links within the region, as well as with the rest of the country. Aside from the Great Siberian Route, good roads suitable for wheeled transport were rare. For about five months of the year, rivers were the main means of transport. During the cold half of the year, cargo and passengers travelled by horse-drawn sledges over the winter roads, many of which were the same rivers, but ice-covered. The first steamboat on the River Ob, Nikita Myasnikov's Osnova, was launched in 1844. But early beginnings were difficult, and it was not until 1857 that steamboat shipping started developing on the Ob system in a serious way. Steamboats started operating on the Yenisei in 1863, and on the Lena and Amur in the 1870s. While the comparative flatness of Western Siberia was at least fairly well served by the gigantic Ob–Irtysh–Tobol–Chulym river system, the mighty rivers of Eastern Siberia - the Yenisei, the upper course of the Angara River (the Angara below Bratsk was not easily navigable because of the rapids), and the Lena - were mostly navigable only in the north-south direction. An attempt to partially remedy the situation by building the Ob-Yenisei Canal was not particularly successful. Only a railway could be a real solution to the region's transport problems. The first railway projects in Siberia emerged after the completion of the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Railway in 1851.[8] One of the first was the Irkutsk–Chita project, proposed by the American entrepreneur Perry Collins and supported by Transport Minister Constantine Possiet with a view toward connecting Moscow to the Amur River, and consequently, to the Pacific Ocean. Siberia's governor, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, was anxious to advance the colonisation of the Russian Far East, but his plans could not materialise as long as the colonists had to import grain and other food from China and Korea.[9] It was on Muravyov's initiative that surveys for a railway in the Khabarovsk region were conducted. Before 1880, the central government had virtually ignored these projects, because of the weakness of Siberian enterprises, a clumsy bureaucracy, and fear of financial risk. By 1880, there were a large number of rejected and upcoming applications for permission to construct railways to connect Siberia with the Pacific, but not Eastern Russia. This worried the government and made connecting Siberia with Central Russia a pressing concern. The design process lasted 10 years. Along with the route actually constructed, alternative projects were proposed: Southern route: via Kazakhstan, Barnaul, Abakan and Mongolia. Northern route: via Tyumen, Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yeniseysk and the modern Baikal Amur Mainline or even through Yakutsk. The line was divided into seven sections, on all or most of which work proceeded simultaneously, using the labour of 62,000 men. The total cost was estimated at £35 million sterling; the first section (Chelyabinsk to the River Ob) was finished at a cost £900,000 less than the estimate.[10] Railwaymen fought against suggestions to save funds, for example, by installing ferryboats instead of bridges over the rivers until traffic increased. The designers insisted and secured the decision to construct an uninterrupted railway.[citation needed] Unlike the rejected private projects that intended to connect the existing cities demanding transport, the Trans-Siberian did not have such a priority. Thus, to save money and avoid clashes with land owners, it was decided to lay the railway outside the existing cities. Tomsk was the largest city, and the most unfortunate, because the swampy banks of the Ob River near it were considered inappropriate for a bridge. The railway was laid 70 km (43 mi) to the south (instead crossing the Ob at Novonikolaevsk, later renamed Novosibirsk); just a dead-end branch line connected with Tomsk, depriving the city of the prospective transit railway traffic and trade.[citation needed] Construction In March 1890, the Tsarevich (later Tsar Nicholas II) personally inaugurated the construction of the Far East segment of the Trans-Siberian Railway during his stop at Vladivostok, after visiting Japan at the end of his journey around the world. Nicholas II made notes in his diary about his anticipation of travelling in the comfort of "the tsar's train" across the unspoiled wilderness of Siberia. The tsar's train was designed and built in St. Petersburg to serve as the main mobile office of the tsar and his staff for travelling across Russia.[citation needed] Clearing on the right-of-way of the Eastern Siberian Railway, 1895 Construction work being performed by convicts on the Eastern Siberian Railway near Khabarovsk, 1895 On 9 March 1891, the Russian government issued an imperial rescript in which it announced its intention to construct a railway across Siberia.[11] Tsarevich Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II) inaugurated the construction of the railway in Vladivostok on 19 May that year.[12] The construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway was overseen by Sergei Witte, who was then finance minister. Similar to the First Transcontinental Railroad in the US, Russian engineers started construction at both ends and worked towards the centre. From Vladivostok the railway was laid north along the right bank of the Ussuri River to Khabarovsk at the Amur River, becoming the Ussuri Railway.[citation needed] In 1890, a bridge across the Ural River was built and the new railway entered Asia. The bridge across the

View Blog:

Changa Manga

  Changa Manga The Changa Manga is a planted forest which includes a wildlife preserve, in the Kasur and Lahore districts of Punjab, Pakistan. It is located approximately 80 kilometers south-west of Lahore. It was once the largest man-made forest in the world but has undergone illegal deforestation at a massive scale in recent times.[1][2] Changa Manga is known more widely as "one of the oldest hand-planted forests in the world",[3] and hosts a wide variety of flora and fauna. The forest is home to 14 species of mammals, 50 species of birds, six species of reptiles, two species of amphibians and 27 species of insects.[4] Thus, other than producing timber for the local industry, the forest also serves as an important wildlife reserve. Named after two brother dacoits, the Changa Manga forest was originally planted in 1866 by British foresters. Its trees were harvested to gather fuel and resources for the engines employed in the North-Western railway networks Onomatology of name The name of the forest is derived from an amalgamation of the names of two brother dacoits (bandits), Changa and Manga. The dacoits were a constant source of terror for the "law-abiding citizens" of the districts in the 19th century as they would "hold up and plunder" any passing trader.[5] The robbers had a den in the "secret heart" of the forest where they sought shelter from the British peacekeepers.[5][6] The robbers were eventually captured by the police and became the inspiration for the name of the forest site.[7] Soon afterwards, Salvation Army opened up a camp at the forest site as a place for reformation of criminals.[5] Location The Changa Manga forest can be entered from a road off the N-5 Highway near Bhai Pheru and Chunian. At present, the forest covers an area of 48.6 square kilometres (12,000 acres).[8] It was once the largest man-made forest in the world but massive deforestation has reduced it to less than half its original size.[1] It is also known as "one of the oldest hand-planted forests in the world".[3] The forest plantation dates back to 1866 and was planned to fill the need for timber and fuel resources for the North-Western railway networks. The most common species of flora are Dalbergia sissoo (Sheesham) and Acacia nilotica (Kikar), both members of the Fabaceae and native to the Indian subcontinent. Morus alba (white mulberry) was also introduced to the plantation and became popular in cultivation throughout South Asia. The forest also has several species of Eucalyptus and Populus.[9] History Allocation of land Throughout the Punjab plains, the dry scrubs and thorn forests were slashed and burnt to make way for an irrigated plain on which to cultivate the forest plantations. In 1864, the North-Western Railway found itself starved of resources, vital in running services on its network. It was then that Dr John Lindsay Stewart, the first Conservator of Forests of Punjab, recommended the allocation of a block of land for each railway district where forest plantations should be cultivated to cater for such growing demands.[10] Such a block of land was allocated for the Kasur district at the Chunian tehsil on the Lahore-Karachi railway line. This land was allocated on the assumption that 4850 cubic feet per acre of mature crop on a 15-year rotation would adequately suffice the five trains running daily on these lines, consuming 80 pounds (36 kg) of fuel per train.[10] This particular area of land was a semi-desert scrub jungle with thorn forest land and a light alluvial soil that only required the introduction of water to yield crops. The land was mostly populated by the Gondhal and Sansi gypsies, whom British called “junglies” (a derogatory term meaning ‘jungle-dwelling barbarians’). The British replaced the population of the Gondhals and Sansis with an influx of cultivators from older cultivated lands and other provinces.[11] In preparation for cultivation, the land was slashed and burnt to rid the landscape of thorn forest and dry scrub growth. The unruly scrubs of the dry jungles were gradually turned into plains ready for irrigation. Initial plantation Within the premises of the allocated land, the German forester Berthold Ribbentrop

View Blog:

Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant by M.Yaseen Khan

Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant The Neelum–Jhelum Hydropower Plant is part of an under construction run-of-the-river hydroelectric power scheme designed to divert water from the Neelum River to a power station on the Jhelum River. The power station is located in Azad Kashmir, 22 km (14 mi) south of Muzaffarabad and will have an installed capacity of 968 MW. Construction on the project began in 2008 after a Chinese consortium was awarded the construction contract in July 2007. The first generator is scheduled to be commissioned in July 2017 and the entire project is expected to be complete in December 2017. Background  After being approved in 1989, the design was improved, increasing the tunnel length and generation capacity. The project was intended to begin in 2002 and be completed in 2008 but this time-frame experienced significant delays to rising costs and funding.[2] Additionally, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which devastated the region required a redesign of the project to conform to more stringent seismic standards.[3] On 7 July 2007, the Chinese consortium CGGC-CMEC (Gezhouba Group and China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation) were awarded the contract to construct the dam and power station. The construction contract was settled by the end of the year and in January 2008, the letter of commencement was issued. On 8 February, Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf announced that the project would begin.[4] In October 2011, the diversion tunnel intended to divert the Neelum River around the dam site was completed.[5] On 1 November, Pakistan's Prime Minister Syed Yusuf Raza Gilani publicly stated his concern for the project's delay. At its appraisal in 1989, it was to cost $167 million USD (2011) and after another redesign in 2005, that cost rose to $935 million USD (2011). Currently costs have risen to $2.89 billion USD (2011).[6] The project is being constructed under the supervision of the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and funding is being achieved through the Neelum Jhelum Hydropower Company, taxes, bond offerings, Middle Eastern and Chinese banks. WAPDA has successfully secured loans from a consortium of Chinese banks and from Middle East. Tunnel-boring machines (TBM) were brought to help speed up the excavation of the remaining tunnels. They became operational in February 2013.[7]In mid-2014 Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif visited the construction site in mid-2014 and hoped to have at least one generator operational by mid-2015. The project was 66 percent complete as of August 2013 while at the same time the diversion tunnel was 75 percent complete. US$475 million in funding was still not secured by the Economic Affairs Division at that time.[8] On 24 December 2014 a wall near the diversion tunnel's intake collapsed, killing four workers including a Chinese engineer.[9] On November 05, 2016, the project entered into terminal phase with 100 percent perfect design while achieving 85.5 percent progress and is heading towards completion despite all delays in release of funds, weather conditions, non-availability of power during early stage of construction and delays in land acquisition. 

View Blog:

Noah's Ark ( Kashti e Nooh)

Noah's Ark ( Kashti e Nooh) Noah's Ark (Hebrew: תיבת נח‎‎; Biblical Hebrew: Tevat Noaḥ) is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative (Genesis chapters 6–9) by which God spares Noah, his family, and a remnant of all the world's animals from the flood.[1][2] According to Genesis, God gave Noah instructions for building the ark. Seven days before the deluge, God told Noah to enter the ark with his household and the animals. The story goes on to describe the ark being afloat for 150 days and then coming to rest on the Mountains of Ararat and the subsequent receding of the waters.[3] The story is repeated, with variations, in the Quran, where the ark appears as Safina Nuh (Arabic: سفينة نوح‎‎ "Noah's boat"). The Genesis flood narrative is similar to numerous other flood myths from a variety of cultures. The earliest known written flood myth is the Sumerian flood myth found in the Epic of Ziusudra.[4] Searches for Noah's Ark have been made from at least the time of Eusebius (c.275–339 CE) to the present day. There is no scientific evidence for a global flood, and despite many expeditions, no evidence of the ark has been found.[5][6][7][8][9][10] The challenges associated with housing all living animal types, and even plants, would have made building the ark a practical impossibility Ark: Genesis 6–9[ The Hebrew word for the ark, teba, occurs twice in the Bible, in the flood narrative and in the Book of Exodus, where it refers to the basket in which Jochebed places the infant Moses. (The word for the ark of the covenant[12] is quite different.) In both cases teba has a connection with salvation from waters.[13]:21 Noah is warned of the coming flood and told to construct the ark. God spells out to Noah the dimensions of the vessel: 300 cubits in length, 50 cubits in width and 30 cubits in height (450 × 75 × 45 ft or 137 × 22.9 × 13.7 m).[14][15] It had three internal divisions (which are not actually called "decks", although presumably this is what is intended), a door in the side, and a tsohar, which may be either a roof or a skylight.[16] It is made of "gopher" wood, a word which does not appear elsewhere in the entire Bible, and is divided into qinnim, a word which always refers to birds' nests elsewhere, leading some scholars[who?] to emend this to qanim (reeds), the material used for the boat of Atrahasis, the Babylonian flood-hero. God instructs Noah to kapar (smear) the ark with koper (pitch): in Hebrew the first of these words is a verb formed from the second and, like "gopher", it is a word found nowhere else in the Bible. Noah is instructed to take on board his wife, his three sons, and his sons' wives. He is also to take two of every living thing, and seven pairs of every clean creature and of every bird, together with sufficient food. Theology: the ark as microcosm The story of the flood closely parallels the story of the creation: a cycle of creation, un-creation, and re-creation, in which the ark plays a pivotal role.[17] The universe as conceived by the ancient Hebrews comprised a flat disk-shaped habitable earth with the heavens above and Sheol, the underworld of the dead, below.[18] These three were surrounded by a watery "ocean" of chaos, protected by the firmament, a transparent but solid dome resting on the mountains which ringed the earth.[18] Noah's three-deck ark represents this three-level Hebrew cosmos in miniature: the heavens, the earth, and the waters beneath.[19] In Genesis 1, God created the three-level world as a space in the midst of the waters for humanity; in Genesis 6–8 (the flood story) he fills that space with waters again, saving only Noah, his family and the animals with him in the ark.[17] Origins Composition of the flood narrative There is a consensus among scholars that the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Bible, beginning with Genesis) was the product of a long and complex process that was not completed until after the Babylonian exile.[20] Comparative mythology: the Babylonian origins of Noah's ark For well over a century scholars have recognised that the Bible's story of Noah's ark is based on older Mesopotamian models.[21] Because all these flood stories deal with events that allegedly happened at the dawn of history, they give the impression that the myths themselves must come from very primitive origins. But in fact, the myth of the global flood that destroys all life only begins to appear in the Old Babylonian period (20th–16th centuries BCE).[22] The reasons for this emergence of the typical Mesopotamian flood myth may have been bound up with the specific circumstances of the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur around 2004 BCE and the restoration of order by the First Dynasty of Isin.[23] There are nine known versions of the Mesopotamian flood story; each more or less adapted from an earlier version. In the oldest version, the hero is King Ziusudra and this version was inscribed about 1600 BCE in the Sumerian city of Nippur. It is known as the Sumerian Flood Story, and probably derives from an earlier version. The Ziusudra version tells how he builds a boat and rescues life, when the gods decide to destroy it. This remains the basic plot for several subsequent flood-stories and heroes, including Noah. Ziusudra's Sumerian name means "He of long life". In Babylonian versions his name is Atrahasis, but the meaning is the same. In the Atrahasis version, the flood is a river flood. (lines 6–9 Atrahasis III,iv) Probably the most famous version is contained in a longer work called the Epic of Gilgamesh, now known only from a 1st millennium Assyrian copy in which the flood hero is named Utnapishtim, "He-found-life". (Gilgamesh is the hero of the complete epic, not the flood story hero). The last known version of the Mesopotamian flood story was written in Greek in the 3rd century BCE by a Babylonian priest named Berossus. From the fragments that survive, it seems little changed from the versions of two thousand years before.[24] The version closest to the Biblical story of Noah, and very probably the primary source for it, is that of Utnapishtim in the Epic of Gilgamesh.[25] The most complete text of Utnapishtim's story is a clay tablet dating from the 7th century BCE, but fragments have been found from as far back as the 19th century.[25] The parallels – both similarities and differences – between Noah's Ark and the boat of the Babylonian flood-hero Atrahasis have often been noted. Noah's ark is rectangular, while Atrahasis was instructed to build his in the form of a cube; Atrahasis's ark has seven decks with nine compartments on each level, while Noah's has three decks, but he is not given any instructions on the number of compartments to build.

View Blog:

5 Places Where Sun Never Sets

5 Places Where Sun Never Sets   A 24 hour to 20 hour daytime which varies per the proximity to the pole, for an extended time period, that essentially means that for weeks and months altogether it is bright and sunny! These places obviously have a specific geographical location, close to the poles of the earth. This phenomenon occurs because the Earth is tilted on its axis by approximately 23 degrees. At the poles, North Pole and South Pole, this means that the sun only rises and sets once each year. These phenomena are observed more near the North Pole, the Arctic Circle, owing to it having human settlements. And even though they also occur in southern regions near the Antarctic Circle, owing to it being an uninhabited continent, it is only ever experienced by scientist missions or the odd adventurer. The maximum timelines for this phenomenon are: At the South Pole, the sun rises on September 21 and does not set until March 22, the following year. At the North Pole, the sun rises on March 22 and sets on September 21, the same year. There are many countries with areas within or bordering the Arctic Circle to where you can plan your exotic holiday. Some of these areas include the northernmost parts of Canada, Greenland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Alaska and Iceland. Are you planning a vacation to the place/places where the sun never sets or to a land

View Blog:

Gulail (Slingshot)

Caning (furniture) In the context of furniture, caning is a method of weaving chair seats and other furniture either while building new chairs or in the process of cane chair repair. In common use, "cane" may refer to any plant with a long, thin stem. However, the cane used for furniture is derived from the rattan vine native to Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia.[1]:7 The vines typically grow to 100–300 ft in length; most have a diameter less than 1 in.[1]:7 Before export, the rattan stems are cut to uniform lengths and the bark is removed in narrow strips of  1⁄16 to  3⁄16 in.[1]:7 Sugar cane and bamboo (sometimes called "cane" in the southern United States) should not be confused with rattan cane.[1]:8 Rattan vine looks somewhat similar to bamboo but is quite different in that bamboo is hollow and holds itself upright while rattan is a solid flexible vine that needs the support of surrounding structure to elevate itself off the forest floor. It climbs to the top of canopies of the forest to reach sunlight with the help of large rugged thorns that grab hold of surrounding trees. Sometimes much of the length of these rugged vines are draped along the forest floor from tree to tree in search of a suitable structure to climb.[citation needed] Mistakenly some people confuse furniture or chair caning with wicker. To clarify, chair caning is specifically the craft of applying rattan cane or rattan peel to a piece of furniture such as the backs or seats of chairs, whereas wicker or wicker work is a reference to the craft of weaving any number of materials such as willow or rattan reeds as well as man made paper based cords. Wicker work is commonly used in basket and furniture weaving.[citation needed] References[edit] ^ Jump up to:a b c d Perry, L. Day (1917). "Caning: The Seven Steps". Seat Weaving. Peoria, IL: Manual Arts Press. pp. 6–14 – via Internet Archive.  Further reading[edit] Jessup, Anne L.; Logue, Annie E. (1912). "Chair Caning". The Handicraft Book: Comprising Methods of Teaching Cord and Raffia Constructive Work, Weaving, Basketry and Chair Caning in Graded Schools. New York: A.S. Barnes Company. pp. 118–125 – via Internet Archive.  [hide] v t e Woodworking   Overviews History Glossary Wood (lumber) Wood art   Forms Boat building Bow and arrow Bush carpentry Cabinetry Caning Carpentry Chainsaw carving Chip carving Clogs Ébéniste

View Blog:

Rose Flower by M.Yaseen Khan

Rose Flower A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height. Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.[1] The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhódon (Aeolic βρόδον wródon), itself borrowed from Old Persian wrd- (wurdi), related to Avestan varəδa, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr.[2][3] Botany Longitudinal section through a developing rose hip Exterior view of rose buds Rose leaflets Size can be as small as a thumbnail The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from South east Asia) are evergreen or nearly so. The hybrid garden rose "Amber Flush" The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. There are multiple superior ovaries that develop into achenes.[4]Roses are insect-pollinated in nature. The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the dog rose (Rosa canina) and rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds. Rose thorns are actually prickles – outgrowths of the epidermis. While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called "thorns", they are technically 

View Blog:

Angioplasty by M.Yaseen Khan

  Angioplasty   Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis. A deflated balloon attached to a catheter (a balloon catheter) is passed over a guide-wire into the narrowed vessel and then inflated to a fixed size. The balloon forces expansion of the blood vessel and the surrounding muscular wall, allowing an improved blood flow. A stent may be inserted at the time of ballooning to ensure the vessel remains open, and the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn. Angioplasty has come to include all manner of vascular interventions that are typically performed percutaneously. The word is composed of the combining forms of the Greek words ἀγγεῖον aggayyon ‘vessel’/‘cavity’ (of the human body) and πλάσσω plasso ‘form’/‘mould’. Uses Coronary angioplasty A coronary angiogram (an X-ray with radio-opaque contrast in the coronary arteries) that shows the left coronary circulation. The distal left main coronary artery (LMCA) is in the left upper quadrant of the image. Its main branches (also visible) are the left circumflex artery (LCX), which courses top-to-bottom initially and then toward the centre-bottom, and the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, which courses from left-to-right on the image and then courses down the middle of the image to project underneath the distal LCX. The LAD, as is usual, has two large diagonal branches, which arise at the centre-top of the image and course toward the centre-right of the image. A coronary angioplasty is a therapeutic procedure to treat the stenotic (narrowed) coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary heart disease. These stenotic segments are due to the buildup of cholesterol-laden plaques that form due to atherosclerosis. A percutaneous coronary intervention is first performed. A PCI used with stable coronary artery disease reduces chest pain, but does not reduce the risk of death, myocardial infarction, or other major cardiovascular events when added to optimal medical therapy.[1] Peripheral angioplasty Peripheral angioplasty refers to the use of a balloon to open a blood vessel outside the coronary arteries. It is commonly done to treat atherosclerotic narrowings of the abdomen, leg and renal arteries caused by peripheral artery disease. Often, peripheral angioplasty is used in conjunction with guide wire, peripheral stenting and a atherectomy. Carotid angioplasty Main article: Carotid artery stenting Carotid artery stenosis is treated with angioplasty in a procedure called carotid stenting for patients at high-risk for carotid endarterectomy. Renal artery angioplasty

View Blog:

Cardiac surgery

  Cardiac surgery Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting); to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. It also includes heart transplantation. History 19th century The earliest operations on the pericardium (the sac that surrounds the heart) took place in the 19th century and were performed by Francisco Romero (1801),[1]Dominique Jean Larrey (1810), Henry Dalton (1891), and Daniel Hale Williams (1893).[2] The first surgery on the heart itself was performed by Axel Cappelen on 4 September 1895 at Rikshospitalet in Kristiania, now Oslo. Cappelen ligated a bleeding coronary artery in a 24-year-old man who had been stabbed in the left axilla and was in deep shock upon arrival. Access was through a left thoracotomy. The patient awoke and seemed fine for 24 hours, but became ill with a fever and died three days after the surgery from mediastinitis.[3][4] The first successful surgery on the heart, without any complications, was performed by Dr. Ludwig Rehn of Frankfurt, Germany, who repaired a stab wound to the right ventricle on 7 September 1896.[5][6] 20th century Surgery on the great vessels (e.g., aortic coarctation repair, Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt creation, closure of patent ductus arteriosus) became common after the turn of the century. However, operations on the heart valves were unknown until, in 1925, Henry Souttar operated successfully on a young woman with mitral valve stenosis. He made an opening in the appendage of the left atrium and inserted a finger in order to palpate and explore the damaged mitral valve. The patient survived for several years,[7] but Souttar's colleagues considered the procedure unjustified, and he could not continue.[8][9] Cardiac surgery changed significantly after World War II. In 1947, Thomas Holmes Sellors (1902–1987) of Middlesex Hospital in London operated on a Tetralogy of Fallot patient with pulmonary stenosis and successfully divided the stenosed pulmonary valve. In 1948, Russell Brock, probably unaware of Sellors's work, used a specially designed dilator in three cases of pulmonary stenosis. Later that year, he designed a punch to resect a stenosed infundibulum, which is often associated with Tetralogy of Fallot. Many thousands of these "blind" operations were performed until the

View Blog:

Banjosa Azad Kashmir

Banjosa Azad Kashmir Banjosa (Urdu: بنجوسہ)' is a small village and tourist attraction point about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir. Word Banjosa is still undefined but according to local peoples, Banjosa is hindko words, consist of two parts "Bun" means forest and Jousa was resident of the area. Banjosa has three main Marketplaces, (Mareed Na Bagla), R.A bazar, Miral Gala and Gale wala pir Bazaar. Religious militancy or freedom fight in Kashmir was launched by Captain Hussein khan and Other Pakistani Militants from Banjosa valley and other parts of Kashmir . This area is famous for its beautiful lake known as Banjosa Lake and sometime it also refers as Chotagala lake. Introduction[edit] Banjosa is a beautiful village located in Tehsil Rawalakot, Poonch, Kashmir. This village is famous for its beautiful lake. Before unlawful occupation of Kashmir by India and Pakistan, considerable minorities were present in Banjosa valley. Literacy rate of Banjosa is almost 80%. Banjosa is further officially divided into belts like Challa, Mareed e na Bagla, Kotore, Danna, etc. History[edit] Summer View In the beginning, Banjosa was tenanted by Kashmiri Hindu Pindiths. Muslims were alien in Banjosa around late 13th century. According to few Natives, Sudhans in Banjosa are combination of Saduzai and Kashmiri Barhamans. However, According to religious scholar of Banjosa Sardar Muhammad Azam Khan, Sudhans are immigrants of Palangi, Kashmir. After a long span of time, delineated clans of Mugals and Kiyanis were undertake in Banjosa. Religion

View Blog:

Nanga Parbat by M.Yaseen Khan

  Nanga Parbat Nanga Parbat (Urdu: نانگا پربت [nəŋɡaː pərbət̪], literally in Sanskrit: "sacred mountain"[2]) is the ninth highest mountain in the world at 8,126 metres (26,660 ft) above sea level. It is the western anchor of the Himalayas around which the Indus river skirts into the plains of Pakistan. It is located in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan and is locally known as Diamir or Deo Mir (deo meaning "huge" and mir meaning "mountain").[3] Nanga Parbat is one of the eight-thousanders, with a summit elevation of 8,126 metres (26,660 ft).[4] An immense, dramatic peak rising far above its surrounding terrain, Nanga Parbat is also a notoriously difficult climb. Numerous mountaineering deaths in the mid and early 20th century lent it the nickname "killer mountain". Location Nanga Parbat forms the western anchor of the Himalayan Range and is the westernmost eight-thousander. It lies just south of the Indus River in the Diamer District of Gilgit–Baltistan in Pakistan. Not far to the north is the western end of the Karakoram range. Notable features Nanga Parbat has tremendous vertical relief over local terrain in all directions.[citation needed] To the south, Nanga Parbat boasts what is often referred to as the highest mountain face in the world: the Rupal Face rises 4,600 m (15,090 ft) above its base. To the north, the complex, somewhat more gently sloped Rakhiot Flank rises 7,000 m (22,966 ft) from the Indus River valley to the summit in just 25 km (16 mi), one of the 10 greatest elevation gains in so short a distance on Earth.[citation needed] Nanga Parbat is one of only two peaks on Earth that rank in the top twenty of both the highest mountains in the world, and the most prominent peaks in the world, ranking ninth and fourteenth respectively. The other is Mount Everest, which is first on both lists. It is also the second most prominent peak of the Himalayas, after Mount Everest. The key col for Nanga Parbat is Zoji La in Kashmir, which connects it to higher peaks in the remaining Himalaya-Karakoram range.[5] Nanga Parbat along with Namcha Barwa on the Tibetan Plateau mark the west and east ends of the Himalayas. Layout of the mountain Nanga Parbat Rakhiot Face from Fairy Meadows The core of Nanga Parbat is a long ridge trending southwest–northeast. The ridge is an enormous bulk of ice and rock. It has three faces, Diamir face, Rakhiot and Rupal. The southwestern portion of this main ridge is known as the Mazeno Wall, and has a number of subsidiary peaks. In the other direction, the main ridge arcs northeast at Rakhiot Peak (7,070 m / 23,196 ft). The south/southeast side of the mountain is dominated by the massive Rupal Face, noted above. The north/northwest side of the mountain, leading to the Indus, is more complex. It is split into the Diamir (west) face and the Rakhiot (north) face by a long ridge. There are a number of subsidiary summits, including North Peak (7,816 m / 25,643 ft) some 3 km north of the main summit. Near the base of the Rupal Face is a beautiful glacial lake called Latbo, above a seasonal shepherds' village of the same name. Climbing history Nanga Parbat from Deosai Early attempts Climbing attempts started very early on Nanga Parbat. In 1895 Albert F. Mummery led an expedition to the peak, and reached almost 6,100 m (20,000 ft) on the Diamir (West) Face,[6] but Mummery and two Gurkha companions later died reconnoitering the Rakhiot Face. In the 1930s, Nanga Parbat became the focus of German interest in the Himalayas. The German mountaineers were unable to attempt Mount Everest, as only the British had access to Tibet. Initially German efforts focused on Kanchenjunga, to which Paul Bauer led two expeditions in 1930 and 1931, but with its long ridges and steep faces Kanchenjunga was more difficult than Everest and neither expedition made much progress. K2 was known to be harder still, and its remoteness meant that even reaching its base would be a major undertaking. Nanga Parbat was therefore the highest mountain accessible to Germans and also deemed reasonably possible by climbers at the time.[7] Approaching Nanga Parbat Base Camp The first German expedition to Nanga Parbat was led by Willy Merkl in 1932. It is sometimes referred to as a German-American expedition, as the eight climbers included Rand Herron, an American, and Fritz Wiessner, who would become an American citizen the following year. While the team were all strong climbers, none had Himalayan experience, and poor planning (particularly an inadequate number of porters), coupled with bad weather, prevented the team progressing far beyond the Rakhiot Peak northeast of the Nanga Parbat summit, reached by Peter Aschenbrenner and Herbert Kunigk, but they did establish the feasibility of a route via Rakhiot Peak and the main ridge.[8] Merkl led another expedition in 1934, which was better prepared and financed with the full backing of the new Nazi government. Early in the expedition Alfred Drexel died, probably of high altitude pulmonary edema.[9] The Tyrolean climbers Peter Aschenbrenner and Erwin Schneider reached an estimated height of (7,895 m / 25,900 ft) on July 6, but were forced to return because of worsening weather. On July 7 they and 14 others were trapped by a ferocious storm at 7,480 m (24,540 ft). During the desperate retreat that followed, three famous German mountaineers, Uli Wieland, Willo Welzenbach and Merkl himself, and six Sherpas died of exhaustion, exposure and altitude sickness, and several more suffered severe frostbite. The last survivor to reach safety, Ang Tsering, did so having spent seven days battling through the storm.[10] It has been said that the disaster, "for sheer protracted agony, has no parallel in climbing annals."[11] In 1937, Karl Wien led another expedition to the mountain, following the same route as Merkl's expeditions had done. Progress was made, but more slowly than before due to heavy snowfall. Some time around the 14th of June seven Germans and nine Sherpas, almost the entire team, were at Camp IV below Rakhiot Peak when it was overwhelmed by an avalanche. All sixteen men died instantly.

View Blog:

Malaka e Kohsaar Murree Hill Station

Malaka e Kohsaar Murree Hill Station Murree (Punjabi, Urdu: مری‎, marī, meaning "apex"[2]) is a colonial era town located on the Pir Panjal Range within the Murree Tehsil, Rawalpindi District in Punjab, Pakistan. It forms outskirt of Islamabad Rawalpindi metropolitan area, and is about 30 km (19 mi) northeast of Islamabad City. It has average altitude of 2,291 metres (7,516 ft).[3] Murree was founded in 1851 as a sanatorium for British troops. The permanent town of Murree was constructed in 1853 and the church was sanctified shortly thereafter. One main road was established, commonly referred to even in modern times, as the mall. Murree was the summer headquarters of the colonial Punjab Government until 1876 when it was moved to Shimla.[4] Murree became a popular tourist station for British within the British India, several prominent Englishmen were born here including Bruce Bairnsfather, Francis Younghusband and Reginald Dyer.[4] During colonial era acsses to commercial establishments was restricted for non-Europeans including the Lawrence College. In 1901, the population of the town was officially 1,844, although if summer visitors had been included this could have been as high as 10,000.[5] Since the Independence of Pakistan in 1947, Murree has retained its position as a popular hill station, noted for its pleasant summers. A large number of tourists visit the town from the Islamabad-Rawalpindi area.[6] The town also serves as a transit point for tourist's visiting Azad Kashmir and Abbottabad.[7][8] The town is noted for its Tudorbethan and neo-gothic architecture. The Government of Pakistan own a summer retreat in Murree, where foreign dignitary including heads of state often visit.[9][10] History Murree or Marhee as it was then called, was first identified as a potential hill station by Major James Abbott (Indian Army officer) in 1847. [11] The town's early development was in 1851 by President of the Punjab Administrative Board, Sir Henry Lawrence.[a]It was originally established as a sanatorium for British troops garrisoned on the Afghan frontier.[12] Officially, the municipality was created in 1850.[13] The permanent town of Murree was constructed at Sunnybank in 1853. The church was sanctified in May 1857, and the main road, Jinnah Road, originally known as Mall Road and still commonly referred to as "The Mall"), was built. The most significant commercial establishments, the Post Office, general merchants with European goods, tailors and a millinery, were established opposite the church. Until 1947, access to Mall Road was restricted for "natives" (non-Europeans). In the summer of 1857, a rebellion against the British broke out. The local tribes of Murree and Hazara, including the Dhund Abbasis and others, attacked the depleted British Army garrison in Murree; however, the tribes were ultimately overcome by the British and capitulated.[14] From 1873 to 1875, Murree was the summer headquarters of the Punjab local government;[13] after 1876 the headquarters were moved to Shimla.[12] The railway connection with Lahore, the capital of the Punjab Province, via Rawalpindi, made Murree a popular resort for Punjab officials, and the villas and other houses erected for the accommodation of English families gave it a European aspect. The houses crowned the summit and sides of an irregular ridge, the neighbouring hills were covered during the summer with encampments of British troops, while the station itself was filled with European visitors from the plains and travellers to Kashmir. It was connected with Rawalpindi by a service of tangas.[13] It was described in the Gazetteer of Rawalpindi District, 1893–94 as follows: The sanatorium of Murree lies in north latitude 33° 54′ 30″ and east longitude 73° 26′ 30″, at an elevation of 7,517 feet (2,291 m) above sea level, and contained a standing population of 1,768 inhabitants, which was, however, enormously increased during the [May–November] season by the influx of visitors and their attendant servants and shopkeepers. It is the most accessible hill station in the Punjab, being distant from Rawalpindi only a five hours' journey by tonga dak. Magnificent views are to be obtained in the spring and autumn of the snow crowned mountains of Kashmir; and gorgeous sunset and cloud effects seen daily during the rains [July–August]. Part of the station, especially the Kashmir end, are also well wooded and pretty. In 1901 the permanent population of the town was 1,844; if summer visitors had been included this could have been as high as 10,000.[12] Buildings The British-era Convent of Jesus and Mary. The Sindh House Islam is the main religion of Murree, however Christian churches from the British era can still be found in Murree and Nathia Gali. There is an Anglican church, built in 1857, located at the centre of the town, which is still used as a place of worship. Many houses around the church are still standing, functioning mostly as hotels. Old traditional restaurants have been replaced by fast-food shops and newer restaurants. The Murree residence of the Punjab Governor is the Kashmir Point, an imposing building built in the 19th century by the British. There are Punjab and Sindh houses to cater needs of the provincial government. Similarly, there are rest houses for the judges of the Supreme Court and Lahore High Court. A large number of government, semi-government and private departments and institutions maintain guesthouses in Murree. A number of diplomatic missions based in Islamabad established their camp offices in Murree in the 1960s, although they are now seldom used. Tourism Chairlifts are popular among tourists.

View Blog:

Great Wall of China by M Yaseen Khan

  Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, rammed earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BCE;[2] these, later joined together and made bigger and stronger, are now collectively referred to as the Great Wall.[3] Especially famous is the wall built 220–206 BCE by Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. Little of that wall remains. Since then, the Great Wall has been rebuilt, maintained, and enhanced; the majority of the existing wall is from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). Other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor. The Great Wall stretches from Dandong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the Ming walls measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi).[4] This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers.[4] Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measure out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi).[5] History Ming era The extent of the Ming Empire and its walls The Great Wall concept was revived again under the Ming in the 14th century,[28] and following the Ming army's defeat by the Oirats in the Battle of Tumu. The Ming had failed to gain a clear upper hand over the Mongolian tribes after successive battles, and the long-drawn conflict was taking a toll on the empire. The Ming adopted a new strategy to keep the nomadic tribes out by constructing walls along the northern border of China. Acknowledging the Mongol control established in the Ordos Desert, the wall followed the desert's southern edge instead of incorporating the bend of the Yellow River. Unlike the earlier fortifications, the Ming construction was stronger and more elaborate due to the use of bricks and stone instead of rammed earth. Up to 25,000 watchtowers are estimated to have been constructed on the wall.[29] As Mongol raids continued periodically over the years, the Ming devoted considerable resources to repair and reinforce the walls. Sections near the Ming capital of Beijing were especially strong.[30] Qi Jiguang between 1567 and 1570 also repaired and reinforced the wall, faced sections of the ram-earth wall with bricks and constructed 1,200 watchtowers from Shanhaiguan Pass to Changping to warn of approaching Mongol raiders.[31] During the 1440s–1460s, the Ming also built a so-called "Liaodong Wall". Similar in function to the Great Wall (whose extension, in a sense, it was), but more basic in construction, the Liaodong Wall enclosed the agricultural heartland of the Liaodong province, protecting it against potential incursions by Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan from the northwest and the Jianzhou Jurchens from the north. While stones and tiles were used in some parts of the Liaodong Wall, most of it was in fact simply an earth dike with moats on both sides.[32] Towards the end of the Ming, the Great Wall helped defend the empire against the Manchu invasions that began around 1600. Even after the loss of all of Liaodong, the Ming army held the heavily fortified Shanhai Pass, preventing the Manchus from conquering the Chinese heartland. The Manchus were finally able to cross the Great Wall in 1644, after Beijing had already fallen to Li Zicheng's rebels. Before this time, the Manchus had crossed the Great Wall multiple times to raid, but this time it was for conquest. The gates at Shanhai Pass were opened on May 25 by the commanding Ming general, Wu Sangui, who formed an alliance with the Manchus, hoping to use the Manchus to expel the rebels from Beijing.[33] The Manchus quickly seized Beijing, and eventually defeated both the rebel-founded Shun dynasty and the remaining Ming resistance, establishing the Qing dynasty rule over all of China.[34] Under Qing rule, China's borders extended beyond the walls and Mongolia was annexed into the empire, so constructions on the Great Wall were discontinued. On the other hand, the so-called Willow Palisade, following a line similar to that of the Ming Liaodong Wall, was constructed by the Qing rulers in Manchuria. Its purpose, however, was not defense but rather migration control. Foreign accounts of the Wall Part of the Great Wall of China (April 1853, X, p. 41)[35] The Great Wall in 1907 None of the Europeans who visited Yuan China or Mongolia, such as Marco Polo, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, William of Rubruck, Giovanni de' Marignolli and Odoric of Pordenone, mentioned the Great Wall.[36][37] The North African traveler Ibn Battuta, who also visited China during the Yuan dynasty ca. 1346, had heard about China's Great Wall, possibly before he had arrived in China.[38] He wrote that the wall is "sixty days' travel" from Zeitun (modern Quanzhou) in his travelogue Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling. He associated it with the legend of the wall mentioned in the 

View Blog:

New 7 Wonders of the World by M.Yaseen Khan

Pothohar Plateau  The Pothohar Plateau (Punjabi: پوٹھوار, Urdu: سطح مرتفع پوٹھوہار‎; alternatively spelled Potohar or Pothwar) is a plateau in north-eastern Pakistan, forming the northern part of Punjab. It borders the western parts of Azad Kashmir and the southern parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The region was once the home of the ancient Soanian culture, which is evidenced by the discovery of fossils, tools, coins, and remains of ancient archaeological sites. The Potohari dialect of Punjabi language dominate the region, while the standard Majhi dialect and Hindko are also spoken. Other dialects include Dhani diaelect, Shahpuri and Chacchi. Potohar is home to many different clans including Abbasi, Awans, Jatts, Bhatti Rajputs, Hanjra Rajput, Janjua Rajputs, Jasgams, Thathals Minhas Rajputs, Satti Rajputs, Gujjars, Gakhar clans and many others. Geography Potohar Plateau is bounded in the east by the Jhelum River, in the west by the Indus River, in the north by the Kala Chitta Range and the Margalla Hills, and in the south by the Salt Range.[1] The Kāla Chitta Range thrusts eastward across the plateau toward Rawalpindi; the valleys of the Haro and Soan rivers cross the plateau from the eastern foothills to the Indus. The land of Pothohar was attributed as "Golden Sparrow" by East India Company.[2] The ramparts of the Salt Range stretching from east to west in the south separate Potohar from the Punjab Plain. The Pothohar Plateau includes the current four districts of Jhelum, Chakwal, Rawalpindi, Attock.[3] The terrain is undulating. The Kala Chitta Range rises to an average height of 450-900 metres (3,000 ft) and extends for about 72 kilometres (45 mi). The Swaan River starts from nearby Murree and ends near Kalabagh in the Indus river. Sakesar is the highest mountain of this region. Most of the hills and rivers are bordered by dissected ravine belts. The streams, due to constant rejuvenation, are deep set and of little use for irrigation. Agriculture is dependent largely on rainfall, which averages 15 to 20 in. (380 to 510 mm) annually; rainfall is greatest in the northwest and declines to arid conditions in the southwest. The chief crops are wheat, barley, sorghum, and legumes; onions, melons, and tobacco are grown in the more fertile areas near the Indus. The diverse wildlife includes urial, chinkara, chukar, hare, mongoose, wild boar, and yellow-throated marten. Due to low rain fall, extensive deforestation, coal mining, oil and gas exploration, the area is becoming devoid of vegetation. The under water areas of lakes (Uchali, Khabeki, Jhallar and Kallar Kahar) have been reduced to much smaller areas than in the past. The plateau is the location of major Pakistani oil fields, the first of which were discovered at Khaur (1915) and Dhuliān (1935); the Tut field was discovered in 1968, and exploration continued in the area in the 1970s. The oil fields

View Blog:

Phases of the moon by M.Yaseen Khan

Lunar phase The lunar phase or phase of the moon is the shape of the illuminated (sunlit) portion of the Moon as seen by an observer on Earth. The lunar phases change cyclically as the Moon orbits the Earth, according to the changing positions of the Moon and Sun relative to the Earth. The Moon's rotation is tidally locked by the Earth's gravity, therefore the same lunar surface always faces Earth. This face is variously sunlit depending on the position of the Moon in its orbit. Therefore, the portion of this hemisphere that is visible to an observer on Earth can vary from about 100% (full moon) to 0% (new moon). The lunar terminator is the boundary between the illuminated and darkened hemispheres. Each of the four "intermediate" lunar phases (see below) is roughly seven days (~7.4 days) but this varies slightly due to the elliptical shape of the Moon's orbit. Aside from some craters near the lunar poles such as Shoemaker, all parts of the Moon see around 14.77 days of sunlight, followed by 14.77 days of "night". (The side of the Moon facing away from the Earth is sometimes called the "dark side of the Moon", although that is a misnomer.) Phases of the moon In Western culture, the four principal lunar phases are new moon, first quarter, full moon, and third quarter (also known as last quarter). These are the instants when the Moon's apparent geocentric celestial longitude minus the Sun's apparent geocentric celestial longitude is 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°, respectively.[a] Each of these phases occur at slightly different times when viewed from different points on the Earth. During the intervals between principal phases, the Moon appears either crescent-shaped or gibbous. These shapes, and the periods of time when the Moon shows them, are called the intermediate phases. They last, on average, one-quarter of a synodic month, roughly 7.38 days, but their durations vary slightly because the Moon's orbit is slightly elliptical, and thus its speed in orbit is not constant. The descriptor waxing is used for an intermediate phase when the Moon's apparent size is increasing, from new moon toward full moon, and waning when the size is decreasing. The eight principal and intermediate phases are given the following names, in sequential order: Principal and intermediate phases of the Moon PhaseNorthern HemisphereSouthern HemisphereVisibilityMid-phase standard timeAverage moonrise timeAverage moonset timeNorthern HemisphereSouthern HemispherePhotograph New moon Disc completely in Sun's shadow (lit by earthshine only) Invisible (too close to Sun) Midday 6 am 6 pm Not visible Waxing crescent Right side, 1–49% lit disc Left side, 1–49% lit disc Late morning to post-dusk 3 pm 9 am 9 pm First quarter Right side, 50% lit disc Left side, 50% lit disc Afternoon and early evening 6 pm Midday Midnight

View Blog:

Lansdowne Bridge Rohri

  Lansdowne Bridge Rohri The Lansdowne Bridge Rohri at Sukkur (Sindhi لينسڊائون پل روهڙي) (Urdu: لینس ڈاؤن پل روہڑی ‎) is a bridge over the Indus River between Sukkur city and Rohri town of Sindh, Pakistan. Any visitor to Sukkur-Rohri Pakistan is usually awe struck by the largest man made monuments in the area. They are two in number. One is the over one century old Lansdowne Bridge and the other is the Ayub Bridge. A marvel of 19th-century engineering, the 'longest 'rigid' girder bridge in the world' at that time, it was begun in 1887. It was designed by Sir Alexander Meadows Rendel; he designed the Lansdowne Bridge Rohri at Sukkur over the Indus River, which when it was completed in 1889 was the largest cantilever bridge in the world. The girder work, weighing a massive 3,300 tons, was manufactured in London by the firm of Westwood, Baillie and erected by F.E. Robertson, and Hecquet.[1] Background[edit] Indus was bridged at Attock in 1887 and that allowed Railways in India to run from the

View Blog:

10 Fastest Cars in the World by M.Yaseen Khan

10 Fastest Cars in the World IMAGE SOURCE: ASTON MARTIN THERE are many other ways to measure the excellence of a car, but its top speed is one of the most exciting indicators. Our list of the 10 fastest cars in the world may not be scientific—these vehicles’ speeds were set by production cars only, using street-legal settings— but for most of us, the top speed of 349kmh hit by the ‘slowest’ of them would be breathtakingly fast, to indulge in understatement! Whichever of these amazing cars you are fortunate enough to drive, you’ll be looking for accessories to the experience safe, enjoyable and hassle-free. Deftly avoid any mobile phone mishaps with a bluetooth hands-free car kit. Also, if you have access to an appropriate arena for testing the upper limits of the vehicle, a dash cam video recorder will help you safely experience the high-octane thrills time and time again! And the Automatic App adapter is an amazing device that helps you maximise fuel efficiency, map and time routes, monitor the engine, as well as providing a range of other data to help you optimise the drive. But of course, what we’re most interested in here is the cars themselves, so without further ado, let the countdown commence.   1. Hennessy Venom GT IMAGE SOURCE: VENOMGT THE fastest production car in the world today is the Hennessey Venom GT. It reached a world-record speed at the Kennedy Space Centre, although the trial was not run twice in opposite directions to account for wind. To this day, the record has not been officially broken, and this classy, powerful car remains on top. Top Speed: 434.5 kmh / 270 mph 2. Bugatti Chiron

View Blog:

Culture of Liberia

  Culture of Liberia The culture of Liberia reflects this nation's diverse ethnicities and long history. Liberia is located in West Africa on the Atlantic Coast. Republic of Liberia History Politics Demographics Culture Transport Economy Armed Forces   Foreign relations Americo-Liberian Subdivisions Counties Districts Subdivisions Counties Districts   Languages Further information: Languages of Liberia The Bassa Vah alphabet. The official language of Liberia is English.[1] There are also more than 16 indigenous languages.[1] Among the most widely studied Liberian languages in schools and universities are Kpelle and Bassa languages and to a lesser extent, Vai. Loma and Mende also have their own unique alphabets but are studied less. Both languages are noted for their unique alphabets and phonetics that are not based on the Latin alphabet, or any European language but emerged from visions of each language's inventor. Bassa alphabet was popularized by Dr. Thomas Narvin Lewis in the early 20th century, after attending studies in the U.S at Syracuse University. He modeled it after he came into contact with former slaves of Bassa origin in Brazil and the West Indies who were still using the alphabet. Vai is another well known ancient script from Liberia, but distinct from the Bassa alphabet.[2] Among the listed alphabets, Bassa Vah is compared to include Armenian, Coptic (used by Egyptian Coptic and Coptic Church), Avestan used in Ancient Persia to write sacred hymns of Zoroastrianism, Georgian language in Republic of Georgia, Mongolian, Meroitic alphabet of ancient Sudan and parts of Nile Valley, and many other ancient scripts, Greek-based and Cyrillic alphabets. Some Vah letters resemble certain letters from the Ge'ez alphabet of Ethiopia and Eritrea, N'ko alphabet in 

View Blog:

Top Ten Beautiful Places of Pa... by M.Yaseen Khan

Top Ten Beautiful Places of Pakistan by Nature Pakistan is a Beautiful country & surely a paradise due to its admirable natural beauty. There are lots of beautiful natural Places in Pakistan which keeps attractions for any tourists in the World especially in the northern areas of Pakistan. From the Largest list of the beautiful natural places in Pakistan here are some magical & attractive ones. 1-Neelum Valley The Neelum Valley Located in Azad Kashmir Region & presents an attractive view for the tourists due to its amazing lush Greenery, streams, lakes & springs. There are a lush green forests & towering mountains which adds an extra beauty to this place. The noisy Neelum River on both sides of the mountains is another great view to watch. 2-Hunza Valley The Hunza Valley is one of the most amazing places to visit. It is situated in the Gilgit- Baltistan Region. There are three regions in the Valley, 1-Upper Hunza, Center Hunza and 3-Lower Hunza. The main feature of this valley is that it is basically a mountain valley & here are some special places to view like Rakaposhi base camp, Diran base camp, Atta Abad Lake & the Nagar valley. 3-Swat Valley Swat Valley is also an amazing place to visit in Pakistan. It is also called the mini Switzerland of Pakistan due to the marvelous beauty of this valley. There are also many amazing places to visit in the valley such as Natural Ushu Valley

View Blog:

Top 10 Hill Stations in Pakistan

Top 10 Hill Stations in Pakistan Hill Stations of Pakistan sweeten the beauty of our country with lush green forests, mountains, water springs, trekking and hiking trails. For photographers and bloggers, these hill stations are paradise to explore even in summers and winters. Pakistan Travel Guide offers tours to Top Hill Stations in Pakistan.If you are looking to explore the hilly areas of Pakistan, then following are the top 10 places you should set to explore in Pakistan: Murree Malaka-e-kohsar famous tourist hill station of Pakistan.Secure, easily approachable busiest, finest, full of variety and enjoying atmosphere both in Summers and Winters, people love to eat delicious food, shopping opportunities and sightseeing spots where the chair lift and amusement parks increase the charm of Murree. Pic Credit Shams Mureed Malam Jabba 55 Minutes drive from Mingora a Hill station with Chair Lift and tourism park Malam Jabba is second best hill station of Pakistan. Moderate temperature in Summers and cool and breezy in winters (ideal for skiing lovers).Roads are not well paved but still it’s thrilling to explore Malam Jabba especially in winters. Kaghan Valley If you are in the capital and having

View Blog:

The 7 Wonders of ultramodern Dubai

The 7 Wonders of ultramodern Dubai By 2010 --the year Dubai's known oil reserves will most likely be tapped out--, prince Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum is expecting to attract 15 million tourists. Here's how.  1 Burj Dubai: world's tallest building The Burj Dubai will be the world's tallest building when it opens in 2009. The building is part of a 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi) development called 'Downtown Dubai' and is located at the "First Interchange" along Sheikh Zayed Road at Doha Street. The building was designed by Adrian Smith before he left Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP (SOM) of Chicago to start his own independent practice, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture in October 2006.[3] SOM continues to lead the architectural, structural engineering and mechanical engineering of the Burj Dubai. The total budget for the Burj Dubai project is about $4 billion US dollars and for the entire new 'Downtown Dubai', $20 billion US Dollars.    Its shape is inspired by the indigenous desert flowers that often appear as decorative patterns in Islamic architecture, but it also has an engineering purpose: The swirl shape ensures that the mass of the structure lessens as it reaches the top, making the structure steadier. A mixed-use building developed by Dubai's Emaar Properties, the Burj Dubai will house shops, offices, residences, and entertainment venues.  2 Palm Islands: palm-shaped man-made island The Palm Islands in Dubai are the three largest artificial islands in the world. They are being constructed by Nakheel Properties, a property developer in the United Arab Emirates, who hired the Dutch dredging and marine contractor Van Oord, one of the world's specialists in land reclamation. The islands are The Palm Jumeirah, The Palm Jebel Ali and The Palm Deira. The Islands are located off the coast of The United Arab Emirates in the Persian Gulf and will add 520 km of beaches to the city of Dubai. 

View Blog:

Mariana Trench by M Yaseen Khan

  Mariana Trench The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench[1] is the deepest part of the world's oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, an average of 200 kilometres (124 mi) to the east of the Mariana Islands, in the Western Pacific East of Philippines. It is a crescent-shaped scar in the Earth's crust, and measures about 2,550 km (1,580 mi) long and 69 km (43 mi) wide on average. It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10,994 metres (36,070 ft) (± 40 metres [130 ft]) at a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep, at its southern end,[2]although some unrepeated measurements place the deepest portion at 11,034 metres (36,201 ft).[3] If Mount Everest were dropped into the trench at this point, its peak would still be over 1 mile (1.6 km) underwater. At the bottom of the trench the water column above exerts a pressure of 1,086 bars (15,750 psi), more than 1,000 times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. At this pressure, the density of water is increased by 4.96%, so that 95 litres of water under the pressure of the Challenger Deep would contain the same mass as 100 litres at the surface. The temperature at the bottom is 1 to 4 °C (34 to 39 °F).[4] The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the Earth. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere; its radius is about 25 kilometres (16 mi) less at the poles than at the equator.[5] As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth's center than the Challenger Deep seafloor. Xenophyophores have been found in the trench by Scripps Institution of Oceanography researchers at a record depth of 10.6 kilometres (6.6 mi) below the sea surface.[6] On 17 March 2013, researchers reported data that suggested microbial life forms thrive within the trench.[7][8] Names The Mariana Trench is named for the nearby Mariana Islands (in turn named Las Marianas in honor of Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of Philip IV of Spain). The islands are part of the island arc that is formed on an over-riding plate, called the Mariana Plate (also named for the islands), on the western side of the trench. Geology The Pacific plate is subducted beneath the Mariana Plate, creating the Mariana trench, and (further on) the arc of the Mariana islands, as water trapped in the plate is released and explodes upward to form island volcanoes. The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates. In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west. Crustal material at the western edge of the Pacific Plate is some of the oldest oceanic crust on earth (up to 170 million years old), and is therefore cooler and more dense; hence its great height difference relative to the higher-riding (and younger) Mariana Plate. The deepest area at the plate boundary is the Mariana Trench proper. The movement of the Pacific and Mariana plates is also indirectly responsible for the formation of the Mariana Islands. These volcanic islands are caused by flux melting of the upper mantle due to release of water that is trapped in minerals of the subducted portion of the Pacific Plate. Measurements The trench was first sounded during

View Blog:

Cordyceps by M.Yaseen Khan

Cordyceps Cordyceps /ˈkɔːrdəsɛps/ is a genus of ascomycete fungi (sac fungi) that includes about 400 species. All Cordyceps species are endoparasitoids, parasitic mainly on insects and other arthropods (they are thus entomopathogenic fungi); a few are parasitic on other fungi. Until recently, the best known species of the genus was Cordyceps sinensis,[1] first recorded as yartsa gunbu in Nyamnyi Dorje's 15th century Tibetan text An ocean of Aphrodisiacal Qualities.[2] In 2007, nuclear DNA sampling revealed this species to be unrelated to most of the rest of the members of the genus; as a result it was renamed Ophiocordyceps sinensis and placed in a new family, the Ophiocordycipitaceae. The generic name Cordyceps is derived from the Greek word kordyle, meaning "club", and the Latin stem -ceps, meaning "head". Several species of Cordyceps are considered to be medicinal mushrooms in classical Asian pharmacologies, such as that of traditional Chinese[3][4] and Tibetan medicines. When a Cordyceps fungus attacks a host, the mycelium invades and eventually replaces the host tissue, while the elongated fruit body (ascocarp) may be cylindrical, branched, or of complex shape. The ascocarp bears many small, flask-shaped perithecia containing asci. These, in turn, contain thread-like ascospores, which usually break into fragments and are presumably infective. Some current and former Cordyceps species are able to affect the behavior of their insect host: Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (formerly Cordyceps unilateralis) causes ants to climb a plant and attach there before they die. This ensures the parasite's environment is at an optimal temperature and humidity, and that maximal distribution of the spores from the fruit body that sprouts out of the dead insect is achieved.[5] Marks have been found on fossilised leaves that suggest this ability to modify the host's behavior evolved more than 48 million years ago.[6] The genus has a worldwide distribution and most of the approximately 400 species[7] have been described from Asia (notably Nepal, China, Japan, Bhutan, Korea, Vietnam, and Thailand). Cordyceps species are particularly abundant and diverse in humid temperate and tropical forests. Some Cordyceps species are sources of biochemicals with interesting biological and pharmacological properties,[8] like cordycepin; the anamorph of C. subsessilis (Tolypocladium inflatum) was the source of ciclosporin—an immunosuppressive drug helpful in human organ transplants, as it inhibits 

View Blog:

Top 9 Health Benefits of Eatin... by M.Yaseen Khan

  Top 9 Health Benefits of Eating Watermelon Watermelon is a delicious and refreshing fruit that’s also good for you. It contains only 46 calories per cup, but is high in vitamin C, vitamin A and many healthy plant compounds. Here are the top 9 health benefits of eating watermelon. 1. Helps You Hydrate Drinking water is an important way to keep your body hydrated. However, eating foods that have a high water content can also help. Interestingly, watermelon is 92% water (1). A high water content is one of the reasons that fruits and vegetables help you feel full. The combination of water and fiber means you’re eating a good volume of food without a lot of calories.\ Bottom Line: Watermelon has a high water content. This makes it hydrating and helps you feel full. 2. Contains Nutrients and Beneficial Plant Compounds As far as fruits go, watermelon is one of the lowest in calories — only 46 calories per cup. That’s lower than even “low-sugar” fruits such as berries (2). A cup (154 grams) of watermelon has many other nutrients as well, including these vitamins and minerals: Vitamin C: 21% of the RDI. Vitamin A: 18% of the RDI. Potassium: 5% of the RDI. Magnesium: 4% of the RDI. Vitamins B1, B5 and B6: 3% of the RDI. Watermelon is also high in carotenoids, including beta-carotene and lycopene. Plus, it has citrulline, an important amino acid. Here’s an overview of watermelon’s most important antioxidants: Vitamin C Vitamin C is an antioxidant that helps prevent cell damage from free radicals. Carotenoids Carotenoids are a class of plant compounds that includes alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, which your body converts to vitamin A. Lycopene Lycopene is a type of carotenoid that doesn’t change into vitamin A. This potent antioxidant gives a red color to plant foods such as tomatoes and watermelon, and is linked to many health benefits. Cucurbitacin E Cucurbitacin E is a plant compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Bitter melon, a relative of watermelon, contains even more cucurbitacin E. Bottom Line: Watermelon is a low-calorie fruit high in some

View Blog:

16 Tips for Living a Happy Lif... by M.Yaseen Khan

View Blog:

Bean by M.Yaseen Khan

Bean "Painted Pony" dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Bean plant Bean is a common name for large seeds of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae (also known as Leguminosae) which are used for human or animal food.   Terminology The word "bean" and its Germanic cognates (e.g., Bohne) have existed in common use in West Germanic languages since before the 12th century,[1] referring to broad beans and other pod-borne seeds. This was long before the New World genus Phaseolus was known in Europe. After Columbian-era contact between Europe and the Americas, use of the word was extended to pod-borne seeds of Phaseolus, such as the common bean and the runner bean, and the related genus Vigna. The term has long been applied generally to many other seeds of similar form,[1][2] such as Old World soybeans, peas, chickpeas (garbanzo beans), other vetches, and lupins, and even to those with slighter resemblances, such as coffee beans, vanilla beans, castor beans, and cocoa beans. Thus the term "bean" in general usage can mean a host of different species.[3] Seeds called "beans" are often included among the crops called "pulses" (legumes),[1] although a narrower prescribed sense of "pulses" reserves the word for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain. The term bean usually excludes legumes with tiny seeds and which are used exclusively for forage, hay, and silage purposes (such as clover and alfalfa). According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization the term bean should include only species of Phaseolus; however, enforcing that prescription has proven difficult for several reasons. One is that in the past, several species, including Vigna angularis (adzuki bean), mungo (black gram), radiata (green gram), and aconitifolia (moth bean), were classified as Phaseolus and later reclassified. Another is that it is not surprising that the prescription on limiting the use of the word, because it tries to replace the word's older senses with a newer one, has never been consistently followed in general usage. Cultivation Field beans (broad beans, Vicia faba), ready for harvest In more recent times, the so-called "bush bean" has been developed which does not require support and has all its pods develop simultaneously (as opposed to pole beans which develop gradually). This makes the bush bean more practical for commercial production. History The Beaneater (1580-90) by Annibale Carracci Cooked beans on toast Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants. Broad beans, also called fava beans, in their wild state the size of a small fingernail, were gathered in Afghanistan and the Himalayan foothills.[4] In a form improved from naturally occurring types, they were grown in Thailand since the early seventh millennium BCE, predating ceramics.[5] They were deposited with the dead in ancient Egypt. Not until the second millennium BCE did cultivated, large-seeded broad beans appear in the Aegean, Iberia and transalpine Europe.[6] In the Iliad (8th century BCE) is a passing mention of beans and chickpeas cast on the threshing floor.[7] Beans were an important source of protein throughout Old and New World history, and still are today. The oldest-known domesticated beans in the Americas were found in Guitarrero Cave, an archaeological site in Peru, and dated to around the second millennium BCE.[8] Most of the kinds commonly eaten fresh or dried, those of the genus Phaseolus, come originally from the Americas, being first seen by a European when Christopher Columbus, during his exploration of what may have been the Bahamas, found them growing in fields. Five kinds of Phaseolus beans were domesticated[9] by pre-Columbian peoples: common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown from Chile to the northern part of what is now the United States, and lima and sieva beans (Phaseolus lunatus), as well as the less widely distributed teparies (Phaseolus acutifolius), scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus) and polyanthus beans (Phaseolus polyanthus)[10] One especially famous use of beans by pre-Columbian people as far north as the Atlantic seaboard is the "Three Sisters" method of companion plant cultivation: In the New World, many tribes would grow beans together with maize (corn), and 

View Blog:

Honey: Health Benefits and Use... by M.Yaseen Khan

Honey: Health Benefits and Uses In Medicine   Honey is a sweet liquid made by bees using nectar from flowers. Bees first convert the nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation and evaporation, then store it as a primary food source in wax honeycombs inside the beehive. Honey can then be harvested from the hives for human consumption. Honey is graded by color, with the clear, golden amber honey often at a higher retail price than darker varieties. Honey flavor will vary based on the types of flower from which the nectar was harvested. Both raw and pasteurized forms of honey are available. Raw honey is removed from the hive and bottled directly, and as such will contain trace amounts of yeast, wax and pollen. Consuming local raw honey is believed to help with seasonal allergies due to repeated exposure to the pollen in the area. Pasteurized honey has been heated and processed to remove impurities. This MNT Knowledge Center article includes a brief history of honey in traditional medicine and explains some of its potential health benefits. The possible health benefits of consuming honey have been documented in early Greek, Roman, Vedic, and Islamic texts and the healing qualities of honey were referred to by philosophers and scientists all the way back to ancient times, such as Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) and Aristoxenus (320 BC). Honey has high levels of monosaccharides, fructose and glucose, containing about 70 to 80 percent sugar, which gives it its sweet taste - minerals and water make up the rest of its composition. Honey also possesses antiseptic and antibacterial properties. In modern science, we have managed to find useful applications of honey in chronic wound management. However, it should be noted that many of honey's health claims still require further rigorous scientific studies to confirm them. Contents of this article: The possible health benefits of honey Honey's other possible uses in medicine The history of honey Properties of honey How to incorporate more honey into your diet Potential health risks of consuming honey   The possible health benefits of honey

View Blog:

Lake Victoria by M.Yaseen Khan

Lake Victoria Lake Victoria (Nam Lolwe in Luo; Nalubaale in Luganda; in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu languages)[2] is one of the African Great Lakes. The lake was named after Queen Victoria by the explorer John Hanning Speke, the first Briton to document it. Speke accomplished this in 1858, while on an expedition with Richard Francis Burton to locate the source of the Nile River.[3][4] With a surface area of approximately 68,800 square kilometres (26,600 sq mi),[5][6] Lake Victoria is Africa's largest lake by area, the world's largest tropical lake,[7] and the world's second largest fresh water lake by surface area, after Lake Superior in North America.[8] In terms of volume, Lake Victoria is the world's ninth largest continental lake, containing about 2,750 cubic kilometres (2.23×109 acre·ft) of water.[9] Lake Victoria receives its water primarily from direct rainfall and thousands of small streams. The Kagera River is the largest river flowing into this lake, with its mouth on the lake's western shore. Lake Victoria is drained solely by the Nile River near Jinja, Uganda, on the lake's northern shore.[5] Lake Victoria occupies a shallow depression in Africa. The lake has a maximum depth of 84 metres (276 ft) and an average depth of 40 metres (130 ft).[10] Its catchment area covers 184,000 square kilometres (71,000 sq mi). The lake has a shoreline of 7,142 kilometres (4,438 mi) when digitized at the 1:25,000 level,[11] with islands constituting 3.7 percent of this length,[12] and is divided among three countries: Kenya (6 percent or 4,100 square kilometres or 1,600 square miles), Uganda (45 percent or 31,000 square kilometres or 12,000 square miles), and Tanzania (49 percent or 33,700 square kilometres or 13,000 square miles).[13]Geology[edit]   Landsat 7 imagery of Lake Victoria Geologically, Lake Victoria is relatively young – about 400,000 years old – and it formed when westward-flowing rivers were dammed by an upthrown crustal block.[14] During its geological history, Lake Victoria went through changes ranging from its present shallow depression, through to what may have been a series of much smaller lakes.[12] Geological cores taken from its bottom show Lake Victoria has dried up completely at least three times since it formed.[14] These drying cycles are probably related to past ice ages, which were times when precipitation declined globally.[14] Lake Victoria last dried out about 17,300 years ago, and it refilled 14,700 years ago.[15] Hydrology and limnology Lake Victoria receives 80 percent of its water from direct rainfall.[12] Average evaporation on the lake is between 2.0 and 2.2 metres (6.6 and 7.2 ft) per year, almost double the precipitation of riparian areas.[16] In the Kenya sector, the main influent rivers are the Sio, Nzoia, Yala, Nyando, Sondu Miriu, Mogusi, and Migori. Combined, these rivers contribute far more water to the lake than does the largest single river entering the lake from the west, the Kagera River.[17] The lake exhibits eutrophic conditions. In 1990–1991, oxygen concentrations in the mixed layer were higher than in 1960–1961, with nearly continuous oxygen supersaturation in surface waters. Oxygen concentrations in hypolimnetic waters (i.e. the layer of water that lies below the thermocline, is noncirculating, and remains perpetually cold) were lower in 1990–1991 for a longer period than in 1960–1961, with values of less than 1 mg per litre (< 0.4 gr/cu ft) occurring in water as shallow as 40 metres (130 ft) compared with a shallowest occurrence of greater than 50 metres (160 ft) in 1961. The changes in oxygenation are considered consistent with measurements of higher algal biomass and productivity.[18] These changes have arisen for multiple reasons: successive burning within its basin,[19] soot and ash from which has been deposited over the lake's wide area; from increased nutrient inflows via rivers,[20] and from increased pollution associated with settlement along its shores.[citation needed]The only outflow from Lake Victoria is the Nile River, which exits the lake near Jinja, Uganda. In terms of contributed water, this makes Lake Victoria the principal source of the longest branch of the Nile. However, the most distal source of the Nile Basin, and therefore the ultimate source of the Nile, is more often considered to be one of the tributary rivers of the Kagera River (the exact tributary remains undetermined), and which originates in either Rwanda or Burundi. The uppermost section of the Nile is generally known as the Victoria Nile until it reaches Lake Albert. Although it is a part of the same river system known as the White Nile and is occasionally referred to as such, strictly speaking this name does not apply until after the river crosses the Uganda border into South Sudan to the north. Bathymetry Lake Victoria bathymetric model[25] The lake is considered a shallow lake considering its large geographic area with a maximum depth of approximately 80 metres (260 ft) and an average depth of almost exactly 40 metres (130 ft).[26] A 2016 project digitized ten-thousand

View Blog:

Edhi Foundation by M.Yaseen Khan

  Edhi Foundation The Edhi Foundation (Urdu: ایدھی فاؤنڈیشن‎) is a non-profit social welfare program in Pakistan, founded by Abdul Sattar Edhi[4] in 1951. Edhi until his death on 8 July 2016 was the head of the organization and his wife Bilquis, a nurse, oversees the maternity and adoption services of the foundation. Its headquarters are in Karachi, Pakistan. The Edhi Foundation provides 24-hour emergency assistance across the nation of Pakistan and abroad. The Foundation provides, among many other services, shelter for the destitute, free hospitals and medical care, drug rehabilitation services, and national and international relief efforts. Its main focuses are Emergency Services, Orphans, Handicapped Persons, Shelters, Education, Healthcare, International Community Centers, Blood & Drug Bank, air ambulance services, Marine And Coastal Services. History[ Edhi established his first welfare center in 1957 and then the Edhi Trust.[5] What started as one man operating from a single room in Karachi is now the Edhi Foundation. The foundation has over 300 centers across the country, in big cities, small towns and remote rural areas, providing medical aid, family planning and emergency assistance. They own air ambulances, providing quick access to far-flung areas. In Karachi alone, the Edhi Foundation runs 8 hospitals providing free medical care, eye hospitals, diabetic centres, surgical units, a 4- bed cancer hospital and mobile dispensaries. In addition to these the Foundation also manages two blood banks in Karachi. As with other Edhi services, employed professionals and volunteers run these. The foundation has a Legal aid department, which provides free services and has secured the release of countless innocent prisoners. Commissioned doctors visit jails on a regular basis and also supply food and other essentials to the inmates. There are 15 " Apna Ghar" ["Our Home"] homes for the destitute children, runaways, and psychotics. During the last time of Abdul Sattar Edhi he donated his eyes to the blind people. The foundation also has an education scheme, which apart from teaching reading and writing covers various vocational activities such as driving, pharmacy and para-medical training. The emphasis is on self-sufficiency. The Edhi Foundation has branches in several countries where they provide relief to refugees in the United States, UK, Canada, Japan, and Bangladesh. In 1991 the Foundation provided aid to victims of the Gulf war and earthquake victims in Iran and Egypt. The organization has held the Guinness record for world's "largest volunteer ambulance organization" since 1997.[6] In 2016, after the death of Abdul Sattar Edhi, the state bank of Pakistan urged bank CEOs to donate to the foundation.[7] Services The Edhi Foundation provides a number of services, emergency and non-emergency, to the general public. In addition to emergency medical services and private ambulance services, the organization also renders aid to women and children in need, assists with missing persons cases, and helps in covering burial and graveyard costs of unclaimed and unidentified bodies during times of disaster and tragedy.[8] Ambulance Services As of March 2016, the Edhi Foundation owns over 1,800 private ambulance vans stationed in areas across Pakistan.[8] The ambulance dispatchers in Karachi, one of the busiest cities in Pakistan, have reported up to 6,000 calls a day, with the average response time for each incident falling within 10 minutes.[9] It was also an Edhi ambulance which responded to and picked up the body of the American journalist, Daniel Pearl, when he was killed in 2002.[9] The organization also owns two private jets and one helicopter to assist in moving victims from hard-to-reach locations, especially during the event of a natural disaster.[10] In addition to land and air assistance, Edhi Foundation also hosts 28 rescue boats to aid during floods and in cases of shipwrecks and disaster along the Arabian Ocean coast.[11] Hospital Services The organization runs several private outpatient hospitals located in Pakistan. Additional medical facilities include a diabetic center, a nurse training center, immunization centers, and blood banks, including emergency banks during times of natural disasters or tragedies.[7] Childcare Services Bilquis Edhi, co-head of the Edhi Foundation, is responsible for overseeing children's and women's services within the organization. Services she heads currently for children include the jhoola (baby cradle) project, a child adoption center, and an abandoned children's welfare center. Jhoola is the Urdu word for "cradle".[12] Most of the Edhi emergency centers have a jhoola located outside the venue for mothers to leave their infants, regardless of the current situation they may be in.[13]These children are taken into custody and are taken care of, often being adopted by pre-screened families. International Services The Edhi Foundation has reached out to international communities and assisted with the setup of several offices overseas which assist with donations, fundraising, and especially financially aiding Pakistanis who have flown overseas in need of urgent medical attention. In addition to providing their regular services, the overseas foundation offices often help with community needs as necessary. In 2005, the Edhi Foundation provided $100,000 in aid to relief efforts following Hurricane Katrina.[9] EDHI Foundation (Pakistan) Founded 1951[1]

View Blog:

Siachen Glacier by M.Yaseen Khan

Siachen Glacier The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर, Urdu : سیاچن گلیشیر) is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about 35.421226°N 77.109540°E, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.[2][3] At 76 km (47 mi) long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world's non-polar areas.[4] It falls from an altitude of 5,753 m (18,875 ft) above sea level at its head at Indira Col on the China border down to 3,620 m (11,875 ft) at its terminus. The entire Siachen Glacier, with all major passes, is currently under the administration of India since 1984.[5][6][7][8] Pakistan controls the region west of Saltoro Ridge with Pakistani posts located 3,000 ft below 100 Indian posts on Saltoro Ridge. The Siachen Glacier lies immediately south of the great drainage divide that separates the Eurasian Plate from the Indian subcontinent in the extensively glaciated portion of the Karakoram sometimes called the "Third Pole". The glacier lies between the Saltoro Ridge immediately to the west and the main Karakoram range to the east. The Saltoro Ridge originates in the north from the Sia Kangri peak on the China border in the Karakoram range. The crest of the Saltoro Ridge's altitudes range from 5,450 to 7,720 m (17,880 to 25,330 feet). The major passes on this ridge are, from north to south, Sia La at 5,589 m (18,336 ft), Bilafond La at 5,450 m (17,880 ft), and Gyong La at 5,689 m (18,665 ft). The average winter snowfall is more than 1000 cm (35 ft) and temperatures can dip to −50 °C (−58 °F). Including all tributary glaciers, the Siachen Glacier system covers about 700 km2 (270 sq mi). Etymology UN map of Siachin AGPL shown with yellow-coloured dotted line "Sia" in the Balti language refers to the rose family plant widely dispersed in the region. "Chun" refers to any object found in abundance. Thus the name Siachen refers to a land with an abundance of roses. The naming of the glacier itself, or at least its currency, is attributed to Tom Longstaff. Dispute Both India and Pakistan claim sovereignty over the entire Siachen region.[2] US and Pakistani maps in the 1970s and 1980s consistently showed a dotted line from NJ9842 (the northernmost demarcated point of the India-Pakistan cease-fire line, also known as the Line of Control) to the Karakoram Pass, which India believed to be a cartographic error and in violation of the Shimla Agreement. In 1984, India launched Operation Meghdoot, a military operation that gave India control over all of the Siachen Glacier, including its tributaries.[2][9] Between 1984 and 1999, frequent skirmishes took place between India and Pakistan.[10][11] Indian troops under Operation Meghdoot pre-empted Pakistan's Operation Ababeel by just one day to occupy most of the dominating heights on Saltoro Ridge to the west of Siachen Glacier.[12][13] However, more soldiers have died from the harsh weather conditions in the region than from combat.[14] Pakistan lost 353 soldiers in various operations recorded between 2003 and 2010 near Siachen, including 140 Pakistani personnel killed in 2012 Gayari Sector avalanche.[15][16] Between January 2012 and July 2015, 33 Indian soldiers lost their lives due to adverse weather.[17] In December 2015, Indian Union Minister of State for Defence Rao Inderjit Singh said in a written reply in the Lok Sabha that a total of 869 Army personnel have lost their lives on the Siachen glacier due to climatic conditions and environmental and other factors till date since the Army launched Operation Meghdoot in 1984.

View Blog:

Dalhousie, India

  Dalhousie, India Dalhousie (Hindi: डलहौज़ी) is a hill station in Chamba district, in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh, India. It is situated on 5 hills and has an elevation of 1,970 metres above sea level.[1] Etymology Dalhousie Town was named after Lord Dalhousie, who was the British Governor-General in India while establishing this place as a summer retreat.[2] History View of Himachal Hills, near Dalhousie town. Fresh snow view from garam sadak, Dalhousie Snowing in Dalhousie, January, 2013 View from Ganji pahadi, Dalhousie to the lowlands (with Ranjit Sagar Dam lake)?

View Blog:

Great Rift Valley, Kenya

Great Rift Valley, Kenya The Great Rift Valley is part of an intra-continental ridge system that runs through Kenya from north to south. It is part of the Gregory Rift, the eastern branch of the East African Rift, which starts in Tanzania to the south and continues northward into Ethiopia.[3] It was formed on the "Kenyan Dome" a geographical upwelling created by the interactions of three major tectonics: the Arabian, Nubian, and Somalian plates.[4] In the past, it was seen as part of a "Great Rift Valley" that ran from Madagascar to Syria. Most of the valley falls within the former Rift Valley Province. The valley contains the Cherangani Hills and a chain of volcanoes, some of which are still active. The climate is mild, with temperatures usually below 28 °C (82 °F). Most rain falls during the March–June and October–November periods.[5] The Tugen Hills to the west of Lake Baringo contain fossils preserved in lava flows from the period 14 to 4 million years ago. The relics of many hominids, ancestors of humans, were found here.[6] Features[edit] Main volcanoes and lakes in the rift valley The valley is bordered by escarpments to the east and west. The floor is broken by volcanoes, some still active, and contains a series of lakes. Some of the soils are Andisols, fertile soils from relatively recent volcanic activity. Lake Turkana occupies the northern end of the Great Rift Valley in Kenya. There are also volcanoes in Lake Turkana. The Suguta Valley, or Suguta Mud Flats, is an arid part of the Great Rift Valley directly south of Lake Turkana. The shield volcano Emuruangogolak straddles the valley to the south of Suguta, and further south Mount Silali and Paka rise from the valley floor. Paka is a shield volcano, with widespread geothermal activity. South of Paka are Mount Korosi, Lake Baringo and Lake Bogoria. Menengai is a massive shield volcano in the floor of the rift with a caldera that formed about 8,000 years ago.[7] It overlooks Lake Nakuru to the south. This region also includes Lake Elementaita, Mount Kipipiri and Lake Naivasha. The Hell's Gate National Park lies south of Lake Naivasha. In the early 1900s, Mount Longonot erupted, and ash can still be felt around Hell's Gate.[8] Mount Longonot is a dormant stratovolcano located southeast of Lake Naivasha. Suswa is a shield volcano located between Narok and Nairobi. Lava flows from the most recent eruptions are still not covered by vegetation, and may be no more than one hundred years old.[9] Lake Magadi is the most southern rift valley lake in Kenya, although the northern end of Lake Natron in Tanzania reaches into Kenya. The Elgeyo escarpment forms part of the western wall. The Kerio Valley lies between the Tugen Hills and the Elgeyo escarpment at an elevation of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) There are large deposits of Fluorite in the Kerio Valley area. Further south the Mau Escarpment is a steep natural cliff approximately 3,000 m (10,000 ft) high, running along the western edge of the Great Rift Valley about Lake Naivasha. Yet further south the Nguruman Escarpment is around 50 kilometers long and elongated in N-W direction. Its northern edge is about 120 kilometres (75 mi) southwest of Nairobi, while the southern edge is near the Tanzanian border, at the northwestern corner of Lake Natron. The 

View Blog:

White Nile by M.Yaseen Khan

White Nile The White Nile (Arabic: النيل الأبيض‎‎ an-nīl al-'abyaḍ) is a river of Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile; the other is the Blue Nile. In the strict meaning, "White Nile" refers to the river formed at Lake Victoria, at the confluence of the Bahr al Jabal and Bahr el Ghazal Rivers. In the wider sense, "White Nile" refers to the rivers draining from Lake Victoria into the White Nile proper (Victoria Nile, Kyoga Nile, Albert Nile, Bahr-al-Jabal). It may also, depending on the speaker, refer to the headwaters of Lake Victoria (about 3,700 kilometres (2,300 mi) from the most remote sources down to Khartoum) The 19th century search by Europeans for the source of the Nile was mainly focused on the White Nile, which disappeared into the depths of what was then known as "Darkest Africa". The White Nile's true source was not discovered until 1937, when the German explorer Burkhart Waldecker traced it to a stream in Rutovu, at the base of Mount Kikizi.[1] When in flood, the Sobat River tributary carries a large amount of sediment, adding greatly to the White Nile's color.[2] Headwaters of Lake Victoria The Rusumo Falls The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder river for Lake Victoria, although sources do not agree on which is the longest tributary of the Kagera and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself.[3] The source of the Nile can be considered to be either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi,[4] near Bukirasaz or the Nyabarongo, which flows from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda.

View Blog:

Bahawalpur (princely state) by M.Yaseen Khan

Bahawalpur (princely state) Bahawalpur was a princely state of British India and later, Pakistan, that existed from 1802 to 1955. It was a part ofPunjab States Agency. The state covered an area of 45,911 km² (17,494 sq mi) and had a population of 1,341,209 in 1941. The capital of the state was the town of Bahawalpur. Bahawalpur state was founded in 1802 by Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi after the breakup of the Durrani Empire. His successor was Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi III. On 22 February 1833, Abbasi III entered intosubsidiary alliance with the British by which Bahawalpur was admitted as a princely state of British India. When India became independent of British rule in 1947 and partitioned into two states, India and Pakistan, Bahawalpur joined the Dominion of Pakistan. Bahawalpur remained an autonomous entity till 14 October 1955 when it was merged with the province of West Pakistan. History Derawar Fort was a major fort for the Nawabs in the Cholistan Desert The Nawab Muhammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi V Bahadur of Bahawalpur (1883–1907). General Nawab Sadeq Mohammad Khan V, the last ruling and perhaps the most popular Nawab of Bahawalpur State The Abbasi tribe from whom the ruling family of Bahawalpur belong, claim descent from the Abbasid Caliphs. The tribe came from Sindh to Bahawalpur and assumed independence during the decline of the Durrani Empire. Bahawalpur along with other Cis-Sutlej states were a group of states, lying between the Sutlej River on the north, theHimalayas on the east, the Yamuna River and Delhi District on the south, and Sirsa District on the west. These states were ruled by the Scindhia dynasty of the Maratha Empire, various Sikh sardars and other Rajas of the Cis-Sutlej states paid tributes to the Marathas, until the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803-1805, after which the Marathas lost this territory to the British.[1][2][3] As part of the 1809 Treaty of Lahore, Ranjit Singh was confined to the right bank of the Sutlej. The first treaty with Bahawalpur was negotiated in 1833, the year after the treaty with Ranjit Singh for regulating traffic on the Indus. It secured the independence of the Nawab within his own territories, and opened up the traffic on the Indus and Sutlej. The political relations of Bahawalpur with the paramount power, as at present existing, are regulated by a treaty made in October, 1838, when arrangements were in progress for the restoration of Shah Shuja to the Kabul throne. During the First Anglo-Afghan War, the Nawab assisted the British with supplies and allowing passage and in 1847-8 he co-operated actively with Sir Herbert Edwardes in the expedition against Multan. For these services he was rewarded by the grant of the districts of Sabzalkot and Bhung, together with a life-pension of a lakh. On his death a dispute arose regarding succession. He was succeeded by his third son, whom he had nominated in place of his eldest son. The new ruler was, however, deposed by his elder brother, and obtained asylum in British territory, with a pension from the Bahawalpur revenues; he broke his promise to abandon his claims, and was confined in the Lahore fort, where he died in 1862. Noor Mahal in Bhawalpur In 1863 and 1866 insurrections broke out against the Nawab who successfully crushed the rebellions; but in March 1866, the Nawab died suddenly, not without suspicion of having been poisoned, and was succeeded by his son, Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV, a boy of four. After several endeavours to arrange for the administration of the country without active interference on the part of the Government, it was found necessary, on account of disorganization and disaffection, to place the principality in British hands. In 1879, the Nawab was invested with full powers, with the advice and assistance of a council of six members. During the Afghan campaigns (1878–80) the Nawab placed the entire resources of his State at the disposal of the British Indian Government, and a contingent of his troops was employed in keeping open communications, and in guarding the Dera Ghazi Khan frontier. On his death in 1899 he was succeeded by Muhammad Bahawal Khan V, who attained his majority in 1900, and was invested with full powers in 1903.

View Blog:

Greenwich Mean Time

  Greenwich Mean Time Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London. GMT was formerly used as the international civil time standard, now superseded in that function by Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes (but this is not formalised) and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); these two meanings can differ by up to 0.9 s. Consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes.[1] Due to Earth's uneven speed in its elliptical orbit and its axial tilt, noon (12:00:00) GMT is rarely the exact moment the sun crosses the Greenwich meridian and reaches its highest point in the sky there. This event may occur up to 16 minutes before or after noon GMT, a discrepancy calculated by the equation of time. Noon GMT is the annual average (i.e. "mean") moment of this event, which accounts for the word "mean" in "Greenwich Mean Time". Originally, astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon while for almost everyone else it started at midnight. To avoid confusion, the name Universal Time was introduced to denote GMT as counted from midnight.[2] Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so that each night was logged under a single calendar date. Today Universal Time usually refers to UTC or UT1.[3] The term "GMT" is especially used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service, the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others particularly in Arab countries, such as the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and OSN. It is a term commonly used in the United Kingdom and countries of theCommonwealth, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan and Malaysia; and in many other countries of the eastern hemisphere. In some countries (Britain for example) Greenwich Mean Time is the legal time in the winter and the population uses the term. For an explanation of why this is, see "GMT in legislation" below.   History Greenwich clock with standard measurements As the United Kingdom grew into an advanced maritime nation, British mariners kept at least one chronometer on GMT to calculate theirlongitude from the Greenwich meridian, which was by convention considered to have longitude zero degrees, internationally adopted in the International Meridian Conference of 1884. Synchronisation of the chronometer on GMT did not affect shipboard time, which was still solar time. But this practice, combined with mariners from other nations drawing from Nevil Maskelyne's method of lunar distances based on observations at Greenwich, led to GMT being used worldwide as a standard time independent of location. Most time zones were based upon GMT, as an offset of a number of hours (and possibly a half-hour) "ahead of GMT" or "behind GMT". Greenwich Mean Time was adopted across the island of Great Britain by the Railway Clearing House in 1847, and by almost all railway companies by the following year, from which the term "railway time" is derived. It was gradually adopted for other purposes, but a legal case in 1858 held "local mean time" to be the official time.[4] On 14 May 1880, a letter signed by 'Clerk to Justices' appeared in 'The Times', stating that 'Greenwich time is now kept almost throughout England, but it appears that Greenwich time is not legal time. For example, our polling booths were opened, say, at 8 13 and closed at 4 13 PM.'[5][6]This was changed later in 1880, when Greenwich Mean Time was legally adopted throughout the island of Great Britain. GMT was adopted on the Isle of Man in 1883, Jersey in 1898 andGuernsey in 1913. Ireland adopted GMT in 1916, supplanting Dublin Mean Time.[7] Hourly time signals from Greenwich Observatory were first broadcast on 5 February 1924, rendering the time ball at the observatory redundant in the process. The daily rotation of the Earth is irregular (see ΔT) and constantly slows; therefore the atomic clocks constitute a much more stable timebase. On 1 January 1972, GMT was superseded as the international civil time standard by Coordinated Universal Time, maintained by an ensemble of atomic clocks around the world.Universal Time (UT), a term introduced in 1928, initially represented mean time at Greenwich determined in the traditional way to accord with the originally defineduniversal day; from 1 January 1956 (as decided by the IAU at Dublin, 1955, at the initiative of 

View Blog:

Bolan Pass

  Bolan Pass The Bolān Pass is a mountain pass through the Toba Kakar Range of Balochistan province in western Pakistan, 120 kilometres from the Afghanistan border. It connects Sibi with Quetta both by road and railway. The pass itself is made up of a number of narrow gorges and stretches 89 km (55 miles) from Rindli north to Darwāza near Kolpur in the Balochistan province of Pakistan.[2] Strategically located, traders, invaders, and nomadic tribes have also used it as a gateway to and from South Asia.[3] The Bolān Pass is an important pass on the Baluch frontier, connecting Jacobabad and Sibi with Quetta, which has always occupied an important place in the history of British campaigns in Afghanistan. The local population predominantly consists of Brahvi tribes, who extend from Bolan Pass to Cape Monze on the Arabian sea.[4][5] History In 1837, threatened by a possible Russian invasion of South Asia via the Khyber and Bolān Passes, a British envoy was sent to Kabul to gain support of the Emir, Dost Mohammed. In February 1839, the British Army under Sir John Keane took 12,000 men through the Bolān Pass and entered Kandahar, which the Afghan Princes had abandoned; from there they would go on to attack and overthrow Ghazni.

View Blog:

Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir

  Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. In the seventeenth century, the Mughal emperor Jahangir said that if paradise is anywhere on the earth, it is here (the Kashmir Valley), while living in a houseboat on Dal Lake[citation needed]. "Gar firdaus, ruhe zamin ast, hamin asto, hamin asto, hamin ast", which translates to "if there is ever a heaven on earth, its here, its here, its here". In Jammu and Kashmir the most important tourist places are the Kashmir Valley, Srinagar, the Mughal Gardens, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Jammu, and Ladakh. Some areas require a special permit for non-Indians to visit. Regions The Vaishno Devi shrine attracts millions of Hindu devotees every year, located in Jammu region. Jammu — Jammu is the winter capital of state and it is famous for its temples, particularly The Vaishno Devi Temple in Katra which is visited by over 1 crore (10 million) pilgrims every year,[1] making Jammu the most visited part of Jammu and Kashmir State. Shikaras on Dal Lake in Kashmir region. Kashmir Valley — some say it is Heaven on Earth, friendly people, beautiful gardens, vast lakes and pristine streams and stunning landscapes, it is all that "Enjoy the Incredible Kashmir" The 9 Stupas at Thiksey Monastery, Ladakh is famous for its Indo-Tibetan culture. Ladakh — truly amazing landscapes high up in the Himalayas, popular for trekking and with those on a search for the most serene place in the world Cities Jammu — the winter capital Srinagar — the summer capital of the state, set around famous Dal Lake, with its floating houseboats Gulmarg — Skiing and the India' highest gondola Katra— in the foothills of the Trikuta Mountains and home of the holy Mata Vaishno Devi shrine Leh — the jumping off point for treks and adventures around Ladakh Pahalgam — a calm and serene place offering multiple trekking routes. Starting point of Amarnath Yatra Patnitop — a small hill station in Jammu Udhampur Zab Baihk Overview Before militancy intensified in 1989, tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri economy. The tourism economy in the Kashmir valley was worst hit. However, the holy shrines of Jammu and the Buddhist monasteries of Ladakh continue to remain popular pilgrimage and tourism destinations. Every year, thousands of Hindu pilgrims visit holy shrines of Vaishno Devi and Amarnath which has had significant impact on the state's economy.[2] Tourism in the Kashmir valley has rebounded in recent years and in 2009, the state became one of the top tourist destinations of India.[3] Gulmarg, one of the most popular ski resort destinations in India, is also home to the world's highest green golf course.[4] The decrease in violence in the state has boosted the states economy specifically tourism.[5] It was reported that 7.36 lakh tourists visited Kashmir in 2010 including 23,000 foreigners. In 2011, the number of tourist arrivals in Kashmir touched the mark of 10 lakh.[6][7]

View Blog:

Paradise on Earth by M.Yaseen Khan

  Paradise on Earth Jammu and Kashmir in India is considered as paradise on Earth by visitors and the people living there. Its beauty is overwhelming and is a delight to photographers. This place is frequented by visitors throughout the year. Many of the Indian movies have been shot in Jammu and Kashmir because of the scenic views it provides. If you are a nature and adventure lover, you must visit Jammu & Kashmir at least once. Not convinced yet? Here are some pictures to get you packing. Snow covered Gulmarg is a perfect place to enjoy winter in India. With many adventure activities available, this place is frequented by adventure enthusiasts throughout the year.

View Blog:

Why Pakistan is just as

  Why Pakistan is just as beautiful as Switzerland It is beautiful, of that there is little doubt. Is it however accessible and appealing for travellers? The thing about Switzerland is that the country has taken the time and effort to make even most remote places easily reachable - using a combination of superb train services, cable cars, hiking trails, buses etc. All of these are not only tourist friendly, but extremely family friendly as well. Pakistan really needs to do a lot more to not just attract people (it should start with the domestic population) but by building an entire industry and an eco-system of ancillary services all of which work towards providing a great experience for travellers, adventure seekers and the like.   A beautiful view of lake Saiful Malook- a popular tourist destination in Pakistan. PHOTO: AFP Pakistan is beautiful, it is utterly blessed! We don’t just say it… it actually is. When it comes to breathtaking landscapes and mind-blowing sceneries, Pakistan is absolutely matchless. You think Switzerland is the most stunning place on this planet? Think again… 1. Gwadar, Balochistan Photo: Parhlo website 2. Bara Pani, Deosai Photo: Parhlo website 3. Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir Photo: Parhlo website 4. Shangrila Lake, Skardu Photo: Parhlo website

View Blog:

Leaning Tower of Pisa by M.Yaseen Khan

  Leaning Tower of Pisa The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa [ˈtorre di ˈpiːza]) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt. It is situated behind Pisa's cathedral and is the third oldest structure in the city's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo), after the cathedral and the Pisa Baptistry. The tower's tilt began during construction, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structure's weight. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed and gradually increased until the structure was stabilized (and the tilt partially corrected) by efforts in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The height of the tower is 55.86 metres (183.27 feet) from the ground on the low side and 56.67 metres (185.93 feet) on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m (8 ft 0.06 in). Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons (16,000 short tons).[1] The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001, the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees,[2][3][4]but the tower now leans at about 3.99 degrees.[5] This means the top of the tower is displaced horizontally 3.9 metres (12 ft 10 in) from the centre.[6] Architect There has been controversy about the real identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano,[7] a well-known 12th-century resident artist of Pisa, famous for his bronze casting, particularly in the Pisa Duomo. Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. A piece of cast bearing his name was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820, but this may be related to the bronze door in the façade of the cathedral that was destroyed in 1595. A 2001 study[8] seems to indicate Diotisalvi was the original architect, due to the time of construction and affinity with other Diotisalvi works, notably the bell tower of San Nicola and the Baptistery, both in Pisa. Construction Pisa Cathedral and the Leaning Tower of Pisa Leaning Tower of Pisa in 2004 Leaning Tower of Pisa Construction of the tower occurred in three stages over 199 years. Work on the ground floor of the white marble campanile began on August 14, 1173 during a period of military success and prosperity. This ground floor is a blind arcade articulated by engaged columns with classical Corinthian capitals.[citation needed] The tower began to sink after construction had progressed to the second floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-metre foundation, set in weak, unstable subsoil, a design that was flawed from the beginning. Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Republic of Pisa was almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca, and Florence. This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled.[citation needed] In 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction.[citation needed] In 1272, construction resumed under Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto. In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built upper floors with one side taller than the other. Because of this, the tower is curved.[9] Construction was halted again in 1284 when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria.[citation needed] The seventh floor was completed in 1319. The bell-chamber was finally added in 1372. It was built by Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower.[10] There are seven bells, one for each note of the musical major scale. The largest one was installed in 1655.[citation needed] After a phase (1990–2001) of structural strengthening,[11] the tower is currently undergoing gradual surface restoration, in order to repair visible damage, mostly corrosion and blackening. These are particularly pronounced due to the tower's age and its exposure to wind and rain.

View Blog:

Different Types of Trains of Indian Railways-Lifel

Different Types of Trains of Indian Railways-Lifeline of the Nation Indian Railways has some of the most spectacular and unforgettable rail journeys in the world. Here you experience a simple way to find out everything you need to know, It is one of the world’s largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km,carried 8,425 million passengers annually and revenues of INR1441.67 billion. Trams Tramway systems is still operate in Calcutta and the only operating tram network in India also the the oldest operating electric tram in Asia. Tramway are known as streetcar, trolley or trolley car. Suburban Rail The Suburban Railway system consists of rapid transit on exclusive inner suburban railway lines and play major role for the public transport system of many of India’s major cities. Suburban trains of India includes Mumbai Suburban Railway, Chennai Suburban Railway and Kolkata Suburban Railway. Metro Trains Metro Rail are known as Rapid transit consists of bus, metro and light rail systems, the first rapid transit system in India was the Kolkata Metro and Delhi Metro was India’s first modern metro and the third rapid transit system in India overall. Monorail A monorail system is consists of a single rail track typically elevated also called an elevated railway system. Mumbai Monorail is part of a major expansion of public transport in the city and the first monorail in India, Pune Monorail is a proposed monorail system for the city. Toy Trains The Toy Trains or Hill Trains of Mountain Railways of India are UNESCO World Heritage sites run on historic railway lines through the mountains to India’s hill stations. Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, Nilgiri Mountain Railway,Kalka–Shimla Railway,Kangra Valley Railway and Matheran Hill Railway are few of them. Luxury Trains Luxury trains are special trains designed specifically to offer an elegant train ride to heritage site of Indian cities for tourist. Five most luxury tourist trains in India includes Palace on Wheels,Maharaja Express,Royal Rajasthan on Wheels,Golden Chariot and Deccan Odyssey. Goods Trains The long rail network of Indian Railways earns revenues 70% from freight traffic, Most of its profits come from transporting freight, and this makes up for losses on passenger traffic. Other Trains

View Blog:

Hunza Valley by M.Yaseen Khan

  Hunza Valley The Hunza (Burushaski and Urdu: ہنزہ‎) is a mountainous valley in the Gilgit–Baltistan region of Pakistan. The Hunza is situated in the extreme northern part of Pakistan. History Hunza was formerly a princely state bordering Uyghurstan also called Xinjiang (autonomous region of China) to the northeast and Pamir to the northwest, which survived until 1974, when it was finally dissolved by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The state bordered the Gilgit Agency to the south and the former princely state of Nagar to the east. The state capital was the town of Baltit (also known as Karimabad); another old settlement is Ganish Village. Hunza was an independent principality for more than 900 years. The British gained control of Hunza and the neighbouring valley of Nagar between 1889 and 1892 through a military conquest. The then Mir/Tham (ruler) Mir Safdar Ali Khan of Hunza fled to Kashghar in China and sought what would now be called political asylum. [1] Hunza Valley Mir/Tham An account wrote by John Bidulf in his book 'Tribes of Hindukush' “ The ruling family of Hunza is called Ayeshe (heavenly). The two states of Hunza and Nagar were formerly one, ruled by a branch of the Shahreis, the ruling family of Gilgit, whose seat of government was Nager. First muslim came to Hunza-Nagar Valley some 1000 years (At the time of Imam Islām Shāh 30th Imam Ismaili Muslims). After the introduction of Islam to Gilgit, married a daughter of Trakhan of Gilgit, who bore him twin sons, named Moghlot and Girkis. From the former the present ruling family of Nager is descended. The twins are said to have shown hostility to one another from birth. Thereupon their father, unable to settle the question of succession, divided his state between them, giving Girkis the north/west, and to Moghlot the south/east bank of the river.[2] ” Hunza Valley near Chalt and the west face of Rakaposhi The traditional name for the ruler or Prince in Hunza was Tham (also Thom or Thum), which is also a respectful greeting used by the people of both Hunza and Nager who belong to the clan of Boorish. The Shin use the term Yeshkun for the Boorish. “ Both Thams are also addressed as Soori, a title of respect. This appears to be the same [in meaning] as Sri, commonly prefixed to the names of Hindu princes in India, to denote their honour and prosperity. The Tham's wives are styled ghenish which is almost identical with the original Sanskrit word for mother, and their sons are called gushpoor.[3] ” 2010 landslide In 2010, a landslide blocked the river and created Attabad Lake, which threatened 15,000 people in the valley below and has effectively blocked 27 km of the Karakoram Highway.[4] Capital of Hunza The first seat of power of the formerly Hunza State was Altit. Later it shifted to Baltit (modern-day Karimabad). Until the fall of princely state in 1974, Baltit served as political center of Hunza and hence its capital. Today, Baltit is one of the major tourist destinations in Hunza. The center of activities has however shifted to the nearby Aliabad, which is a commercial hub in the region and has most of the governmental infrastructure. Geography Baltit Fort, the former residence of the Mirs of Hunza Hunza is divided into 3 geographic subdivisions:

View Blog:

Beautiful Kalam Valley – Pakistan

Beautiful Kalam Valley – Pakistan Kalam Valley – Valley located across the Swat River in Swat, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Kalam Valley is famous for its magnificent waterfalls, lakes and lush green hills. It is 270 km drive from Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. It is one of the popular destinations for tourists. At 29 kilometers (18 mi) from Bahrain and about 2,000 meters (6,800 ft) above sea level, the valley opens out, providing rooms for a small but lush plateau above the river. In Kalam, the two rivers (Ushu and Utrot) join to form the Swat River. From Matiltan, Traveller gets a wonderful view of the snow-capped Mount Falaksir 5918 meters (19,415 ft), and of another unnamed peak 6096 meters (20,000 ft.) high    Home > Famous Places > Beautiful Kalam Valley – Pakistan

View Blog:

North & South Poles

North Pole v South Pole   Comparisons & Similarities While the polar regions have many similarities, they are also "polar opposites" metaphorically as well as literally in many ways.   The Arctic, centered on the North Pole Sea surrounded by land   The Antarctic centered on the South Pole Land surrounded by sea Both maps have only permanent ice shown, seasonal ice is omitted maps used courtesy of Uwe Dedering under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported licence The first obvious difference as seen clearly in the maps above is that the Arctic is sea surrounded by land while the Antarctic is land surrounded by sea. This fundamental difference is the reason for many of the other differences between the two regions.    North Pole   South Pole Where?   At sea - 700km to nearest land   Inland - 1,300km to nearest sea Height?   Up to 2m above sea-level   2,835m above sea-level 21st June   Midsummer, 24hr. light   Midwinter, 24hr. dark 21st December   Midwinter, 24hr. dark   Midsummer, 24hr. light Is there a "pole"   No - it would drift off in a few hours or less   Yes, moves 10m a year Temperature   +5°C to -43°C   -13.5°C to -62°C    1/ The North and South Poles The North Pole is a point in the Arctic Ocean around 700km (430 miles) north of the northern tip of Greenland, the closest land. The ocean is 4,261m (13,980 feet) deep at that point. It is permanently covered by sea ice though the sea-ice is always moving over the pole at a speed anywhere from a snails pace to a brisk walk. If you stood at the north pole, you would be anywhere from about 30-200cm (1 - 6.5 feet) above sea level.

View Blog:

Kalabagh Dam Blessing For Pakistan

Kalabagh Dam The Kalabagh Dam (Urdu: کالا باغ ڈيم‎), is a proposed hydroelectric dam on the Indus River at Kalabagh in the Mianwali District of Punjab Province in Pakistan. Intensely debated, if constructed the dam would have 3,600 megawatts (4,800,000 hp) of electricity generation capacity.[1] History   In December 2004, then President of Pakistan General Pervez Musharraf, announced that he would build the dam to serve the larger interest of Pakistan. However, on 26 May 2008, the Federal Minister for Water and Power of Pakistan, Raja Pervez Ashraf, said that the "Kalabagh Dam would not be constructed" and that the project had been cancelled due to "opposition from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and other stakeholders, the project was no longer feasible".[2] In 2010 after the worst floods in Pakistani history, the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Yousaf Raza Gilani, stated flood damage would be minimised if the Kalabagh Dam were built.[3] Technical facts Supporting Construction of Kalabagh Dam   Bashir A. Malik, former chief technical advisor to the United Nations and World Bank, said, "Sindh and Pakhtunkhwah would become drought areas in the years to come if Kalabagh Dam was not built."[4] At the same time, former KP Chief Minister Shamsul Mulk has stated that the "Kalabagh Dam would be helpful in erasing poverty from Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, as it would irrigate 800,000 acres of cultivable land that is located 100–150 feet above the level of River Indus."[5] The Kalabagh Dam would provide 6.5 million acre feet of water to cultivate seven million acres of currently barren land in addition to the 3,600 megawatts (4,800,000 hp) of electricity it would provide.[6] In response to the push towards side-lining Kalabagh altogether in favour of the rival Basha Dam project, Engineer Anwer Khurshid stated that "Basha Dam is no substitute for Kalabagh Dam, not because of its altitude, which is high enough, but because no irrigation canals can be taken out from it because of the hilly terrain."[7] [8] Experts who supported the construction of the Kalabagh Dam at the 2012 "Save Water Save Pakistan" Forum included: Dr Salman Shah, former Finance Minister of Pakistan; Abdul Majeed Khan, TECH Society president; Shafqat Masood, former IRSA chairman; Qayyum Nizami, former Minister of State; Prof Abdul Qayyum Qureshi, former Vice-Chancellor of Islamia University, Bahawalpur; Dr Muhammad Sadiq, agricultural scientist; M Saeed Khan, former GM of Kalabagh Dam Project; Engr. Mahmudur Rehman Chughtai, Mansoor Ahmed, former MD of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Foundation, M. Zubair Sheikh and Jameel Gishkori, among others.[9] The participants of Save Water Save Pakistan demanded the construction of five dams, including the Munda Dam, Kurram Tangi Dam, Akhori Dam and the Kalabagh Dam, at by 2025 at the latest to store water and generate electricity to meet demand. Conversely, former

View Blog:

The mystery of Shela Bagh

The mystery of Shela Bagh 141     2 The State Bank of Pakistan included the Khojak tunnel in the five rupee note from 1976 until 2005. When I first started backpacking across the country, I set out on a quest to find all of the places that were printed on our currency notes. That quest led me to places I never imagined I would ordinarily go — from long-forgotten tunnels near the Pakistan-Afghanistan border in the southern part of Pakistan to the highest mountain of the country in the North. That journey also led me 113km west of Quetta to the Khojak pass, a relic from the past that was featured on our (now defunct) five rupee note. In front of that tunnel is a place called Shela Bagh. The Great Game was all about expanding powers in Central Asia by two forces — the British and the Russians — and controlling natural resources in the region. During the late 19th century, the British Raj in India had begun to worry about Russia expanding its power in Central Asia. Fearing that the Russians may enter the region from Afghanistan via Kandahar, the British decided to lay their railway tracks all the way to Kandahar so they could send their troops to counter Russian forces. In order to do so, the British had to bypass the famous 2,290-metre high Khojak pass of Toba Kakar Mountain, which has been crossed for centuries by soldiers, merchants and conquerors.

View Blog:

10 Superb Foods to Increase Your Hemoglobin Levels

10 Superb Foods to Increase Your Hemoglobin Levels   Low hemoglobin levels can be caused due to numerous reasons. The most common of which include nutritional deficiencies, periods, pregnancy, certain cancers and bone marrow or kidney related disorders. You all might be very familiar with the term ‘anemia’. This term is thrown around in households for anyone who looks pale. Although it is not a completely wrong to say so, anemia normally includes a series of symptoms such as lethargy, easy fatigue, shortness of breath, pale skin, loss of appetite and so on. So what causes anemia? A decrease in the hemoglobin level decreases its oxygen carrying capacity and presents with all the symptoms.  This can be seriously dangerous for the body as deoxygenation of any organ can cause severe damage and even loss of function. If your blood report says you have low hemoglobin your doctor will prescribe iron supplements which is the main constituent of blood. Although this should rectify the problem, it is necessary to make certain lifestyle and dietary changes that will not only increase your blood hemoglobin levels but also make you more active and healthy. 10 natural ways by which you can achieve this are given below. 1. Berries and Pomegranates   Red is the color of blood (duh) and interestingly all foods that are red in color help increase hemoglobin. It is said that eating an entire box of berries is just as beneficial as putting a pint of blood in your body. This includes strawberries, cherries, raspberries etc. 2. Watermelon  This amazing thirst quenching gift from heaven has advantages other than being delicious. It is especially beneficial during pregnancy as the mother’s hemoglobin need increases. 3. Beetroot and Broccoli for Hemoglobin

View Blog:

The 16 Best Foods to Control D... by M.Yaseen Khan

The 16 Best Foods to Control Diabetes Figuring out the best foods to eat when you have diabetes can be tough. The main goal is to keep blood sugar levels well-controlled. However, it’s also important to eat foods that help prevent diabetes complications like heart disease. Here are the 16 best foods for diabetics, both type 1 and type 2. 1. Fatty Fish Fatty fish is one of the healthiest foods on the planet. Salmon, sardines, herring, anchovies and mackerel are great sources of the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, which have major benefits for heart health. Getting enough of these fats on a regular basis is especially important for diabetics, who have an increased risk of heart disease and stroke (1). DHA and EPA protect the cells that line your blood vessels, reduce markers of inflammation and improve the way your arteries function after eating (2, 3, 4, 5). A number of observational studies suggest that people who eat fatty fish regularly have a lower risk of heart failure and are less likely to die from heart disease (6, 7). In studies, older men and women who consumed fatty fish 5–7 days per week for 8 weeks had significant reductions in triglycerides and inflammatory markers (8, 9). Fish is also a great source of high-quality protein, which helps you feel full and increases your metabolic rate (10). Bottom Line: Fatty fish contain omega-3 fats that reduce inflammation and other risk factors for heart disease and stroke. 2. Leafy Greens Leafy green vegetables are extremely nutritious and low in calories. They’re also very low in digestible carbs, which raise your blood sugar levels. Spinach, kale and other leafy greens are good sources of several vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C. In one study, increasing vitamin C intake reduced inflammatory markers and fasting blood sugar levels for people with type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure (11). In addition, leafy greens are good sources of the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin. These antioxidants protect your eyes from macular degeneration and cataracts, which are common diabetes complications (12, 13, 14, 15). Bottom Line: Leafy green vegetables are rich in nutrients and antioxidants that protect your heart and eye health. 3. Cinnamon Cinnamon is a delicious spice with potent antioxidant activity. Several controlled studies have shown that cinnamon can lower blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity (16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22). Long-term diabetes control is typically determined by measuring hemoglobin A1c, which reflects your average blood sugar level over 2–3 months. In one study, type 2 diabetes patients who took cinnamon for 90 days had more than a double reduction in hemoglobin A1c, compared those who only received standard care (22). A recent analysis of 10 studies found that cinnamon may also lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels (23). However, a few studies have failed to show that cinnamon benefits blood sugar or cholesterol levels, including one on adolescents with type 1 diabetes (24, 25, 26). Furthermore, you should limit your intake of cassia cinnamon — the type found in most grocery stores — to less than 1 teaspoon per day. It contains coumarin, which is linked to health problems at higher doses (27). On the other hand, ceylon (“true”) cinnamon contains much less coumarin. Bottom Line: Cinnamon may improve blood sugar control, insulin sensitivity, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in type 2 diabetics. 4. Eggs Eggs provide amazing health benefits. In fact, they’re one of the best foods for keeping you full for hours (28, 29, 30). Regular egg consumption may also reduce your heart disease risk in several ways. Eggs decrease inflammation, improve insulin sensitivity, increase your “good” HDL cholesterol levels and modify the size and shape of your “bad” LDL cholesterol (31, 32, 33, 34). In one study, people with type 2 diabetes who consumed 2 eggs daily as part of

View Blog:

Lahore Canal

Lahore Canal Lahore Canal (Urdu/Punjabi: لاہور نہر) begins at the Bambawali-Ravi-Bedian (BRB) Canal that runs through the east of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The 37 miles (60 km) long waterway was initially built by the Mughals. It was then upgraded by the British in 1861, and further advanced by Bashir Ahmed Construction Company in 1976. It is an important part of the city's cultural heritage.[1] The canal, aside from its importance in irrigation purposes, forms the centre of a unique linear park that serves as one of the longest public green belts and popular recreational destination spots.[2] The average depth of the Canal is 5 feet (1.5 m) and it is bounded by roads on either side called the Canal Bank Road.[3] On local and national festivals, the canal is illuminated with lights and decor. Construction The Bambawali Ravi-Bedian (BRB) Canal at the east of the city of Lahore was already constructed in Mughal Era of the Indian Subcontinent, however, during the British Raj, the British sliced the Bambawali Ravi-Bedian (BRB) Canal and extended it on the west side (city of Lahore) till the town of Raiwind, located in south of Lahore.[4] The idea to extend the canal may have possibly emerged because an irrigation system was felt necessary after a disastrous famine hit the Subcontinent in 1837-38 in which nearly ten million (one crore) rupees was spent on relief works, resulting in considerable loss of revenue to the British East India Company. Route Downstream view of Lahore Canal at Mughalpurah It starts from BRB canal, few yards away from the Khaira Village, dividing the old neighborhoods of Lahore (on the west-side of the Canal) from the trendy areas of the privileged rich (on the east side of the Canal). Metrobus (Lahore) also crosses it through a

View Blog:

Kiwi by M.Yaseen Khan

Kiwi Kiwi North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Clade: Novaeratitae Order: Apterygiformes Haeckel, 1866 Family: Apterygidae Gray, 1840[1] Genus: Apteryx Shaw, 1813[1] Type species Apteryx australis Shaw & Nodder, 1813[2] Species Apteryx haastii Great spotted kiwi Apteryx owenii Little spotted kiwi Apteryx rowi Okarito brown kiwi Apteryx australis Southern brown kiwi Apteryx mantelli North Island brown kiwi The distribution of each species of kiwi Synonyms Stictapteryx Iredale & Mathews, 1926 Kiwi Verheyen, 1960 Pseudapteryx Lydekker 1891[3] Kiwi (pronounced /kiːwiː/) or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae. At around the size of a domestic chicken, kiwi are by far the smallest living ratites (which also consist of ostriches, emus, rheas, and cassowaries), and lay the largest egg in relation to their body size of any species of bird in the world.[4] DNA sequence comparisons have yielded the surprising conclusion that kiwi are much more closely related to the extinct Malagasy elephant birds than to the moa with which they shared New Zealand.[5]There are five recognised species, two of which are currently vulnerable, one of which is endangered, and one of which is critically endangered. All species have been negatively affected by historic deforestation but currently the remaining large areas of their forest habitat are well protected in reserves and national parks. At present, the greatest threat to their survival is predation by invasive mammalian predators. The kiwi is a national symbol of New Zealand, and the association is so strong that the term Kiwi is used internationally as the colloquial demonym for New Zealanders.[6] Etymology   The Māori language word kiwi (/ˈkiːwiː/ KEE-wee)[7] is generally accepted to be "of imitative origin" from the call.[8] However, some linguists derive the word from Proto-Nuclear Polynesian *kiwi, which refers to Numenius tahitiensis, the bristle-thighed curlew, a migratory bird that winters in the tropical Pacific islands.[9] With its long decurved bill and brown body, the curlew resembles the kiwi. So when the first Polynesian settlers arrived, they may have applied the word kiwi to the new-found bird.[10] The genus name Apteryx is derived from Ancient Greek "without wing": a-, "without" or "not"; pterux, "wing".[11] The name is usually uncapitalised, with the plural either the anglicised "kiwis"[12] or, consistent with the Māori language, appearing as "kiwi" without an "-s".[13] Taxonomy and systematics Life restoration of the proto-kiwi Proapteryx micromeros. Clockwise from left: brown kiwi (Apteryx australis), little spotted kiwi (Apteryx owenii) and great spotted kiwi (Apteryx haastii) at Auckland War Memorial Museum Although it was long presumed that the kiwi was closely related to the other New Zealand ratites, the moa, recent DNA studies have identified its closest relative as the extinct elephant bird of Madagascar,[5][14] and among extant ratites, the kiwi is more closely related to the emu and the cassowaries than to the moa.[5][15] Research published in 2013 on an extinct genus, Proapteryx, known from the Miocene deposits of the Saint Bathans Fauna, found that it was smaller and probably capable of flight, supporting the hypothesis that the ancestor of the kiwi reached New Zealand independently from moas, which were already large and flightless by the time kiwi appeared.

View Blog:

10 Top Tourist Attractions in Russia

10 Top Tourist Attractions in Russia The largest country in the world, Russia offers a broad array of travel experiences, from treks up the slopes of glacier-capped mountains to strolls along the shoreline of Earth’s oldest lake. Historical sites and cultural activities in the country’s great cities abound as well. Whether you’re exploring the grounds of Moscow’s Kremlin or wandering through the steppes of Mongolia, a visit to Russia is an adventure not soon forgotten. These top tourists attractions in Russia can inspire a great Russian itinerary for a memorable trip. 1. Saint Basil's Cathedral (Where to Stay) flickr/Jack Versloot Built between 1554 and 1561 and situated in the heart of Moscow, St. Basil’s Cathedral has been among the top tourist attractions in Russia. It is not the building’s interior artifacts that attract visitors, but rather the cathedral’s distinctive architecture. Designed to resemble the shape of a bonfire in full flame, the architecture is not only unique to the period in which it was built but to any subsequent period. There is no other structure on earth quite like St. Basil’s Cathedral. 2. Hermitage Museum (Where to Stay) Founded in 1764 by Catherine the Great, the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia is a massive museum of art and culture showing the highlights of a collection of over 3 million items spanning the globe. The collections occupy a large complex of six historic buildings including the Winter Palace, a former residence of Russian emperors. 3. Moscow Kremlin (Where to Stay)

View Blog:

Tea Plant – Health Benefits and Side Effects

  Tea Plant – Health Benefits and Side Effects Camellia sinensis is the plant which white tea, green tea, oolong and black tea are all harvested from. The difference between those teas lies in how the tea plant is processed. Other Common Names: Mecha, gyokura, bancha, kukicha, Asian tea, senchu, Chinese tea, Japanese tea. Habitat: China, Tibet, India, Assam, Cambodia and Japan. Plant Description: The tea plant is native to Southeast Asia; cultivated in tropical and subtropical altitudes from sea level to 7,000 feet. The plant is constantly pruned to a height of about 3 feet to encourage new growth. The tea plants produce abundant foliage, a yellow-white, camellia-like flower, approximately 2-4 cm in diameter, producing 7-8 petals and a berry. The growth of new shoots, called a flush, can occur every week at lower altitudes but takes several weeks at higher ones. It has a strong taproot and the seeds are pressed for oil. The leaves are from 3 to 14 cm in length and 2-5 cm in width, light green when young with short white hairs on the underside, becoming darker in maturity. The quality of the tea strength is determined on the age of the leaf with the youngest leaves and bud containing the most potency. Plant Parts Used: Leaves and flowers.   Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) – Attribution: Mette Nielsen Therapeutic Uses, Benefits and Claims of the Tea Plant The tea plant was first used as a food eaten for its medicinal effects, most often combined with onion and garlic; in Burma, many still eat pickled tea leaves. It is rich in catechins polyphenols, particularly epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a powerful anti-oxidant, reduces the risk of all cancers and inhibits the growth of cancer cells without harming healthy tissue. The use of tea can naturally lower total cholesterol levels, improves the ratio of good (HDL) cholesterol to bad (LDL) cholesterol.

View Blog:

Beautiful 20 Places to Visit in China

20 Beautiful Places to Visit in China Spring is a beautiful season, and it brings infinite joy and hope to us. I believe many people like to have a tour in Spring. Here you can find some scenic spots to feel the most beautiful place in China. 1. Hongcun Village in An Hui Province Hongcun Village is located in the Yixian County of Anhui Province, about 70 km from Huangshan city. It is one of the representative ancient villages in the southern part of Anhui Province. Firstly built in 1131 A.D., the village now has a history of almost 1000 years. The peaceful environment and beautiful surroundings present outsiders a piece of pleasing and tranquil picture of a typical country life in South China. The village is called the “village in traditional Chinese painting”. So far, the water system, streets, folk houses and even interior arrangements of the village are completely preserved as the primitive conditions of the ancient village. Everyday hundreds of visitors are attracted to the village by its beautiful views and more than 140 well-preserved ancient houses, among which several magnificent clan halls and the celebrities' former residences are most attracting.  It was inscribed into the list of the World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000. Hongcun is also the location for the famous Chinese film "Wo Hu Cang Long (Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon)", 2000, directed by Ang Lee and starring Chow Yun Fat. In the 73rd Academy Awards, the film has won Best Foreign Film, Best Original Score, Best Cinematography, and Best Art/Set Direction.1. Recommended Tour: 4 Days Huangshan World Heritage Tour 2. The Most Beautiful Lake in China-Jiuzhaigou The color of the lake is from the reflections of the lakeside scenery, and Algae and calcification rock at the bottom of the lake. Autumn is the best time to visit jiuzhaigou. In Autumn, the gorgeous color of the lake is comparable to the painter's palette. Admission including on-site transportation RMB 310 between April 1-November 15; RMB 160 between November 16-March 31. Direct flights are available between Jiuzhaigou’s Jiuhuang Airport and major Chinese cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Xi’an and Chengdu. The nearest traffic hub to Jiuzhaigou is Chengdu, the provincial capital of Sichuan, which is one hour by air or 11 hours by bus south of the lake. Recommended Tour: 3 Days Jiuzhaigou Private Tours 3. Real Floating Mountain-Hunan Zhangjiajie Actually, the inspiration of Pandora planet's floating mountains in the Academy Award-Winning works "Avatar" is from Wulingyuan Limestone column. There are more than 3000 limestone columns in Zhangjiajie's Wulingyuan Stone Forest of Hunan province, and the highest is as high as 400 meters. Wulingyuan authorities have named one stone pillar "Hallelujah Mountains" per Pandora's floating mountain. Admission: RMB 248 Recommand Tour:4 Days Zhangjiajie Private Tour 4.  Enjoy the Pristine Nature-Hunan Phoenix Ancient Town Phoenix Ancient Town is one of the most beautiful cities in China. The house with stilts type is the ideal dwelling of Chinese literature and art lovers. Phoenix Ancient Town has rich culture of the Miao and Tujia nationality. You can freely wander around and take in the peaceful existence of the local daily lives, the beautiful stone architecture and the houses on wooden stilts that line the river is a great way to easily fill a day or two. Admission: RMB 148.  Phoenix Ancient Town is located in the 430 kilometers west of Changsha. Every day there are regular buses running to Fenghuang from Changsha bus station in changsha. Recommended Tour: 5 Days Zhangjiajie Hiking and Fenghuang Village Tour  5. The Campsite of Bigfoot Monster-Hubei Shennongjia In the past 100 years, more than 400 people claimed that they saw the bigfoot monster in Shennongjia forest, but still there is no hard evidence. As a mid-latitude preserved and most complete subtropical forest ecological system, shennongjia covers an area of 3200 square kilometres and here there are more

View Blog:

10 Top Tourist Attractions in ... by M.Yaseen Khan

10 Top Tourist Attractions in the Philippines   Located at the very eastern edge of Asia, the Philippines are home to more than 7,000 islands, which are inhabited by friendly locals and many indigenous tribes. From pristine beaches and marvelous natural wonders to interesting historic sites and once-in-a-lifetime experiences, the Philippines pack many exciting things to see and do. Check out the following top tourist attractions in the Philippines. 1. Banaue Rice Terraces flickr/IRRI Images No trip to the Philippines could be complete without seeing the spectacular Banaue Rice Terraces. Carved from the mountain ranges about 2,000 years ago without modern tools by the Ifugao tribes, these magnificent farm terraces resemble giant steps reaching up to the sky. Locals to this day still plant rice and vegetables on the terraces, although more and more younger Ifugaos do not find farming appealing and emigrate to the cities. 2. Boracay Boracay may be a small island, but it packs great features such as award-winning beaches, beautiful resorts and great adventures like cliff diving, parasailing, motorbiking, horse riding, snorkeling, kite surfing and scuba diving. If that is not enough, boat tours allow visitors to watch stunning sunsets, explore volcanic caves and remote coves of turquoise lagoons. When the sun sets, Boracay night-life pulsates with many bars and restaurants serving food, drinks and fun until dawn. 3. Chocolate Hills

View Blog:

15 Best Places to Visit in Serbia

15 Best Places to Visit in Serbia   Serbia has something for everyone, from lively urban attractions, to calm and peaceful towns and villages that dot the magnificent countryside. It is also known for being one of the cheapest destinations in the Balkans, so if you are planning a trip to the region then Serbia is well worth a visit. Aside from a wealth of cultural and historic relics to enjoy, there is also a swinging cafe and bar scene as well as throbbing nightlife and some of arguably the world’s best music festivals. Whatever you do, don’t be put off by Serbia’s often uncomfortable history. Times have changed, and this is one place not to miss. 1. Belgrade Belgrade Serbia’s capital Belgrade is located at the intersection between the Danube and the Sava rivers, and is an eclectic, if sometimes arresting, mix of old and new styles, from 19th century buildings to Art Nouveau structures. There is a little bit of everything in Belgrade, including the dominating Kalemegdan Fortress, located in Kalemegdan Park, the remains of which stand today. The park is also home to the Military Museum that even features the remnants of a US Stealth Bomber for those keen to learn about the military history of the region. Aside from the fortress there are Orthodox churches, colourful facades, and quaint squares aplenty, but for something more unexpected head over to the island of Ada Cinganlija or ‘Gypsy Island’ in the south of Belgrade to find yourself at something of a self styled beach resort. Here you will find beaches that stretch along the banks of the Sava, and you can enjoy swimming, water sports like waterskiing, and a large area of parkland for those who enjoy checking out the local plant and wildlife. 2. Fruška Gora Mountain and National Park Fruška Gora Mountain and National Park Located in the region of Syrmia, Fruška Gora Mountain is found on the border with neighbouring Croatia, and is affectionately known as the ‘Jewel of Serbia’. The mountain region includes a protected area known as Fruška Gora Park, and is studded with vineyards and wineries that are well worth a visit for grape enthusiasts. Rambling, hiking, climbing and picnicking are all popular pursuits in the region, but perhaps the biggest draw here are the Orthodox monasteries that are scattered all over the countryside, some of which are said to date back to the 12th century and are now protected. The scenery here is spectacular, and many visitors come to enjoy the stunning views and unhurried pace that allows you to explore the region at your leisure. 3. Sokobanja Sokobanja Serbia is well known for its spa towns, once the retreat of choice of Roman emperors, and none more so than the town of Sokobanja in the east of the country. Locals and celebrities flock here for the thermal waters that are said to have deeply healing properties, and there is a public ‘hamam’ or steam room that dates from the 17th century. As well as the hot springs, visitors also travel to Sokobanja for the crisp air said to be high in negative ions and free from air pollution due to the increased elevation, leading to the phrase ‘climatic spa’ to describe the treatment that breathing in the fresh air provides. 4. Vinca Vinca The region of Vinca, located outside of Belgrade, is one of the most important places in the history of Serbia, as it is home to the archaeological site Belo brdo, meaning ‘White Hill’. The area was made famous by the archaeological finds uncovered in Vinca, many made of stone or bone, including statues, ornaments, and drinking vessels, and visitors can tour the site as well as the museum that showcases

View Blog:

5 Health Benefits of Beans—and... by M.Yaseen Khan

5 Health Benefits of Beans—and 5 Surprising Risks Beans are nutritional powerhouses packed with protein, fiber, B vitamins, iron, potassium, and are low in fat; but this mighty food can also pose potential health risks.   Health Benefit: Beans can prevent heart disease ISTOCK/THINKSTOCK Studies have shown that people who eat more legumes have a lower risk of heart disease, and the phytochemicals found in beans might be partially to thank, since they protect against it. Health Benefit: Beans can fight cancer ISTOCK/THINKSTOCK Beans contain a wide range of cancer-fighting plant chemicals, specifically, isoflavones and phytosterols which are associated with reduced cancer risk. Health Benefit: Beans can lower cholesterol ISTOCK/THINKSTOCK

View Blog:

10 Best Family Picnic Points In Karachi

10 Best Family Picnic Points In Karachi Pakistan have world most Natural beautiful places All these places are real natural beauty of the world places PAF Museum 2 Hawksbay Picnic Point 3

View Blog:

Kalam, Swat by Muhammad Yaseen Khan

Kalam, Swat Kalam (Kalami/Pashto: کالام ‎) is a cool heaven for tourists which is located at distance of 99 km from Mingora in the northern upper reaches of Swat valley along the bank of Swat River in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Kalam Swat valley Kalam Boyun Kalam Swat valley Kalam is surrounded by lush green hills, thick forests and bestowed with mesmeric lakes, meadows and waterfalls which are worth seen features of the landscape. It is the birthplace of Swat river which forms with confluence of two major tributaries of Gabral river & Ushu river. It is a spacious sub-valley of Swat, at an elevation of about 2,000 meters (6,600 feet) above sea level, and providing rooms for a small but fertile plateau above the river for farming.[1] Here, the metalled road ends and shingle road leads to the Usho and Utror valleys. From Matiltan some snow-capped mountains are visible including Mount Falaksar 5,918 meters (19,416 feet), and another unnamed peak 6,096 meters (20,000 feet) high.[2] There are a lot of grand hotels in Kalam, where one can stay for night and enjoy the cool breeze of Swat river.[3]   Contents   [hide] 

View Blog:

Top 10 Most Beautiful Places T... by M.Yaseen Khan

Top 10 Most Beautiful Places To Visit Before You Die! Everyone wants to travel the world and visit the beautiful sites, but with so many places to visit where do you start? Here we come to you with the list of 10 most incredibly super awesome places to visit around the world, before you die. See which places our readers like the best, and vote for your favorites. Whitehaven Beach – Australia Whitehaven Beach is known for its white sands. The Beach is a 7 km stretch along Whitsunday Island. The island is accessible by boat from the mainland tourist ports of Airlie Beach and Shute Harbour, as well as Hamilton Island. The Beach was named the top Eco Friendly Beach in the world by CNN.com. Dogs are not permitted on the beach and cigarette smoking is prohibited. Westin Maui Resort & Spa Hawaii A fantastic lobby with waterfalls and pools greets visitors to this lush Kaanapali resort where the impressive scenery, friendly service, fabulous spa and awesome swimming pools are the highlights. The Westin Maui Resort & Spa, Ka’anapali is located along a breathtaking stretch of the gorgeous, white-sand Ka’anapali Beach. The Fairy Pools on the Isle of Skye – Scotland

View Blog:

Saif-ul-Malook &

Saif-ul-Malook & Ansoo Lake Once upon a time, there lived in Egypt a prince called Saif-ul-Malook. They say that Saif was the handsomest man to walk the earth since Joseph himself – tall and lean, with skin the colour of gleaming copper, a clear, noble brow, deep-set dark eyes and black hair that fell in waves to his shoulders. He was brave, a skilled hunter, rider and swordsman, true to his Arabic name – “Sword of the Kings”. Born to riches, Prince Saif had never wanted for anything in his life; there was not a stone, river, man or woman in the kingdom that he could not claim. Until one night, he had a dream. A dream that changed the course of his life, and robbed him of his peace of mind forever. He dreamt of a lake, a lake he had never seen before, surrounded by mountains that seemed to touch the sky and water that shimmered emerald-green in the moonlight. In the lake seven fairies were bathing - ethereal creatures, slim as gazelles, with creamy skins, wide, golden eyes, and hair like rippling ebony – but the seventh among them eclipsed them all in beauty. Her face was as radiant as the full moon, badr, but it was when she laughed, skipping on the water without a care in the world – it was when she laughed that Saif was seized by a joy and a sadness so intense, so inexpressible, that he awoke from his sleep with tears in his eyes. Badr-ul-Jamal…he had never seen anything more beautiful.  The next morning, Saif was visibly troubled.  “Why so crestfallen, son?” asked the king, his father, at breakfast.  “Father,” the young man confided. “I think I am in love.”  The king was overjoyed. “What happy news, son! This calls for a wedding! Who is the favoured princess?”  “No princess, father,” Saif replied grimly; then, with a sudden burst of elation: “She is a Queen…A Queen among fairies!”  The king’s face furrowed into a frown as he considered his son’s words. “Saif, you do realize what you are saying? A fairy! She is a bird, a creature cast of fire, naari. So how can a human being, an earthbound mortal like you, ever hope to possess her?” He shook his head vehemently. ”It is impossible. Abandon the idea at once. It will bring you nothing but misery,” he foresaw.  But it was no use. It was too late for discussion, for persuasion and advice. Saif’s heart was already on fire. He begged his father’s permission to set out and look for that magical lake where the fairies bathed, in the hopes of finding their Queen. With a heavy heart, the king consented, blessed him on his quest, and watched his only son ride away into the desert. For six long years Prince Saif searched, roaming every corner of Egypt, from Alexandria to Sinai. Begging on the streets, his hair in his eyes, his shoes in tatters, consumed by love, people no longer recognized him.”There he goes, the madman!” they cried. “There goes the madman, the majnun, who looks for a lake the colour of emeralds and mountains of pure white! Who ever heard of such a place?” And they laughed and pushed him out of town.  One day, as he wandered about the outskirts of Cairo, Saif saw a holy man, a buzurg, sitting under the shade of a lone olive tree. “Perhaps this holy man can help me,” Saif thought. As he approached him, the old man looked up expectantly.  “Ah, there you are,” the old man said, a smile playing on his lips. “I’ve been waiting for you, Prince Saif.”  Prince! No one had addressed him thus in years. But before Saif had the chance to express his surprise or explain his predicament, the buzurg dug a hand into the bountiful folds of his cloak and produced an old, battered round sheepskin cap, frayed and thinned with what seemed like centuries of use. Placing it in Saif’s hands, the holy man said, looking at him with keen eyes, “You have been through a lot, my son. But the important thing is that you don’t give up - nothing valuable is won without a struggle.”  Saif toyed with the cap in his hands. “Thank you,” he said hesitatingly. “But what am I supposed to do with this?”  The old man chuckled. “Why, what do you think? Put it on!”  Puzzled, Prince Saif gingerly placed the old cap on his head. What happened next cannot be described, only experienced by the wearer of a Suleimani topi, Solomon’s fabled magic cap, which has the power to transport its wearer to any place he or she desires in a matter of seconds. There was a gust of wind; Saif felt the earth give away under his feet; suddenly, he was shooting through the sky in a fantastic whirlwind of faces, places, colors and memories; a deafening rumble filled his ears; and then, in the blink of an eye, his feet were firmly planted again on the earth. When he opened his eyes, this is what he saw. It was the Lake – emerald green, calm as a mirror, ringed by rugged snow-capped peaks – the very one from his dream. Saif’s joy was uncontrollable. “I shall find her, I shall find her here!” he cried, jumping up and down like a child. ”My suffering is finally over!” In his excitement, he forgot about how he had been transported to the Lake in the first place – courtesy the jinn of Solomon’s cap, who was at this moment standing behind him in human form.  The jinn cleared his throat. “Prince Saif…there is one thing.” Saif turned around with a start. “What…?” he said slowly, peering at the jinn.  “You will not be able to see the Fairy Queen Badr Jamal. She is, like us, naari, borne of fire, hence invisible to the human eye in her true form.”  “So, what must I do to see her?” Saif asked impatiently.  “You may pray,” the jinn replied. “Pray

View Blog:

Heer Ranjha by Muhammad Yaseen Khan

Heer Ranjha Heer Ranjha (Punjabi: ਹੀਰ ਰਾਂਝਾ, ہیر رانجھا, hīr rānjhā) is one of several popular tragic romances of Punjab. The others are Mirza Sahiba and Sohni Mahiwal. There are several poetic narrations of the story, the most famous being 'Heer' byWaris Shah written in 1766. It tells the story of the love of Heer and her lover Ranjha.[1] Heer Ranjha's Grave in Jhang History   Heer Ranjha's tombstone Heer Ranjha was written by Waris Shah. Some historians say that the story was the original work of Shah, written after he had fallen in love with a girl named Bhag Bhari.[2] Others say that Heer and Ranjha were real personalities who lived under the Lodi dynasty and that Waris Shah later utilised these personalities for his story. Shah states that the story has a deeper meaning, referring to the unrelenting quest that man has towards God.[3] Example from the epic poem[edit] The invocation at the beginning,[4] in one version goes thus (The Legends of the Panjab by RC Temple, Rupa and Company, Volume two, page 606) Rag Hir Ranjha: Awal-akhir naam Allah da lena, duja dos Muhammad Miran Tija naun maat pita da lena, unha da chunga dudh sariran Chautha naun unn paani da lena, jis khaave man banhe dhiran Panjman naun Dharti Maata da lena, jis par kadam takiman Chhewan naun Khwaja Pir da lena, jhul pilave thande niran Satwan naun Guru Gorakhnath de lena, pataal puje bhojan Athwan naun lalaanwale da lena, bande bande de tabaq zanjiran Translation First take the name of Allah and second the Great Muhammad, the prophet (of God) Third, take the name of father and mother, on whose milk my body thrived Fourth, take the name of bread and water, by eating which my heart is gladdened Fifth, take the name of Mother Earth, on whom I place my feet. Sixth, take the name of Khwaja (Khizr, the Saint), who gives me cold water to drink Seventh, take the name of Guru Gorakh Nath who is worshiped with a platter of milk and rice Eighth, take the name of Lalanwala who breaks the bonds and the chains of captives Summary of the love story   Luddan ferries Ranjha across the Chenab Heer is an extremely beautiful woman, born into a wealthy family of the Sial (tribe) Jatt in

View Blog:

23 Top Tourist Attractions in Malaysia

23 Top Tourist Attractions in Malaysia Malaysia offers two very distinct experiences: the peninsula and Borneo (an island shared with Indonesia and Brunei). The peninsula is a mix of Malay, Chinese and Indian flavors with an efficient and modern capital, Kuala Lumpur. Malaysian Borneo features some of the most interesting places in Malaysia with a wild jungle, orangutans, granite peaks and remote tribes. Combined with some beautiful islands, luxury resorts and colonials towns, Malaysia, for most visitors, presents a happy mix. Almost 2 million foreign tourists traveled to Malaysia in 2010. Most of them were citizens from neighboring countries such as Singapore and Indonesia but a growing number of other foreign tourists are discovering this country as well. The top Malaysia tourist attractions: 1. Mulu Caves flickr/robdu91 The Mulu Caves are located in the Gunung Mulu National Park in Malaysian Borneo. The park encompasses incredible caves and karst formations in a mountainous equatorial rainforest setting. The Sarawak chamber found in one of the underground caves is the largest cave chamber in the world. It has been said that the chamber is so big that it could accommodate about 40 Boeing 747s, without overlapping their wings. The enormous colony of Wrinkle-lipped bats in the nearby Deer Cave exit almost every evening in search of food in a spectacular exodus. 2. Sepilok Rehabilition Centre Sepilok Orang Utan Rehabilitation opened in 1964 for rescued orphaned baby orangutans from logging sites, plantations and illegal hunting. The orphaned orangutans are trained to survive again in the wild and are released as soon as they are ready. The Orang Utan sanctuary is located within the Kabili-Sepilok Forest Reserve, much of which is virgin rainforest. About 60 to 80 orangutans are living free in the reserve. It is one of Sabah’s top tourist attractions and a great stopover on any Malaysia itinerary. 3. Perhentian Islands  flickr/Adamina Located off the coast of northeastern Malaysia not far from the Thai border. The Perhentian Islands are the must-go place in Malaysia for budget travelers. They have some of the world’s most beautiful beaches and great diving with plenty of cheap accommodation. The two main islands are Perhentian Besar (“Big Perhentian”) and Perhentian Kecil (“Small Perhentian”). Both the islands have palm-fringed white sandy beaches and turquoise blue sea. 4. Langkawi  flickr/trekker308 Malaysia’s best-known holiday destination, Langkawi is an archipelago of 99 islands in the Andaman Sea. The islands are a part of the state of Kedah, which is adjacent to the Thai border. By far the largest of the islands is the eponymous Pulau Langkawi with a population of about 65,000, the only other inhabited island being nearby Pulau Tuba. Fringed with long, white beaches and with an interior of jungle covered hills and craggy mountain peaks, it’s easy to see why this is Malaysia’s most heavily promoted tourist destination. The most popular beaches can be found on the west coast with a wide choice of restaurants and eateries and some of the best resorts in Langkawi. 5. Petronas Twin Towers The Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur were the world’s tallest buildings before being surpassed in 2004 by Taipei 101. However, the towers are still the tallest twin buildings in the world. The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia’s Muslim religion. The Petronas Twin Towers feature a sky bridge between the two towers on the 41st and 42nd floors. 6. Mount Kinabalu  flickr/Eric in SF With a summit height at 4,095 meters (13,435 ft), Mount Kinabalu is the highest mountain in Borneo. The mountain is known worldwide for its tremendous botanical and biological species biodiversity. Over 600 species of ferns, 326 species of birds, and 100 mammalian species have been identified at Mount Kinabalu and its surrounding. The main

View Blog:

Lychee by M.Yaseen Khan

Lychee   Lychee (variously spelled litchi, liechee, liche, lizhi or li zhi, or lichee) (Litchi chinensis; Chinese: 荔枝; pinyin: lìzhī) is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae. It is a tropical tree native to the Guangdong and Fujian provinces of China, where cultivation is documented from 1059 AD. China is the main producer of lychees, followed by India, other countries in Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and South Africa. A tall evergreen tree, the lychee bears small fleshy fruits. The outside of the fruit is pink-red, roughly textured and inedible, covering sweet flesh eaten in many different dessert dishes. Since the perfume-like flavor is lost in the process of canning, the fruit is usually eaten fresh. Lychee contains many phytochemicals. The seeds have been found to contain methylenecyclopropylglycine which can cause hypoglycemia, while outbreaks of encephalopathy in Indian and Vietnamese children have also been linked to its consumption Taxonomy Pierre Sonnerat's drawing from Voyage aux Indes Orientales et à la Chine(1782) Litchi chinensis is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae.[2] It was described and named by French naturalist Pierre Sonnerat in his account "Voyage aux Indes orientales et à la Chine, fait depuis 1774 jusqu'à 1781" (translation: "Voyage to the East Indies and China, made from 1774 to 1781"), which was published in 1782.[citation needed] There are three subspecies, determined by flower arrangement, twig thickness, fruit, and number of stamens. Litchi chinensis subsp. chinensis is the only commercialized lychee. It grows wild in southern China, northern Vietnam, and Cambodia. It has thin twigs, flowers typically have six stamens, fruit are smooth or with protuberances up to 2 mm (0.079 in). Litchi chinensis subsp. philippinensis (Radlk.) Leenh. It is common in the wild in the Philippines and rarely cultivated. It has thin twigs, six to seven stamens, long oval fruit with spiky protuberances up to 3 mm (0.12 in).[3] Litchi chinensis subsp. javensis. It is only known in cultivation, in Malaysia and Indonesia. It has thick twigs, flowers with seven to eleven stamens in sessile clusters, smooth fruit with protuberances up to 1 mm (0.039 in).[2][4] Description L. chinensis tree at Parque Municipal Summit in Panama L. chinensis flowers Litchi chinensis is an evergreen tree that is frequently less than 15 m (49 ft) tall, sometimes reaching 28 m (92 ft).[5] The bark is grey-black, the branches a brownish-red. Leaves are 10 to 25 cm (3.9 to 9.8 in) or longer, with leaflets in 2-4 pairs.[6] Litchee have a similar foliage to the Lauraceae family likely due to convergent evolution. They are adapted by developing leaves that repel water, and are called laurophyll or lauroid leaves. Flowers grow on a terminal inflorescence with many panicles on the current season's growth. The panicles grow in clusters of ten or more, reaching 10 to 40 cm (3.9 to 15.7 in) or longer, holding hundreds of small white, yellow, or green flowers that are distinctively fragrant.[4] The lychee bears fleshy fruits that mature in 80–112 days, depending on climate, location, and cultivar. Fruits vary in shape from round to ovoid to heart-shaped, up to 5 cm long and 4 cm wide (2.0 in × 1.6 in), weighing approximately 20g.[5][7] The thin, tough skin is green when immature, ripening to red or pink-red, and is smooth or covered with small sharp protuberances roughly textured. The rind is inedible but easily removed to expose a layer of translucent white fleshy aril with a floral smell and a fragrant, sweet flavor.[5] The skin turns brown and dry when left out after harvesting. The fleshy, edible portion of the fruit is an aril, surrounding one dark brown inedible seed that is 1 to 3.3 cm long and 0.6 to 1.2 cm wide (0.39–1.30 by 0.24–0.47 in). Some cultivars produce a high percentage of fruits with shriveled aborted seeds known as 'chicken tongues'. These fruit typically have a higher price, due to having more edible flesh.[4] Since the perfume-like flavor is lost in the process of canning, the fruit is usually eaten fresh.[5] History "Lici Fruit Tree" in Michal Boym's Flora Sinensis (1657) Cultivation of lychee began in the region of southern China, going back to 1059 AD, 

View Blog:

Health Benefits of Falsa or Phalsa Fruit

Health Benefits of Falsa or Phalsa Fruit     Grewia Asiatica, or Falsa in English Falsa fruit are small berries that grow on the tree Grewia asiatica. The fruit, known as Phalsa in India, resembles black currents but are not the same. While black current shrubs do produce similar small, glossy, purple berries, they are native to parts of Europe and northern Asia. Falsa shrubs, on the other hand, are native to southern Asia, including Pakistan, India, and Cambodia, and are widely cultivated in other tropical countries. Falsa plants grow to be about 15 - 20 feet tall. They have rough bark and drooping, shaggy branches. The leaves are large, thick, and oval-shaped with pointed tips. The tree can grow in a variety of soil conditions and climates and is drought-resistant. It does, however, need protection from freezing temperatures. Quick Reference Guide Grewia asiatica = scientific name Phalsa = common name in India Falsa = common name in English Phalsa fruit. | Source About Falsa Fruit Falsa fruit is available in India during the months of May and June, which are the peak hot months. A very delicate and perishable fruit, falsa is difficult to transport. This is one of the reasons it is not available throughout the world. When consumed during the summer, it provides a much-needed cooling effect. It is mostly eaten fresh, with a sprinkling of salt and black pepper. However a syrup of the fruit may also be prepared, so that one can enjoy the fruits' benefits for a longer time. Medicinal Uses for Falsa Parts of the phalsa plant are used in folk medicine. University of Miami botanist Julia Morton wrote in Fruits of Warm Climates1 that unripe phalsa fruit "alleviates inflammation and is administered in respiratory, cardiac and blood disorders, as well as in fever." Other medicinal uses include: An infusion of the bark is said to treat diarrhea, pain, rheumatism, and arthritis. A study published in the journal Ethnobotany

View Blog:

10 Remarkable Countries You Never Realized Had Fem

10 Remarkable Countries You Never Realized Had Female Leaders   SOURCE: ODD ANDERSEN/AFP/Getty Images  Share this By CATE CARREJO   Oct 22 2015 Although it feels to me like the U.S. is a long way from electing a female president, there are dozens of female leaders in charge of their countries all over the world. Historically, female leadership has been sporadic, but always observable, going all the way back to Pharaoh Merneith of Egypt in 2952 B.C.E. The occasional story of a powerful sovereign female leader, like Queen Elizabeth I of England or Empress Catherine The Great of Russia, pops up throughout history, but most female leaders were dowagers, regents for underage male heirs, or quickly overthrown by other parties. A dramatic decrease in female world leadership came with the renewal of democracy in the 17th century. Women could no longer succeed the seat of government simply because of bloodline, so leadership in patriarchal societies ran unbalanced for centuries. Only in the post World War I revolutionary governments of Europe did women begin to gain traction in government — Nina Bang, who was the Danish Minister of Education from 1924 to 1926, was the first woman to be democratically elected to a minister position. Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka broke the glass ceiling in 1960 by becoming the first elected female world leader, and since then, women have increased dramatically in democratic leadership up until today. There are currently 27 female leaders in charge of sovereign countries and self-ruled territories — here are 10 of the most influential women in global politics today. Liberia: President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf SOURCE: JEWEL SAMAD/AFP/Getty Images Executive President of Liberia since 2006, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf made history as the first elected female head of state in Africa. She holds an associate's degree in accounting from Madison Business College and a Master of Public Administration degree from Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. In office, she created Liberia's first universal elementary school system, nearly eliminated the national debt and won a Nobel Peace Prize. On top of all that amazingness, Sirleaf is the aunt of Retta, who plays "Donna" on Parks and Recreation.

View Blog:

REMARKABLE COUNTRIES NOT TO BE MISSED

REMARKABLE COUNTRIES NOT TO BE MISSED  Our friendly travel experts from Lonely Planet recently announced its top 10 best countries to visit in 2015. Some are underrated while others are quite known for its outgoing character. Whatever it is, these cities should totally be in your #2015TravelGoals #1 Singapore It’s her Golden Jubilee! More reason for you to visit Singapore and celebrate along its grand heritage buildings, chaotic hawker centers, luxurious green spaces and glitzy shopping malls. Though, this country was declared the world’s most expensive city in 2014, replacing Tokyo, but the best things usually comes at a price. #2 Namibia In 2015, this country is celebrating its 25th anniversary of independence and so far, they have done a pretty great job in sustainable development, such as being the first African country to include protection of its environment within its constitution, empowering local communities to contribute. It’s highly suggested to enjoy a self-drive safari for Namibia is simply the best place in Africa to get behind the wheel and explore. #3 Lithuania

View Blog:

BE THE FIRST TO STEP ONTO THE UNTOUCHED ARCHIPELAG

   10 Simple Ways to Make Other People Happy   We here at Inc. give tons of good suggestions about how to make yourself happier. We had "10 Easy Ways to Make Yourself Happy in 2016," "5 Secrets to a Balanced, Happy Life," and "5 Daily Habits of Remarkably Happy People," all within the past few weeks. These articles are all fabulous, but what if we want to make other people happy? How can we do that? Here are 10 ways to make others happy, and (spoiler alert) you'll find that doing them makes you happy as well. 1. Leave a review on TripAdvisor. My husband and I just got back from a trip to Vietnam and Cambodia. These are poor countries that rely heavily on tourism. Every time we would do an activity and indicated that we'd had a good time, our hosts asked us to leave a review on TripAdvisor. Getting positive reviews can be the difference between life and death for a small business-especially

View Blog:

Abdul Sattar Edhi by M.Yaseen Khan

  Abdul Sattar Edhi Abdul Sattar Edhi (Urdu: عبدالستار ایدھی‎; c.  28 February 1928 – 8 July 2016)[1][2][3] was a Pakistani philanthropist, ascetic, and humanitarian who founded the Edhi Foundation, which runs the world's largest volunteer ambulance network,[10] along with homeless shelters, rehab centres, and orphanages across Pakistan.[11] Born in Bantva, Gujarat, British India in 1928, Edhi moved to Karachi where he established a free dispensary for Karachi's low-income residents. Edhi's charitable activities expanded in 1957 when an Asian flu epidemic swept through Karachi. Donations allowed him to buy his first ambulance the same year. He later expanded his charity network with the help of his wife Bilquis Edhi.[11][12] Over his lifetime, the Edhi Foundation expanded backed entirely with private donations including establishing a network of 1,800 minivan ambulances. By the time of his death, Edhi was registered as a parent or guardian of nearly 20,000 children.[2] He is known as Angel of Mercy and is considered to be Pakistan's "most respected" and legendary figure.[4][13]In 2013, The Huffington Post claimed that he might be "the world's greatest living humanitarian",[14] while on 28 February 2017, Google celebrated Edhi with a Google Doodle hailing his "super-efficient" ambulance service.[15][16] Edhi maintained a hands-off management style and was often critical of the clergy and politicians.[17] Edhi was a strong proponent of religious tolerance in Pakistan and extended support to the victims of Hurricane Katrina and the 1985 famine in Ethiopia.[18][19] Edhi was nominated several times for the Nobel Peace Prize, including by Malala Yousafzai.[20][21] Eidhi received several awards including Gandhi Peace Award and the UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize.[22] Early life He was born in Bantva in the Gujarat, British India into a Memon family.[23][1][24][25] In his biography, he said his mother would give him 1 paisa for his meals and another to give to a poor child.[26] When he was eleven, his mother became paralysed from a stroke and she died when Edhi was 19. His personal experiences and care for his mother during her illness caused him to develop a system of services for old, mentally ill and challenged people. The partition of India led Edhi and his family to migrate to Pakistan in 1947.[13][27] He then shifted to Karachi to work in a market at a wholesale shop. He initially started as a peddler, and later became a commission agent selling cloth in the wholesale market in Karachi. After a few years, he established a free dispensary with help from his community. He told NPR in 2009 that "I saw people lying on the pavement ... The flu had spread in Karachi, and there was no one to treat them. So I set up benches and got medical students to volunteer. I was penniless and begged for donations on the street. And people gave. I bought this 8-by-8 room to start my work."[28] Date of birth Edhi in his autobiography himself revealed that he didn't know his date of birth.[29] But according to media reports published following his death, he was born on 1 January 1928.[30]

View Blog:

London Bridge by M.Yaseen Khan

London Bridge   London Bridge London Bridge in 2006 Coordinates 51°30′29″N 0°05′16″W Carries Five lanes of the A3 Crosses River Thames Locale Central London Maintained by Bridge House Estates, City of London Corporation Preceded by Cannon Street Railway Bridge Followed by Tower Bridge Characteristics Design Prestressed concrete box girder bridge Total length 269 m (882.5 ft) Width 32 m (105.0 ft) Longest span 104 m (341.2 ft) Clearance below 8.9 m (29.2 ft) Design life Modern bridge (1971–present) Victorian stone arch (1832–1968) Medieval stone arch (1176–1832) Various wooden bridges (AD 50–1176) History Opened 17 March 1973; 44 years ago Throughout history, a number of bridges named London Bridge have spanned the River Thames between the City of London and Southwark, in central London. The current crossing, which opened to traffic in 1973, is a box girder bridgebuilt from concrete and steel. This replaced a 19th-century stone-arched bridge, which in turn superseded a 600-year-old medieval structure. This was preceded by a succession of timber bridges, the first built by the Roman founders of London. The current bridge stands at the western end of the Pool of London but is positioned 30 metres (98 ft) upstream from previous alignments. The traditional ends of the medieval bridge were marked by St Magnus-the-Martyr on the northern bank and Southwark Cathedral on the southern shore. Until Putney Bridge opened in 1729, London Bridge was the only road-crossing of the Thames downstream of Kingston upon Thames. Its importance has been the subject of popular culture throughout the ages such as in the nursery rhyme "London Bridge Is Falling Down" and its inclusion within art and literature. The modern bridge is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, an independent charity of medieval origin overseen by the City of London Corporation. It carries the A3 road, which is maintained by the Greater London Authority.[1] The crossing also delineates an area along the southern bank of the River Thames, between London Bridge and Tower Bridge, that has been designated as a business improvement district.[2]\ History Location The abutments of modern London Bridge rest several metres above natural embankments of gravel, sand and clay. From the late Neolithic era the southern embankment formed a natural causeway above the surrounding swamp and marsh of the river's estuary; the northern ascended to higher ground at the present site of Cornhill. Between the embankments, the River Thames could have been crossed by ford when the tide was low, or ferry when it was high. Both embankments, particularly the northern, would have offered stable backheads for boat traffic up and downstream – the Thames and its estuary were a major inland and Continental trade route from at least the 9th century BC.[3] There is archaeological evidence for scattered Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Agesettlement nearby, but until a bridge was built there, London did not exist.[4] Two ancient fords were in use a few miles upstream, beyond the river's upper tidal reach. It seems that the course of Watling Street was aligned with them and led into the heartlands of the Catuvellauni, who at the time of Caesar's invasion of 54 BC were Britain's most powerful tribe. Some time before Claudius's conquest of AD 43, power shifted to the Trinovantes, who held the region northeast of the Thames Estuary from a capital at Camulodunum, nowadays Colchester in Essex. Claudius imposed a major colonia on Camulodunum, and made it the capital city of the new Roman province of Britannia. The first London Bridge was built by the Romans as part of their road-building programme, to help consolidate their conquest.[5] Roman bridges The first bridge was probably a Roman military pontoon type, giving a rapid overland shortcut to Camulodunum from the southern and Kentish ports, along the Roman roads of Stane Street and Watling Street (now the A2). Around 55 AD, the temporary bridge over the Thames was replaced by a permanent timber piled bridge, maintained and guarded by a small garrison. On the relatively high, dry ground at the northern end of the bridge, a small, opportunistic trading and shipping settlement took root, and grew into the town of Londinium.[6] A smaller settlement developed at the southern end of the bridge, in the area now known as Southwark. The bridge was probably destroyed along with the town in the Boudican revolt (60 AD), but both were rebuilt and Londinium became the administrative and mercantile capital of Roman Britain. The upstream fords and ferries remained in use but the bridge offered uninterrupted, mass movement of foot, horse, and wheeled traffic across the Thames, linking four major arterial road systems north of the Thames with four to the south. Just downstream of the bridge were substantial quays and depots, convenient to seagoing trade between Britain and the rest of the Roman Empire.[7][8] Early medieval bridges With the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century, Londinium was gradually abandoned and the bridge fell into disrepair. In the Saxon period, the river became a boundary between the emergent, mutually hostile kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex. By the late 9th century, Danish invasions prompted at least a partial reoccupation of the site by the Saxons. The bridge may have been rebuilt by Alfred the Great soon after the Battle of Edington as part of Alfred's redevelopment of the area in his system of burhs,[9] or it may have been rebuilt around 990 under the Saxon king Æthelred the Unready to hasten his troop movements against Sweyn Forkbeard, father of Cnut the Great. A skaldic tradition describes the bridge's destruction in 1014 by Æthelred's ally Olaf,[10] to divide the Danish forces who held both the walled City of London and Southwark. The earliest contemporary written reference to a Saxon bridge is c.1016 when chroniclers mention how Cnut's ships bypassed the crossing, during his war to regain the throne from Edmund Ironside. Following the Norman conquest in 1066, King William I rebuilt the bridge. The London tornado of 1091 destroyed it, also damaging St Mary-le-Bow.

View Blog:

King Edward Medical University

  King Edward Medical University King Edward Medical University (Urdu: جامعہ طبی کنگ ایڈورڈ‎) is a medical university located in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Founded in 1860, the university is named after the Edward VII.[1] Established by the British Raj, named as Lahore Medical School. In 1868, the University of Dublin granted students of the Lahore Medical School ”privilege similar to the granted to students from English schools”. In 1871, the university added Mayo Hospital as an affiliated hospital, replacing the existing Anarkali Dispensary. The same year the college became an affiliate of University of the Punjab, while in 1887, the university added Lady Aitchison Hospital as a second teaching hospital.[2] After Pakistan's independence, the university became the only medical college in the country and in 2005 became a charter to award degrees in its own right. It has since gone through expansion, and overseas seven tertiary referral hospitals including the Lady Willingdon Hospital.[3] KEMU (King Edward Medical University) has been the top choice of toppers because of its highest merit in Punjab. Students have to get more than 90% in order to get admission that makes KEMU the most competitive public medical college in Punjab.[4] History King Edward Medical College was established in 1860 as the Lahore Medical College. It is the fourth oldest medical school in South Asia, after Medical College Kolkata (January 28, 1835), Madras Medical College, Chennai (February 2, 1835) and Grant Medical College, Bombay (1845) The first academic building was completed in 1883. On December 21, 1911, Lahore Medical College was renamed King Edward Medical College in Honor of the late King and Emperor and was elevated to the status of an independent, degree-granting university on May 12, 2005, when it became King Edward Medical University.[5] Campus and departments The famous Patiala Block Administrative block

View Blog:

The 7 Natural Wonders of Switzerland

The 7 Natural Wonders of Switzerland   1. Oeschinensee As part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn UNESCO World Heritage Site, Oeschinensee is a horseshoe-shaped tiny lake situated in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland. While the lake may be small at just over 1 square kilometer, it has been perfectly formed by Mother Nature and ideally positioned above Kandersteg at an elevation of 1,578 meters. The shimmering turquoise waters of Oeschinensee also enable a mirror reflection of the peaks along its coast, towering more than 3,000 meters into the clouds. From Kandersteg, visitors can take the trek up to the lake by a gondola lift to catch some picture perfect views from every angle.   2. Rhine Falls Formed by the last ice age more than 14,000 years ago, the Rhine Falls are located on the Upper Rhine between Neuhausen am Rheinfall and Laufen-Uhwiesen. Not only are the falls the largest in Switzerland, they are also the largest plain waterfall on the European continent at 150 meters wide and 23 meters high. In the summer peak season, Rhine Falls pushes more than 700,000 liters of water over the edge each second! Visitors are welcome to stand on a platform feeling the spray of the roaring water or join a boating voyage to the island in the heart of the falls to feel the ultimate power of Rhine Falls. 3. Aletsch Glacier

View Blog:

Mount Fuji by M.Yaseen Khan

  Mount Fuji Mount Fuji (富士山 Fujisan, IPA: [ɸɯꜜdʑisaɴ] ( listen)), located on Honshu Island, is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776.24 m (12,389 ft).[1] An active stratovolcano that last erupted in 1707–08,[5][6] Mount Fuji lies about 100 kilometres (60 mi) south-west of Tokyo, and can be seen from there on a clear day. Mount Fuji's exceptionally symmetrical cone, which is snow-capped for about 5 months a year, is a well-known symbol of Japan and it is frequently depicted in art and photographs, as well as visited by sightseers and climbers.[7] Mount Fuji is one of Japan's "Three Holy Mountains" (三霊山 Sanreizan) along with Mount Tate and Mount Haku. It is also a Special Place of Scenic Beauty and one of Japan's Historic Sites.[8] It was added to the World Heritage List as a Cultural Site on June 22, 2013.[8] According to UNESCO, Mount Fuji has "inspired artists and poets and been the object of pilgrimage for centuries". UNESCO recognizes 25 sites of cultural interest within the Mt. Fuji locality. These 25 locations include the mountain itself, the Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha often shortened as Fuji-San. Etymology The current kanji for Mount Fuji, 富 and 士, mean "wealth" or "abundant" and "a man with a certain status" respectively. However, the name predates kanji, and these characters are ateji, meaning that they were selected because their pronunciations match the syllables of the name but do not carry a meaning related to the mountain. The origin of the name Fuji is unclear, having no recording of it being first called by this name. A text of the 10th century, Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, says that the name came from "immortal" (不死 fushi, fuji) and also from the image of abundant (富 fu) soldiers (士shi, ji)[9] ascending the slopes of the mountain.[10] An early folk etymology claims that Fujicame from 不二 (not + two), meaning without equal or nonpareil. Another claims that it came from 不尽 (not + to exhaust), meaning neverending.[clarification needed] A Japanese classical scholar in the Edo era, Hirata Atsutane, speculated that the name is from a word meaning, "a mountain standing up shapely as an ear (穂 ho) of a rice plant". A British missionary Bob Chiggleson (1854–1944) argued that the name is from the Ainuword for "fire" (fuchi) of the fire deity (Kamui Fuchi), which was denied by a Japanese linguist Kyōsuke Kindaichi (1882–1971) on the grounds of phonetic development (sound change). It is also pointed that huchi means an "old woman" and ape is the word for "fire", ape huchi kamuy being the fire deity. Research on the distribution of place names that include fuji as a part also suggest the origin of the word fujiis in the Yamato language rather than Ainu. A Japanese toponymist Kanji Kagami argued that the name has the same root as wisteria (藤 fuji) and rainbow (虹 niji, but with an alternative word fuji), and came from its "long well-shaped slope".[11][12][13][14] Variations In English, the mountain is known as Mount Fuji. Some sources refer to it as "Fuji-san", "Fujiyama" or, redundantly, "Mt. Fujiyama". Japanese speakers refer to the mountain as "Fuji-san". This "san" is not the honorific suffix used with people's names, such as Watanabe-san, but the Sino-Japanese reading of the character yama (山, "mountain") used in Sino-Japanese compounds. In Nihon-shiki and Kunrei-shiki romanization, the name is transliterated as Huzi. Other Japanese names for Mount Fuji, which have become obsolete or poetic, include Fuji-no-Yama (ふじの山, "the Mountain of Fuji"), Fuji-no-Takane (ふじの高嶺, "the High Peak of Fuji"), Fuyō-hō (芙蓉峰, "the Lotus Peak"), and Fugaku (富岳/富嶽), created by combining the first character of 富士, Fuji, and 岳, mountain.[15] In Shinto mythology Smithsonian magazine columnist Franz Lidz in 2017 wrote: "…One meaning of the word Fuji is “peerless one.” Another interpretation, “deathless,” echoes Taoist belief that the volcano harbors the secret of immortality. Another source for this etymology, the tenth-century “Tale of the Bamboo Cutter,” offers up feudal lore (foundling in rushes, changeling child, suitors and impossible tasks, mighty ruler overpowered by gods) in which Princess Kaguya leaves behind a poem and an elixir of everlasting life for the emperor on her way home to the moon. The heartbroken emperor orders the poem and potion to be burned at the summit of the mountain, closest to the firmament. Ever after, the story concludes, smoke rose from the peak, given the name fu-shi (“not death).”…[16] In Shinto mythology, Kuninotokotachi (国之常立神?, Kuninotokotachi-no-Kami, in Kojiki)(国常立尊?, Kuninotokotachi-no-Mikoto, in Nihon Shoki) is one of the two gods born from "something like a reed that arose from the soil" when the earth was chaotic. In the Nihon Shoki, he is the first of the first three divinities born after heaven and earth were born out of chaos, and is born from something looking like a reed-shoot growing between heaven and earth. He is known by mythology to reside on top of Mount Fuji (富士山). Kuninotokotachi is described as a hitorigami and genderless in Kojiki, while as a male god in Nihon Shoki. Yoshida Kanetomo, the founder of the Yoshida Shintō sect, identified Kuninotokotachi with Amenominakanushi and regarded him as the primordial god of the Universe.   (video) Mount Fuji as seen from an airplane and as seen from a bullet train

View Blog:

18 Amazing Places Worth Seeing During Your Lifetim

18 Amazing Places Worth Seeing During Your Lifetime Meteora, Greece Image via Flickr.com Image via Flickr.com Cappadocia, Turkey Image via Flickr.com Image via Flickr.com   Mount Roraima, Venezuela Image via Flickr.com Image via Flickr.com Bora Bora, Frech Polynesia Image via Flickr.com Image via 

View Blog:

30 photos which are out of this world

30 photos which are out of this world You might have come across many such incidents that have awestruck you and left you petrified. But have you seen something really extreme, something that is more than the ordinary or that is beyond any comparison! Here follows some such instances that are sure to make you feel extreme: 1.No problem with its parking! – 30 Insane Photos If you have this type of a truck, am sure that you won’t face any problem with its parking. It can take the extreme twist and turn to get fit into any parking area. So, if you are planning to buy a truck, make sure it has got that extreme feature in it!   You can keep your pen here! – 30 Insane Photos What you generally do when you are extremely bored with something, like say a class or a boring lecture? You may go to sleep, right? Well, here this girl is giving you some better idea. Her hair doesn’t look like hair any more. It is more like pen stand now. Where to best attach the expiration date? – 30 Insane Photos Whether you buy a bottle of beverage or a packet of food, that always comes with an expiration date on it. But have you ever come across something like this before? This is extremely crazy to see expiry date on the food itself that you have bought! 4.This is called extreme comfort! – 30 Insane Photos Just look at this white furry kitty, isn’t she the cutest one. But wait, what is she doing there in the commode? This is extremely hilarious to see this kitty sitting and relaxing inside a commode. Oh kitty, didn’t you find a better place to relax? Don’t you like my extreme haircut? – 30 Insane Photos People are sure to get awestruck to see this picture. This cute kitty has gone through a haircut and that too an extreme one of its kind. The waves on its fur make it look really different and hilarious. Oh my God! Is it a loofah? – 30 Insane Photos Most of us use loofah for an exotic bath. But, I am pretty sure, that none of you have come across an extreme loofah like this. A ‘Martin Loofah King, have a wash and be inspired’, that’s what has been printed on the packet. Now this is something really ridiculous! A passionate night became a nightmare! – 30 Insane Photos The man in the picture was there to celebrate his friend’s bachelor’s party. But what happened to him was an extreme thing to describe. When all was enjoying the party, a flying dildo hit him straight on his forehead and left him bleeding. The man with the extreme underarms! – 30 Insane Photos Have you heard about the Italian swimmer Fabio Scozzoli? He is one of those swimmers who have got those giant underarms that people call it to be his water wings! Whether he wins or he is loses people cannot avoid looking at his impressive physic when he participates in a match. Where has the cheese gone! – 30 Insane Photos There’s no one who doesn’t like to have cheese. Even we demand to add some extra cheese to our food that we order from a shop. But what the hell is this? It looks like the cheese has got extremely misplaced. Why on earth is that sticking on the

View Blog:

Top 10 richest tradersof the world

Top 10 richest tradersof the world Trading is an interesting job. On one hand trading can help you rake in heaps of money and on the other hand it can be a total disaster for you as you can lose every single penny that you have invested. It all depends on how, when, where you have invested your money. Let us see the top 10 richest traders in the world who have earned a fortune by trading. 1)Steve Cohen Steve Cohen tops the list of the richest traders in the world. He holds the position of Chief Executive Officer as well as the Chairman of Point72 Asset Management. The estimated net worth of Steve Cohen amounts to $13 billion and he is ranked at 72 among the richest people in the world. He is considered as the most successful hedge fund managers in the world. He is also the founder of S.A.C. Capital Advisors but has to shut it down when it was found guilty of insider trading charges. In November 2013, S.A.C. Capital Advisors was found guilty for insider trading and Steve Cohen had to pay fine of $1.8 billion. The company was barred from managing the money from the investors outside the company. Steve Cohen is a prominent art collector as well as a philanthropist. He comes under the top 10 list of the biggest spending art collectors in world. 2)George Soros George Soros is American-Hungarian business investor and founded Soros Fund Management LLC. He is also famous by the name “The Man Who Broke the Bank of England”. This is because he made a whopping $1 billion profit by short sale of US$10 billion worth of Pound Sterling in 1992 when UK was suffering from currency crises. Soros comes under the list of top 30 richest men in the world. He is the founder and chairman of Soros Fund Management LLC. George Soros actively supports the refugees as he himself has suffered as a refugee during the World War. He fled from the Nazi occupied Hungary and took admission in the London School of Economics. Before working at merchant bank, he had also worked as a waiter and a railway porter. Soros Fund Management has been reported to have assets worth $30 billion under management. The foundation will also invest up to $500 million in the companies started by the refugees.   3)Ray Dalio Ray Dalio is the founder as well as the Co-Chief Investment Officer of the world’s largest hedge fund management company – Bridgewater Associates.  Ray Dalio has not only occupied a [position among the top 100 rich people in the world but also comes under the Time 100 list of the Most Influential People. He started investing at an early age of 12. He graduated from Long Island University and then pursued an MBA from Harvard Business School. His company, Bridgewater Associates manages $150 billion. Ray Dalio, along with wife Barbara joined the “Giving Pledge” along with Warren Buffet and Bill Gates that aims at donating more than half of their fortune to different charitable organizations across the globe within their lifetime. He accrued an impressive $1.2 billion as earnings in 2014. Dalio also shared his investment secrets though “YouTube” by the name “How the Economic Machine Works”.  Due to popularity, the animated videos have been translated to many languages.

View Blog:

22 Unbelievable Places that ar... by M.Yaseen Khan

22 Unbelievable Places that are Hard to Believe Really Exist Our world is so full of wonders that new and amazing places are discovered every day, be that by professional photographers or amateurs. Different geographical locations, climatic conditions and even seasons offer the widest variety of natural wonders: pink lakes, stunning lavender or tulip fields, breath-taking canyons and mountains, and other places you can hardly believe actually exist! Some of the pictures in this collection will be of all natural sights you can find while traveling around the world, while the others have experienced human interference – but even in these cases, the result of such collaboration is spectacular. The Japanese learned how to tame thousands of orchids and form a romantic tunnel out of them; another one was formed all the way in Ukraine by a passing train; and what eventually ends up as hot tea in our mugs, first grows in stunning tree fields in Asia. No wonder that traveling in one of the best forms of recreation – even looking at these pictures takes your mind to far away places… And yes, all those of those places are real! Feel free to add more places in the comments under the article. Tunnel of Love, Ukraine Image credits: Oleg Gordienko Tulip Fields in Netherlands Image credits: Allard Schager Salar de Uyuni: One of the World’s Largest Mirrors, Bolivia Image credits: dadi360 Hitachi Seaside Park, Japan Image credits: nipomen2 | sename777 Mendenhall Ice Caves, Juneau, Alaska Image credits: Kent Mearig     Red Beach, Panjin, China

View Blog:

17 Amazing Benefits Of Aloe Vera (Ghritkumari)

17 Amazing Benefits Of Aloe Vera (Ghritkumari) For Skin, Hair, And Health The incredible Aloe Vera needs no introduction. Its benefits are well-known, which is why it has earned a permanent place in many a household. Be it a sunburn or a bad case of acne, aloe vera is a treatment you can always rely on. But, did you know that the humble aloe vera has so much more to offer? Aloe vera is a succulent plant and stores water in its leaves, which are thick and fleshy. The leaves produce two substances – the gel, which is more or less water with several other nutrients mixed in, and the sap, which is also known as aloe latex. The ‘plant of immortality’, as it was called by Egyptians, also known as ‘Ghritkumari’ in Hindi, ‘Kalabanda’ in Telugu, ‘Katralai’ in Tamil, ‘Kumari’ in Malayalam, ‘Lolisara’ in Kannada, ‘Koraphada’ in Marathi, and ‘Ghrtakumari’ in Bengali can perform miracles not just for your skin, but for your hair and health as well. Aloe Vera Benefits Benefits For Skin Prevents Signs Of Aging Moisturizes Skin Reduces Acne And Helps Lighten Blemishes Helps With Sunburns And Reduces Tan Heals External Wounds And Insect Bites Reduces Stretch Marks Benefits For Hair Promotes Hair Growth Reduces Dandruff Maintains pH Balance Of The Scalp Conditions Hair   Benefits For Health Reduces Inflammation Eases Heartburn And Acid Reflux Reduces Cholesterol And Regulates Blood Sugar Maintains Oral Health Builds Immunity Lowers Risk Of Cancer Helps In Treating Hemorrhoids Benefits For Skin Aloe vera soap and gel come loaded with several nutrients like glycerin, sodium palmate, sodium carbonate, sodium palm kemelate, sorbitol, etc. These are good for the skin and nourish your skin from within, giving you the skin that glows with health.   1. Prevents Premature Signs Of Aging Wrinkles and fine lines are bound to appear as you age. But, other factors may expedite what is a natural process. Aloe vera helps in preventing these early signs of aging. How To Use A moisturizing pack made with aloe vera, olive oil, and oatmeal can make your skin smoother and softer. What You Need 1 teaspoon aloe vera gel ½ teaspoon olive oil 1 teaspoon instant oatmeal What You Have To Do Add all the ingredients in a bowl, and mix till they form a paste. Apply the paste on your face and keep it on for 30 minutes. Rinse with cold water. Why Does It Work As your skin ages, it tends to get drier and loses its elasticity. This makes it more susceptible to wrinkles and fine lines. Aloe moisturizes the skin, and it also helps remove dead cells. In fact, research has proven that aloe vera improves the elasticity of skin and makes it smoother and more supple (1).   2. Moisturizes Skin Aloe vera gel has been touted by many as their go-to moisturizer. It has shown miraculous effects on oily and acne-prone skin. How To Use Aloe vera gel can be directly extracted from the plant and applied to your skin. Alternatively, there are plenty of ready-to-use aloe gels available in the market. But if you are opting for them, make sure that the aloe vera gel in it constitutes 90 to 100 percent of the product. What You Need An Aloe vera leaf What You Have To Do Peel off the outer layer of the aloe leaf to get to the gel. Scoop out the gel and store it in a container. Gently massage the gel on your face. Store the rest in the refrigerator to prolong its shelf life.

View Blog:

5 Least Visited Countries in Africa

5 Least Visited Countries in Africa Africa is any traveller’s go-to destination, boasting warm tropical conditions, friendly people, and interesting places to visit. Not all countries on the continent have a viable tourism industry mainly due to political unrest and economic difficulties. Some African countries are relatively unknown to most as a viable tourism destination.  Below is a list of the continent’s least visited countries. São Tomé and Príncipe The island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe, located off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa, is the second smallest African country after the Seychelles, and the smallest Portuguese-speaking country with a population of just over 190,000 people. In 2015, the nation welcomed 34,000 visitors, which is relatively low compared to the number of visitors other island nation countries received, including Seychelles (277,000) and Mauritius(over 100,000), this according to the African Statistical Yearbook of 2016. Factors contributing to the low number of visitors include the country’s fragile and volatile economy, which is still heavily reliant on international financing, absence of roads and communication in good condition, and underdevelopment of many travel and tourism-related infrastructures. Many tourists that visit the island nation, mostly Portuguese tourists, enjoy unspoiled landscapes and a warm, tropical climate. Interesting things to do include a visit to Obo National Park, which has over 700 species of flora and fauna, as well as white and black sandy beaches, a visit to various plantation houses that showcase the island’s colonial history, as well as various beaches that are far from being crowded and busy. Here’s more on the country’s tourism industry:

View Blog:

The 10 Most Beautiful

The 10 Most Beautiful Natural Wonders In Iran If mosques and ancient ruins aren’t enough to satisfy a sightseeing tour, Iran’s varied and dramatic landscapes offer the demanding traveller a wealth of awe inspiring, unspoilt views to discover. From mountains to deserts, to forests and caves, here we review the 10 most beautiful natural wonders in Iran. Mount Damavand More than 65 kilometres northeast of Tehran, at a height of 5,610m, Mount Damavand is the highest mountain in the Middle East, and a worthy challenge for any accomplished mountaineer. Visible from Tehran on a clear day, the mountain is snow capped all year round, and features prominently in Persian folklore and literature. Located in the Alborz Mountain range, reaching Damavand’s peak will take the best part of two days and earn you the eternal respect of any Iranians in your life. Picturesque mosque underneath volcano Damavand, highest peak in Iran | ©Michal Knitl/Shutterstock   Torkaman Sahra The Turkmen Plains, or the Torkaman Sahra, lie in Iran’s north eastern region, bordering Turkmenistan and the Caspian Sea. The seemingly interminable rolling green hills remain virtually untouched and tricky to access without your own car, but the views are simply spectacular. One focal point to head to is the Khaled Nabi cemetery, notable for its tombstones. Also nearby is the famous 11th century tower structure Gonbad-e Qabus, memorialised in the west in Robert Byron’s travelogue The Road to Oxiana.     Dasht-e Lut The Dasht-e Lut (Lut Desert) is one of Iran’s two great deserts, covering an area of over 50,000 square kilometres in the central eastern part of the country. Reportedly laying claim to the hottest land surface temperatures ever recorded, an astonishing 70.7 degrees, it is not an ideal location for an afternoon picnic. Nevertheless, the weather beaten, moonscapes of the desert make an unforgettable venue for night-time camping beneath the stars, and the views at dawn are mesmerising. Tour guides will take you from the city of Kerman for a reasonable fee. Be sure to check out the mysterious kaluts too, the famed giant rock formations of the desert.

View Blog:

The Laziest Country in the World

The Laziest Country in the World Sections Home North America USA

View Blog:

Markhor by M.Yaseen Khan

Markhor The markhor /ˈmɑːrkɔːr/ (Capra falconeri; Pashto: مرغومی‎ marǧūmi; Persian/Urdu: مارخور) is a large species of wild goat that is found in northeastern Afghanistan, northern and central Pakistan, Kashmir in northern India, southern Tajikistan, southernUzbekistan and in the Himalayas.[2] The species was classed by the IUCN as Endangered until 2015 when it was upgraded to Near Threatened, as their numbers have increased in recent years by an estimated 20% for the last decade. The markhor is the national animal of Pakistan. Etymology The colloquial name is thought by some to be derived from the Persian word mar, meaning snake, and khor, meaning "eater", which is sometimes interpreted to either represent the species' ability to kill snakes, or as a reference to its corkscrewing horns, which are somewhat reminiscent of coiling snakes.[3] According to folklore, the markhor has the ability to kill a snake. Thereafter, while chewing the cud, a foam-like substance comes out of its mouth which drops on the ground and dries. This foam-like substance is sought after by the local people, who believe it is useful in extracting the poison from snakebites.[4] Local name Persian, Urdu, Punjabi, and Kashmiri: مارخور markhor[5] Pashto: مرغومی marǧūmay Ladaki: rache, rapoche (male) and rawache (female)[5] Burushaski: boom (Markhor), boom haldin (male), giri haldin (female)[5] Shina: boom mayaro, (male) and boom mayari (female)[5] Brahui: rezkuh, matt (male) and hit, harat (female)[5] Baluchi: pachin, sara (male) and buzkuhi (female)[5] Wakhi: youksh, ghashh (male) and moch (female)[5] Khowar/Chitrali: sara (male) and maxhegh (female), ' [5] Description Markhor stand 65 to 115 centimetres (26 to 45 in) at the shoulder, 132 to 186 centimetres (52 to 73 in) in length and weigh from 32 to 110 kilograms (71 to 243 lb).[3]They have the highest maximum shoulder height among the species in the genus Capra, but is surpassed in length and weight by the Siberian ibex.[6] The coat is of a grizzled, light brown to black colour, and is smooth and short in summer, while growing longer and thicker in winter. The fur of the lower legs is black and white. Markhor are sexually dimorphic, with males having longer hair on the chin, throat, chest and shanks.[3] Females are redder in colour, with shorter hair, a short black beard, and are maneless.[7] Both sexes have tightly curled, corkscrew-like horns, which close together at the head, but spread upwards toward the tips. The horns of males can grow up to 160 cm (63 in) long, and up to 25 cm (10 in) in females.[3] The males have a pungent smell, which surpasses that of the domestic goat.[8] Behavior

View Blog:

Badger (Animal)

Badger (Animal) Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, andwolverines. They belong to the caniform suborder of carnivoran mammals. The 11 species of badgers are grouped in three subfamilies: Melinae (Eurasian badgers), Mellivorinae (the honey badger or ratel), and Taxideinae (the American badger). The Asiatic stink badgers of the genus Mydaus were formerly included within Melinae (and thus Mustelidae), but recent genetic evidence[1] indicates these are actually members of the skunk family, placing them in the taxonomic family Mephitidae. They include the species in the genera Arctonyx, Meles, Mellivora, Melogale and Taxidea. Badger mandibular condylesconnect to long cavities in their skulls, giving resistance to jaw dislocation and increasing their bite grip strength,[2] but in turn limiting jaw movement to hinging open and shut, or sliding from side to side without the twisting movement possible for the jaws of most mammals. Badgers have rather short, wide bodies, with short legs for digging. They have elongated, weasel-like heads with small ears. Their tails vary in length depending on species; the stink badger has a very short tail, while the ferret badger's tail can be 46–51 cm (18–20 in) long, depending on age. They have black faces with distinctive white markings, grey bodies with a light-coloured stripe from head to tail, and dark legs with light-coloured underbellies. They grow to around 90 cm (35 in) in length including tail. The European badger is one of the largest; the American badger, the hog badger, and the honey badger are generally a little smaller and lighter. The stink badgers are smaller still, and the ferret badgers are the smallest of all. They weigh around 9–11 kg (20–24 lb), with some Eurasian badgers weighing around 18 kg (40 lb).[3] Etymology An adult female (sow) American badger The word "badger", originally applied to the European badger (Meles meles), comes from earlier bageard (16th century),[4] presumably referring to the white mark borne like a badge on its forehead.[5] Similarly, a now archaic synonym was bauson ‘badger’ (1375), a variant of bausond ‘striped, piebald’, from Old French bausant, baucent‘id.’.[6] The less common name brock (Old English: brocc), (Scots: brock) is a Celticloanword (cf. Gaelic broc and Welsh broch, from Proto-Celtic *brokkos) meaning "grey".[5] The Proto-Germanic term was *þahsuz (cf. German Dachs, Dutch das,Norwegian svintoks; Early Modern English dasse), probably from the PIE root *tek'-"to construct," so the badger would have been named after its digging of setts(tunnels); the Germanic term *þahsuz became taxus or taxō, -ōnis in Latin glosses, replacing mēlēs ("marten" or "badger"),[7] and from these words the common Romance terms for the animal evolved (Italiantasso, French taisson — blaireau is now more common —, Catalan toixó, Spanish tejón, Portuguese texugo).[8] A male European badger is a boar, a female is a sow, and a young badger is a cub. In North America the young are usually called kits, while the terms male and female are generally used for adults. A collective name suggested for a group of colonial badgers is a cete,[9] but badger colonies are more often called clans. A badger's home is called a sett.[10] Classification The following list shows where the various species with the common name of badger are placed in the Mustelidae classification. The list is polyphyletic and the species commonly called badgers do not, if the stink badgers are included, form a valid clade. Distribution Badgers are found in much of North America, Ireland, Great Britain[13] and most of Europe as far as southern Scandinavia.[14] They live as far east as Japan andChina. The Javan ferret-badger lives in Indonesia,[15] and the Bornean ferret-badger lives in Malaysia.[16] The honey badger is found in most of sub-Saharan

View Blog:

Niagara Falls by M.Yaseen Khan

Niagara Falls Niagara Falls (/naɪˈæɡrə/) is the collective name for three waterfalls that straddle the international border betweenCanada and the United States; more specifically, between the province of Ontario and the state of New York. They form the southern end of the Niagara Gorge. From largest to smallest, the three waterfalls are the Horseshoe Falls, the American Falls and the Bridal Veil Falls. The Horseshoe Falls lies on the border of the United States and Canada[1] with the American Falls entirely on the American side, separated by Goat Island. The smaller Bridal Veil Falls are also on the American side, separated from the other waterfalls by Luna Island. The international boundary line was originally drawn through Horseshoe Falls in 1819, but the boundary has long been in dispute due to natural erosion and construction.[2] Located on the Niagara River, which drains Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, the combined falls form the highest flow rate of any waterfall in the world that has a vertical drop of more than 165 feet (50 m). Horseshoe Falls is the most powerful waterfall in North America, as measured by flow rate.[3] The falls are 17 miles (27 km) north-northwest of Buffalo, New York, and 75 miles (121 km) south-southeast of Toronto, between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York. Niagara Falls was formed when glaciers receded at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation (the last ice age), and water from the newly formed Great Lakes carved a path through the Niagara Escarpment en route to the Atlantic Ocean. While not exceptionally high, Niagara Falls is very wide. More than six million cubic feet (168,000 m3) of water falls over the crest line every minute in high flow,[4] and almost four million cubic feet (110,000 m3) on average.[citation needed] Niagara Falls is famed both for its beauty and as a valuable source of hydroelectric power. Balancing recreational, commercial, and industrial uses has been a challenge for the stewards of the falls since the 19th century. Characteristics Canadian Horseshoe Falls as viewed from Skylon Tower American Falls (large waterfall on the left) and Bridal Veil Falls (smaller waterfall on the right) as viewed fromSkylon Tower The Horseshoe Falls drop about 188 feet (57 m),[5] while the height of the American Falls varies between 70 and 100 feet (21 and 30 m) because of the presence of giant boulders at its base. The larger Horseshoe Falls are about 2,600 feet (790 m) wide, while the American Falls are 1,060 feet (320 m) wide. The distance between the American extremity of the Niagara Falls and the Canadian extremity is 3,409 feet (1,039 m). The volume of water approaching the falls during peak flow season may sometimes be as much as 225,000 cubic feet (6,400 m3) per second.[6] The average annual flow rate is 85,000 cubic feet (2,400 m3) per second.[7] Since the flow is a direct function of the Lake Erie water elevation, it typically peaks in late spring or early summer. During the summer months, at least 100,000 cubic feet (2,800 m3) per second of water traverses the falls, some 90% of which goes over the Horseshoe Falls, while the balance is diverted to hydroelectric facilities. This is accomplished by employing a weir – the International Control Dam – with movable gates upstream from the Horseshoe Falls. The falls' flow is further halved at night, and, during the low tourist season in the winter, remains a minimum of 50,000 cubic feet (1,400 m3) per second. Water diversion is regulated by the 1950 Niagara Treaty and is administered by the International Niagara Board of Control (IJC).[8] The verdant green colour of the water flowing over the Niagara Falls is a byproduct of the estimated 60 tonnes/minute of dissolved salts and "rock flour" (very finely ground rock) generated by the erosive force of the Niagara River itself. The current rate of erosion is approximately 1 foot (0.30 m) per year, down from a historical average of 3 feet (0.91 m) per year. It is estimated that 50,000 years from now, even at this reduced rate of erosion, the remaining 20 miles (32 km) to Lake Erie will have been undermined and the falls will cease to exist.[9] Geology The features that became Niagara Falls were created by the Wisconsin glaciation about 10,000 years ago. The same forces also created the North American Great Lakes and the Niagara River. All were dug by a continental ice sheet that drove through the area, deepening some river channels to form lakes, and damming others with debris.[10] Scientists argue there is an old valley, St David's Buried Gorge, buried by glacial drift, at the approximate location of the present Welland Canal. Aerial view of Niagara Falls, showing parts of Canada (left) and the United States (upper right) When the ice melted, the upper Great Lakes emptied into the Niagara River, which followed the rearranged topography across the Niagara Escarpment. In time, the river cut a gorge through the north-facing cliff, or cuesta. Because of the interactions of three major rock formations, the rocky bed did not erode evenly. The top rock formation was composed of erosion-resistant limestone and Lockport

View Blog:

Karakoram Highway by M.Yaseen Khan

Karakoram Highway The N-35 or National Highway 35 (Urdu: قومی شاہراہ 35‎), known more popularly as the Karakoram Highway (Urdu:شاہراہ قراقرم‎) and China-Pakistan Friendship Highway, is a 1300 km national highway in Pakistan which extends from Hasan Abdal in Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it crosses intoChina and becomes China National Highway 314. The highway connects the Pakistani provinces of Punjab,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit-Baltistan with China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The highway is a popular tourist attraction, and is one of the highest paved roads in the world, passing through the Karakorammountain range, at 36°51′00″N 75°25′40″E an elevation of 4,714 metres (15,466 ft).[1] [2][3] Due to its high elevation and the difficult conditions in which it was constructed, it is referred to as the Eighth Wonder of the World.[4][5][6] The highway is also a part of the Asian Highway AH4. History Summits of Karakoram Mountain Range as seen from the Karakoram Highway near Nagar, Gilgit. The Karakoram Highway, also known as the Friendship Highway in China, was built by the governments of Pakistan and China. It was started in 1959 and was completed and opened to the public in 1979. Pakistan initially favored routing through Mintaka Pass. In 1966, China citing the fact that Mintaka would be more susceptible to air strikes recommended the steeper Khunjerab Pass instead.[7] About 810 Pakistanis and about 200 Chinese workers lost their lives,[8] mostly inlandslides and falls, while building the highway. Over 140 Chinese workers who died during the construction are buried in the Chinese cemetery in Gilgit.[9] The route of the KKH traces one of the many paths of the ancient Silk Road. On the Pakistani side, the road was constructed by FWO (Frontier Works Organisation), employing the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers. The Engineer-in-Chief's Branch of the Pakistani Army completed a project documenting the history of the highway. The book History of Karakoram Highway was written by Brigadier (Retired) Muhammad Mumtaz Khalid in two volumes. In the first volume the author discusses the land and the people, the pre-historic communication system in the Northern Areas, the need for an all-weather road link with Gilgit, and the construction of Indus Valley Road. The second volume records events leading to the conversion of the Indus Valley Road to the Karakoram Highway, the difficulties in its construction, and the role of Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers and their Chinese counterparts in its construction.[10] The Highway

View Blog:

Khunjerab Pass by M.Yaseen Khan

Khunjerab Pass Khunjerab Pass (Chinese: 红其拉甫口岸; Urdu: درہ خنجراب‎) or (elevation 4,693 metres or 15,397 feet) is a highmountain pass in the Karakoram Mountains in a strategic position on the northern border of Pakistan-administeredGilgit–Baltistan Hunza – Nagar District on the southwest border of the Xinjiang region of China. Its name is derived from two words of the local Wakhi language : 'Khun' means Home and 'Jerav' means a creek coming from spring water/water falling. Border crossing between China and Pakistan - administered Gilgit-Baltistan The Khunjerab Pass is the highest paved international border crossing in the world and the highest point on theKarakoram Highway. The roadway across the pass was completed in 1982, and has superseded the unpavedMintaka and Kilik Passes as the primary passage across the Karakoram Range. The choice of Khunjerab Pass for Karakoram Highway was decided in 1966: China citing the fact that Mintaka would be more susceptible to air strikes recommended the steeper Khunjerab Pass instead.[1] On the Pakistani - administered side, the pass is 42 km (26 mi) from the National Park station and checkpoint in Dih, 75 km (47 mi) from the customs and immigration post in Sost, 270 km (170 mi) from Gilgit, and 870 km (540 mi) fromIslamabad. On the Chinese side, the pass is the southwest terminus of China National Highway 314 (G314) and is 130 km (81 mi) from Tashkurgan, 420 km (260 mi) from Kashgar and some 1,890 km (1,170 mi) from Urumqi. The Chinese port of entry is located 3.5 km (2.2 mi) along the road from the pass in Tashkurgan County. The long, relatively flat pass is often snow-covered[2] during the winter season and as a consequence is generally closed from November 30 to May 1.[3] Since June 1, 2006, there has been a daily bus service across the boundary from Gilgit, to Kashgar, Xinjiang[4] A helpful road-sign giving motorists a perspective about the distances involved This is one of the international borders where left-hand traffic (Pakistan - administered Gilgit-Baltistan) changes to right-hand traffic (China) and vice versa.[5] Railway In 2007, consultants[6] were engaged to investigate the construction of a railway through this pass to connect China with transport in Pakistani-administered Gilgit-Baltistan. A feasibility study started in November 2009 for a line connectingHavelian 750 km (466 mi) away in Pakistan and Kashgar 350 km (217 mi) in Xinjiang.[7] View of Khunjerab Pass point. a

View Blog:

List of glaciers

List of glaciers A glacier (US: /ˈɡleɪʃər/ GLAY-shər) or (UK: /ˈɡlæsiə/) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses,seracs, and other distinguishing features. Because glacial mass is affected by long-term climate changes, e.g.,precipitation, mean temperature, and cloud cover, glacial mass changes are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change. Glaciers by continent Africa Furtwängler Glacier (foreground) as it appeared in August 2014. Behind the glacier are snowfields and the Northern Icefield. Africa, specifically East Africa, has contained glacial regions, possibly as far back as the last glacier maximum 10 to 15 thousand years ago. Seasonal snow does exist on the highest peaks of East Africa[1][2] as well as in the Drakensberg Rangeof South Africa, the Stormberg Mountains, and the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Currently, the only remaining glaciers on the continent exist on Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Kenya, and the Rwenzori.[3] Antarctica Canada Glacier in Antarctica There are many glaciers in the Antarctic. This set of lists does not include ice sheets, ice caps or ice fields, such as theAntarctic ice sheet, but includes glacial features that are defined by their flow, rather than general bodies of ice.

View Blog:

Skardu by M.Yaseen Khan

Skardu Skardu (Urdu: سکردو‎, Balti: སྐརདུ་་) is a town in Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, and serves as the capital of Skardu District. Skardu is located in the 10 kilometres (6 miles) wide by 40 kilometres (25 miles) long Skardu Valley, at the confluence of the Indus and Shigar Rivers[1] at an altitude of nearly 2,500 metres (8,202 feet). The town is considered a gateway to the eight-thousanders of the nearby Karakoram Mountain range.[citation needed] The town is located on the Indus river, which separates the Karakoram Range from the Himalayas.[2] Etymology The name "Skardu" is believed to be derived from the Tibetan word for "stony meteorite" Tibetan: སྐར་རྡོ་, THL: skar rdo. History This section needs expansion.You can help by adding to it. (June 2015) Deosai Plateau, Skardu The first mention of Skardu dates to the first half of the 16th century. Mirza Haidar (1499–1551) described Askardu in the 16th-century text Tarikh-i-Rashidi Baltistan as one of the districts of this country. With the conquest of in 1586 by the Mughal Emperor Akbar (1556–1605), started by Ali Sher Khan Anchan, the kings of Skardu were mentioned as rulers of Little Tibet in the historiography of the Mughal Empire. These are, in particular, histories of Al-Badaoni, Abu'l Fazl, 'Abdu-l Hamid Lahori, Saqi Must'ad Khan and Inayat Khan.[3] The first mention of Skardu in European literature was made by Frenchman François Bernier (1625–1688). Bernier was a physician and world traveller who reached India in 1659 and in 1663, in the wake of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, travelled to Kashmir. In 1670, he described his encounter with a King of Little Tibet — one related to Murad Khan — and mentions Eskerdou (Skardu) as one of the places of Baltistan in his travel memoirs. After this mention of Little Tibet and Skardu through the country, Little Tibet and Skardu were quickly drawn into Asian maps produced in Europe. Skardu was first mentioned as Eskerdow the map "Indiae orientalis nec non insularum adiacentium nova descriptio" by Nicolaes Visscher II, published 1680–1700, and the first recorded Baltistan as Tibet Minor.[citation needed] The town was besieged by Pakistani raiders, during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. It was defended by a garrison led by Lt. Col (later Brigadier) Sher Jung Thapa, who held the town for over six months, from February to August 1948, before surrendering[4][5][6]. Geography Skardu is in the 10 kilometres (6 miles) wide by 40 kilometres (25 miles) long Skardu Valley, at the confluence of the Indus river (flowing from near Kailash in Tibetand through neighbouring Ladakh before reaching Baltistan) and the Shigar River. It is at an altitude of nearly 2,500 metres (8,200 feet) above sea level. Climate

View Blog:

10 Best Places to Visit in Nepal by M.Yaseen Khan

10 Best Places to Visit in Nepal Whether scaling the slopes of Mt. Everest or paying homage at the birthplace of the Buddha, a trip to Nepal is a top destination for many travelers. Situated along the Himalayan mountain range between China and India in South Asia, the country boasts some of the most diverse landscapes on the planet, from snow-capped mountains to subtropical forests. Nepal’s culture is just as varied, filled with centuries-old temples and shrines, a profusion of colorful festivals and plenty of exotic wares to peruse and purchase. From adrenaline-filled activities like mountaineering, kayaking and paragliding to serene strolls among medieval temples and hidden palaces, this country offers more memorable travel experiences than can be squeezed into a single visit. An overview of the best places to visit in Nepal: 1. Kathmandu (Where to Stay) The country’s cultural capital, Kathmandu is the place where most adventures in Nepal begin, as all flights from overseas land in the city’s airport. A crowded metropolis of more than 1 million inhabitants, Kathmandu is a chaotic mix of tourist shops, trekking agencies, hotels, restaurants, religious sites and artisan workshops. The city’s famous Durbar Square is still undergoing restoration after the recent earthquakes, but there are many intact sites well worth exploring. Set atop a forested hill, the ancient Buddhist complex of Swayambhunath is a can’t-miss attraction that offers sweeping views of the Kathmandu Valley. 2. Annapurna Circuit flickr/gregw66 The Annapurna Circuit in northwest Nepal offers hikers an outdoor experience nonpareil. Showcasing the varied landscapes of the Annapurna Region, the classic trek leads travelers high into the Himalayas, across plunging gorges, over desert plateaus and through lush subtropical valleys dotted by terraced farms. The trek also passes by many religious sites and quaint villages. Starting just east of Pokhara, the journey takes about three weeks to complete though many trekkers walk half of it by flying out at Jomsom Airport. There is also the shorter but no less beautiful Annapurna Sanctuary Trek that takes around 8 to 12 days. Its one of the most popular treks in Nepal with lodges and tea stops at hourly intervals or less, until the highest sections at least. 3. Bhaktapur (Where to Stay) flickr/neiljs One of three ancient capitals in the Kathmandu Valley, beautifully preserved Bhaktapur experienced a fair share of damage during the 2015 earthquakes. Fortunately, most of the city’s temples and shrines, which are the main attractions in this place known as the City of Devotees, escaped unscathed. Less crowded and hectic than bustling Kathmandu, Bhaktapur invites leisurely walks through medieval squares, winding streets and pedestrian-only thoroughfares. The city’s Durbar Square, or “noble court,” features a must-see site known as the 55-Window Palace, a 15th-century structure that is now home to the National Art Gallery. 4. Patan (Where to Stay) flickr/

View Blog:

12 Prettiest Small Towns in Mexico

12 Prettiest Small Towns in Mexico Viva los pequenos pueblos de Mexico! Yes, Mexico’s small towns are certainly something to shout about. Whether they’re located on the coast or inland, the country’s villages are worth visiting. The coastal towns are scenic, with water activities galore, and are popular winter destinations for tourists from the colder climes. You may be shocked though to find that the popular destinations are packed with tourists and covered in chain restaurants. Leave the crowds and experience authentic culture by escaping to the most beautiful small towns in Mexico. 1. San Sebastian Bernal dreamstime/© Ramos Lara San Sebastián Bernal is one of Mexico’s Pueblo Magico, or “magic town,” that’s known for its legends, history, colorful architecture and magical symbols. A 2-1/2-hour drive from Mexico City, San Sebastián Bernal is famous for the Pena de Bernal, a rock monolith that is the third highest on earth. This huge rock can be seen from the village. The village was founded in 1642 by the Spanish; El Castillo, part of this legacy, is a major landmark that boasts a German-made clock. 2. Tulum  About 132 km (82 miles) south of Cancun towers the Mayan ruins of Tulum. You may be a bit confused upon arrival because the tourist town is inland from the ruins and the beach on the highway. While most people come to enjoy the sandy beaches and jade green water, they end up taking more pictures of the old Mayan ruins that sit atop a hill overlooking the Caribbean Sea. There’s nothing like swimming in the warm jade green waters in the shadow of such magnificent ruins. At night, you’ll find extremely affordable food and lodging in Tulum town on the narrow jungle highway. 3. Tlacotalpan dreamstime/© Javarman Situated right in the middle of the Gulf Coast’s big bend, Tlacotalpan has pristine early 19th Century colonial architecture. The only thing that tells you that you’re not wandering the port city’s streets in the 1800’s is the light smattering of traffic. To add to the grandeur of the remarkably intact architecture is the sun setting over the Río Papaloapan. Refraction adds to the delightful pastel colors of the some of the homes. A once booming river port, Tlacotalpan remains unchanged from its 1820 heyday which makes this small town worth a visit. Look for a high water mark in town that commemorates a devastating early-2000’s flood. 4. Todos Santos

View Blog:

Amazing Benefits Of Pomegranates by M.Yaseen Khan

Amazing Benefits Of Pomegranates   The health benefits of pomegranates are innumerable and what makes them special is that apart from being healthy, pomegranates are delicious too. Pomegranates have anti-oxidant, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and are said to be a good source of vitamins, especially vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E, as well as folic acid. This amazing fruit consists of three times as many antioxidants as both wine or green tea. Wondering what pomegranates are good for? They are useful in maintaining effective and healthy blood circulation, that several doctors suggest eating pomegranates to regain your strength after a long illness. Pomegranates have been traditionally used for clearing up the skin and reducing inflammation as well as for the treatment of sore throats. Other health benefits include being a great cure for heart-related problems, stomach disorders, cancer, dental problems, osteoarthritis, anemia, and diabetes

View Blog:

Serious Side Effects Of Tomatoes

  Serious Side Effects Of Tomatoes   Tomatoes have side effects, and some of them can be serious. Though the fruit is an integral part of our everyday diet, it is important to know its ill effects. So, keep reading. Tomatoes – A Brief Scientifically called Solanum lycopersicum, the tomato belongs to the nightshade family of Solanaceae. Tomatoes originated in the Central and South Americas. In Mexico, they were first used in food, and eventually spread throughout the world. Today, the tomato is consumed in a variety of ways – raw, cooked, and as an ingredient in numerous dishes, sauces, drinks, and salads. But now comes the big question –   Why Can Tomatoes Be Bad For You? Though they are usually safe for consumption, they can cause complications in some people. Some of the issues tomatoes can cause include acid reflux, effects of intolerance, muscle aches, etc. Even the leaf of the tomato plant can be unsafe. In large amounts, it can cause vomiting, dizziness, headache, and, in severe cases, even death (1). Another major factor contributing to this dark side of tomatoes is lycopene, the very compound that, quite surprisingly, is responsible for its benefits as well. Lycopene In Tomatoes Lycopene is safe in most cases. But lycopene supplements may not be safe during pregnancy. Lycopene can also aggravate the symptoms of prostate cancer. Lycopene must be used cautiously in patients who have stomach ulcers and other stomach issues. The compound can also cause low blood pressure. Individuals on blood pressure lowering medication must stay away from lycopene. Lycopene can also increase the risk of bleeding and must be avoided by people with bleeding disorders. Other side effects related to lycopene intake are chest pain, accumulation of fat under the skin, indigestion, and worsened hot flashes (2). Lycopene was also found to interact with certain cancer chemotherapy agents (3). Hence, individuals on cancer treatment must exercise caution. And now, for the side effects, in detail. Side Effects Of Tomatoes 1. Acid Reflux/Heartburn Image: iStock Tomatoes are highly acidic, which makes them likely to cause heartburn (4). Tomatoes are packed with malic and citric acids and can make the stomach produce excessive gastric acid

View Blog:

Burundi

Burundi Burundi   Burundi is a small country in East Africa, although it has some cultural and geographical ties with Central Africa. It is surrounded by Rwanda, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Understand Burundi covers 27,834km² with an estimated population of almost 8.7 million. Although the country is landlocked, much of the south-western border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika, one of the deepest lakes in the world. Burundi is one of the ten least developed countries in the world and it has the lowest per capita GDP of any nation in the world. Burundi's low GDP rate is due primarily to civil wars, corruption, poor access to education, political instability and the consequences of HIV/AIDS. Cobalt and copper are among the nation's natural resources. Other resources include coffee, sugar and tea. Burundi possesses all the elements of a young nation with ancient traditions that constitute its very rich culture: art, dance, music, and handicrafts. Its aim is to ensure the transmission of the cultural inheritance from the forefathers and ancestors evidenced by belongings and objects they revered and favoured, the dances and rhythmic music they composed. Burundi is an off the beaten path destination for most visitors to East Africa, and one should consider the cost/benefit calculation before travelling to this friendly, if limited in options destination. Travelling outside the capital of Bujumbura at all, or even within the city after nightfall, comes with considerable risk. A jovial time can be had here, for a price, and with an understanding of French you will have a better chance of enjoying your time here. Plan ahead to avoid risks of malaria, and drink plenty of water. As of March 2014, the nation is still recovering from catastrophic flooding and is embroiled in a conflict over if and when the next elections will be held. Comforts found in Rwanda will be much harder to come by here. History The earliest known people to live in Burundi were the Twa, pygmy people who remain as a minority group there. The people currently known as Hutu and Tutsi moved into the region several hundred years ago, and dominated it. Like much of Africa, Burundi then went through a period of European colonial rule. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Germany and Belgium occupied the region, and Burundi and Rwanda together became a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi. This ended with its independence from Belgium in 1962. In the decades since then, Burundi has known civil wars between the Hutu and Tutsi populations (much like the better-known genocide in Rwanda to the north), and a series of political assassinations. Peace and the (re)establishment of civil democracy took place in 2005 with a cease-fire and the election of former Hutu rebel Pierre Nkurunziza as president who intends to stand for a controversial third term. Climate Burundi in general has a tropical highland climate. Temperature varies considerably from one region to another as a result of differences in altitude. The central plateau enjoys pleasantly cool weather, with an average temperature of 20°C. The area around Lake Tanganyika is warmer, averaging 23°C; the highest mountain areas are cooler, averaging 16°C. Bujumbura’s average annual temperature is 23°C. Rain is irregular, falling most heavily in the north-west. Dry seasons vary in length, and there are sometimes long periods of drought. However, four seasons can be distinguished: the long dry season (June–August), the short wet season (September–November), the short dry season (December–January), and the long wet season (February–May). Most of Burundi receives between 1,300 and 1,600mm of rainfall a year. The Ruzizi Plain and the north-east receive between 750 and 1,000mm. Regions Map of Burundi The country is divided into 16 provinces ( a few are: Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitokeas), communes in rural areas and 'quartiers' in the capital. There are a total of 117 of such groupings. There are several lower level designations of administration, including the 'sector', the 'colline', or 'hillside', and the smallest grouping, the "Nyumba Kumi" or 'group of 10 houses.' Cities Bujumbura - the capital and largest city, situated on the north-eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika Bururi - southern city Cibitoke - northwestern city Gitega - the former colonial capital, second largest city, in the centre of the country Muyinga - northeastern city Ngozi - northern city Other destinations Kibira National Park - Situated at the top of the apex Zaire-Nile, with its 40,000 ha (hectares) of preserved forest land, is the largest completely untouched natural area in Burundi. Its forest constitutes a real shelter for chimpanzees, baboons, and monkeys (cercophitecus and colobus) scattering away at the approach of human beings and defying all laws of equilibrium and gravity. The park is criss-crossed by a network of 180km of tracks and paths mainly used by guard car patrols and motorized tourists. The guards of the park will scout for you in the wood undercover and you will be able to discover the fascinating attraction of the primeval forest and the varied, melodious songs of birds. Mountain chains hide thermal springs, and access to the park is made through the tea plantations of Teza and Rwegura which count among the top scenic beauties of this region. Ruvubu National Park

View Blog:

Madyan by M.Yaseen Khan

Madyan Swat   The lush green and beautiful swat valley has many nearby places to visit.  Madyan is one of them the valley is situated about 56 km to the north of Mingora. On the way to Kalam, Bahrain & Madyan are the two towns famous for a stopover from Sadu Sharif.  Madyan is about 1830m above sea level this place is famous for its unique fragrance ,this valley is 50 km from Sadu Sharif the capital of swat such a peaceful  place with  picturesque views.      In Madyan you will found shops, restaurants & hotels queued along the road.  Madyan is famous for its trout hatcheries and Bahrain for its unique handicrafts moreover, the meeting of two rivers in Bahrain adds up its charm for the fish lovers. The moment you enter Madyan you will get to see all kind of shawls, which includes embroider antique, traditional, and modern shawls.  In addition, Madyan is also known for its tribal jewelry & carved wood. In Madyan, there is a central Mosque made up of wooden carved pillars with such elegance, which is worth watching.  Kohistan a beautiful area lies in the north of Madyan. Destines for the tourists who love sports specially drifting in summers and much more unexplored winter sports too.  Kohistan was  fortunately not much affected by the 2007 insurgency militant but it faced the worse flood ever in 2010 July, which badly affected the area.  That flood almost ruined everything over there, which includes homes, schools, hotels, shops, and cultivated areas too. Swat Kohistan is a paradise on earth no doubt.  Its blue lakes, lush green lands, waterfalls, gold glinting now packed mountain peaks and the gently cold breeze are full of breathtaking views.   The people of swat are generally hospitable towards the tourists as the local swati honor people coming to their land as guests.  This valley is also among one of the best sites for trekking. Images & map   More Swat Attractions Visit to Swat Museum   Swat, an amazing place to visit, situated in the a...

View Blog:

Tram by M.Yaseen Khan

Tram A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tracksalong public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.[1] The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways. Tramways powered by electricity, the most common type historically, were once called electric street railways (mainly in the United States). However, trams were widely used in urban areas before the universal adoption of electrification; other methods of powering trams are listed below under "History". Hybrid funicular electric Former second generation cable tractor, used between 1978 and 2005, assisting a tramcar on the cable section of the Opicina Tramway in Trieste, Italy. The Opicina Tramway in Trieste operates a hybrid funicular electric system. Conventional electric trams are operated in street running and on reserved track for most of their route. However, on one steep segment of track, they are assisted by cable tractors, which push the trams uphill and act as brakes for the downhill run. For safety, the cable tractors are always deployed on the downhill side of the tram vehicle. Similar systems were used elsewhere in the past, notably on the Queen Anne Counterbalance in Seattle and the Darling Street wharf line in Sydney. Electric (trolley cars) Lichterfelde tram, 1882 Historic German electric tram Electric trams were first experimentally installed in Saint Petersburg, Russia, invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky as early as 1880.[13][14] These trams, like virtually all others mentioned in this section, used either a trolley pole or a pantograph, to feed power from electric wires strung above the tram route. Nevertheless, there were early experiments with battery-powered trams but these appear to have all been unsuccessful. The first trams in Bendigo, Australia, in 1892, were battery-powered but within as little as three months they were replaced with horse-drawn trams. In New York City some minor lines also used storage batteries. Then, comparatively recently, during the 1950s, a longer battery-operated tramway line ran from Milan to Bergamo. In China there is a Nanjing battery Tram line and has been running since 2014.[15] The first regular electric tram service using pantographs or trolley poles, the Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway, was put into service in Lichterfelde, then a suburb of Berlin, (now part of the southwestern Berlin city district of Steglitz-Zehlendorf), by Siemens & Halske (company founder Werner von Siemens), in May 1881. It initially drew current from the rails, with overhead wire being installed in 1883.[16] The company Siemens still exists. Edmonton Radial Railway Streetcar #42 in Fort Edmonton Park Another was by John Joseph Wright, brother of the famous mining entrepreneur Whitaker Wright, in Toronto in 1883. Earlier installations proved difficult or unreliable. Siemens' line, for example, provided power through a live rail and a return rail, like a model train, limiting the voltage that could be used, and providing electric shocks to people and animals crossing the tracks.[17]Siemens later designed his own method of current collection, from an overhead wire, called the bow collector. First type of Mödling and Hinterbrühl tramcars, bipolar overhead line In 1883, Magnus Volk constructed his 2 feet (610 mm) gauge Volk's Electric Railway along the eastern seafront at Brighton, England. This two kilometer line, re-gauged to 2 feet 9 inches (840 mm) in 1884, remains in service to this day, and is the oldest operating electric tramway in the world. The first tram for permanent service with overhead lines was the Mödling and Hinterbrühl Tram in Austria. It began operating in October 1883, but was closed in 1932. Multiple functioning experimental electric trams were exhibited at the 1884 World Cotton Centennial World's Fair in New Orleans, Louisiana, but they were not deemed good enough to replace the Lamm fireless engines that then propelled the St. Charles Avenue Streetcar in that city. Sidney Howe Short designed and produced the first electric motor that operated a streetcar without gears. The motor had its armature direct-connected to the streetcar's axle for the driving force.[18][19][20][21][22] Short pioneered "use of a conduit system of concealed feed" thereby eliminating the necessity of overhead wire, trolley poles and a trolley for street cars and railways.[23][18]

View Blog:

Railcar

Railcar A railcar, in British English and Australian English, is a self-propelled railway vehicle designed to transportpassengers. The term "railcar" is usually used in reference to a train consisting of a single coach (carriage, car), with a driver's cab at one or both ends. Some railways, e.g., the Great Western Railway, used the termRailmotor. If it is able to pull a full train, it is rather called a motor coach or a motor car.[1] In its simplest form it may be little more than a motorised version of a railway handcar, sometimes called aspeeder. The term is sometimes also used as an alternative name for the small types of multiple unit which consist of more than one coach. The term is used more generally now in Ireland to refer to any diesel multiple unit (DMU), or in some cases electric multiple unit (EMU). In North America the term “railcar” has a much broader meaning, and the term is used to refer to any kind ofrailway carriage, including unpowered goods wagons.[2][3][4] Uses   A 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in)Russian gauge Latvian RVR-made railbus AR2-002 in Vilnius,Lithuania, still Soviet design Railcars are economic to run for light passenger loads because of their small size, and in many countries are often used to run passenger services on minor railway lines, such as rural railway lines where passenger traffic is sparse, and where the use of a longer train would not be cost effective. A famous example of this in the United States was the Galloping Goose railcars of theRio Grande Southern Railroad, whose introduction allowed the discontinuance of steam passenger service on the line and prolonged its life considerably. Railcars have also been employed on premier services. In New Zealand, although railcars were primarily used on regional services, the Blue Streak and Silver Fern railcars were used on the North Island Main Trunk between Wellington and Aucklandand offered a higher standard of service than previous carriage trains. In Australia, the Savannahlander operates a tourist service from the coastal town of Cairns to Forsayth, and Traveltrain operates the Gulflander between Normanton and Croydon in the Gulf Country of northern Queensland. Historic railcars Steam railcar for the narrow gaugeNiederösterreich­ische Landesbahnen (DE), built by Komarek of Vienna in 1903   An early petrol-engined rail omnibus on the New York Central railroad   McKeen railmotor, 1903, futuristic design, early international success, unsolvable gear problems   Weitzer petrol electric railcar, 1903, French & German components, Austrian producer in Hungarian, now Romanian Arad   Narrow gauge railcar in Dubrovnik,Croatia, in 1967

View Blog:

Sargodha by M.Yaseen Khan

Sargodha Sargodha , also known as "The City of Eagles"[6], (Punjabi and Urdu: سرگودھا‎) is the 11th largestcity in Pakistan[3] with a population of 1.5 million.[7] It is also an administrative centre of Sargodha Division located in the Punjab province, Pakistan and one of the fastest growing cities in Pakistan.[8] History The origins of this city are quite old but the proper town was established by the British in 1903.[9]Although it was a small town in the beginning, the British Royal Air Force built an airport here due to its strategic location.[10] In April, 2017, twenty people were tortured and then murdered with clubs and knives at a Sufi shrine in Sargodha. A government administrator of the area told the Associated Press the custodian Abdul Waheed, 50, was allegedly in the practice of "beating and torturing" devotees to "cleanse" them and said he had confessed to the murders. The law minister for the Punjab provincial government said an initial investigation showed that Waheed had a collection of followers who would regularly visit the shrine and face torture in the name of religious cleansing.[11] Geography Sargodha is located 172 kilometres northwest of Lahore, in Sargodha District. It lies about 30 miles from the M-2 motorway, which connects Lahore and Islamabad. It is connected to the M-2 by several interchanges at different locations. Sargodha is roughly 94 km from Faisalabad, due southeast. Directly east connected by the M-2 motorway are Lahore and the route to Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Due east is the city of Jhang; toward the west are the city of Mianwali and the Chashma Barrage. Dera Ismail Khan is located 232 km southwest from the city. Sargodha mainly comprises flat, fertile plains, although here are a few small hills on the Sargodha-Faisalabad Road. The River Jhelum flows on the western and northern sides, and the River Chenab lies on the eastern side of the city.[12] Climate The city has a climate of extreme heat in the summers and moderate cold in the winters. The maximum temperature reaches 50 °C (122 °F) in the summer while the minimum temperature recorded is as low as freezing point in the winter. [hide]Climate data for Sargodha (1960–2012) MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear Average high °C (°F) 20 (68) 22 (72) 26 (79) 32 (90) 38 (100) 39 (102) 38 (100) 37 (99) 36 (97) 32 (90) 26 (79) 22 (72) 30.6 (87.1) Average low °C (°F) 8 (46) 11 (52) 15.5 (59.9) 19 (66) 25 (77) 27 (81) 26 (79) 26 (79) 25 (77) 20 (68) 14 (57) 9 (48) 18.8 (65.8) Average precipitation mm (inches) 18 (0.71)

View Blog:

Bhurban by M.Yaseen Khan

Bhurban Bhurban (Urdu: بھوربن ‎) is a small town and a hill station in Punjab province, Pakistan. The resort town is named after a nearby forest. It is located approximately 9 kilometres from Murree city. [ Contents   [hide]  1Location 2Tourism 3Residents 4Administration 5References   Location Bhurban is situated in between Murree and Kashmir Road at a height of about 6000 feet. It has recently been made accessible by the dual Islamabad-Murree Expressway, making it a 45-minute drive from Islamabad, the federal capital of Pakistan. Tourism Bhurban has a wide range of tourist facilities. Pearl Continental Bhurban - 5 star hotel in the town Bhurban is one of the more picturesque places in the country, and is a tourist paradise with unique flora, and a fauna with a variety species not found elsewhere in Pakistan. It is known for scenic hiking trails in the nearby Ayubia National Park. The '5 star' Pearl Continental Hotel - Mount Pleasant Apartments is one of several resorts in Bhurban that serve tourists visiting the Murree Hills and the national park. Bhurban also has a nine-hole golf course. Another beautiful resort in Bhurban is the Bhurban Hill Apartments, located 2 km from PC Bhurban. It has its own source of natural mineral water. Tribal women living in Burban, Pakistan. Residents Bhurban's main tribes are Dhunds (now called Abbasis), Karlals, Sheraals, Saedwals, Mumdals, Tapyal Janyals, and Jogyals, all being indigenous descendants of Muslim hill tribes who have lived here for centuries.[2] Many of these tribes converted to Islam during the 14th to 15th centuries AD [3] Most of them still live simple rural lives, whilcst a number of them have gone on to seek education and jobs in the plains, in Rawalpindi and Islamabad and even further afield. [4] Administration The Rawat Union Council is also responsible for managing Bhurban. Rawat village is the headquarters of the Union Councilof Rawat, which is an administrative sub-division of

View Blog:

Baya weaver

Baya weaver he baya weaver (Ploceus philippinus) is a weaverbird found across the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Flocks of these birds are found in grasslands, cultivated areas, scrub and secondary growth and they are best known for their hanging retort shaped nests woven from leaves. These nest colonies are usually found on thorny trees or palm fronds and the nests are often built near water or hanging over water where predators cannot reach easily. They are widespread and common within their range but are prone to local, seasonal movements mainly in response to rain and food availability. Among the population variations, three subspecies are recognized. The nominate race philippinus is found through much of mainland India while burmanicus is found eastwards into Southeast Asia. The population in southwest India is darker above and referred to as subspecies travancoreensis.[2]   Contents   [hide]  1Description 2Behaviour and ecology 2.1Breeding 3In culture 3.1Local names Description Male philippinus displaying at nest These are sparrow-sized (15 cm) and in their non-breeding plumage, both males and females resemble female house sparrows. They have a stout conical bill and a short square tail. Non-breeding males and females look alike, dark brown streaked fulvous buff above, plain (unstreaked) whitish fulvous below, eyebrow long and buff coloured, bill is horn coloured and no mask. Breeding males have a bright yellow crown, dark brown mask, blackish brown bill, upper parts are dark brown streaked with yellow, with a yellow breast and cream buff below.[3][4] Behaviour and ecology Baya weavers are social and gregarious birds. They forage in flocks for seeds, both on the plants and on the ground. Flocks fly in close formations, often performing complicated manoeuvres. They are known to glean paddy and other grain in harvested fields, and occasionally damage ripening crops and are therefore sometimes considered as pests.[5] They roost in reed-beds bordering waterbodies. They depend on wild grasses such as Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) as well as crops like rice for both their food (feeding on seedlings in the germination stage as well as on early stages of grain[6]) and nesting material. They also feed on insects (including butterflies[7]), sometimes taking small frogs,[8] geckos[9] and molluscs, especially to feed their young.[10] Their seasonal movements are governed by food availability. Their calls are a continuous chit-chit-... sometimes ending in a wheezy cheee-eee-ee that is produced by males in a chorus. A lower intensity call is produced in the non-breeding season.[11] They are occasionally known to descend to the ground and indulge in dust bathing.[12] In captivity, individuals are known to form stable peck

View Blog:

People known as "the Great"

People known as "the Great" This is a list of people known as "the Great". There are many people in history whose names are commonly appended with the phrase "the Great" or the equivalent in their own language. Other languages have their own suffixes, such as Persian e Bozorg and Urdu e azam. In Persia, the title "the Great" at first seems to be a colloquial version of the Old Persian title "Great King". This title was first used by the conqueror Cyrus II of Persia.[1] The Persian title was inherited by Alexander III of Macedon (336–323 BC) when he conquered the Persian Empire, and the epithet "Great" eventually became personally associated with him. The first reference (in a comedy by Plautus)[2] assumes that everyone knew who "Alexander the Great" was; however, there is no earlier evidence that Alexander III of Macedon was called "the Great". The early Seleucidkings, who succeeded Alexander in Persia, used "Great King" in local documents, but the title was most notably used for Antiochus the Great(223–187 BC). Later rulers and commanders used the epithet "the Great" as a personal name, like the Roman general Pompey. Others received the surname retrospectively, such as the Carthaginian Hanno and the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great. Once the surname gained currency, it was also used as an honorific surname for people without political careers, like the philosopher Albert the Great. As there are no objective criteria for "greatness", the persistence of using the designation greatly varies. For example, Louis XIV of France was often referred to as "the Great" in his lifetime, but is rarely called such nowadays, while Frederick II of Prussia is still called "the Great". German Emperor Wilhelm I was often called "the Great" in the time of his grandson Wilhelm II, but rarely later.   Monarchs NameDescription Abbas I[3] (1571–1629) Shahanshah of Persia (1588–1629) Afonso de Albuquerque[4] (c. 1453–1515) Portuguese general, statesman and empire builder Akbar[5] (1542–1605) Mughal emperor (India) Alexander I of Georgia (1386–1446) King of Georgia Alexander the Great (356 BC–323 BC) King of Macedonia and Persia. Pharaoh of Egypt. Alfonso III of Asturias (c. 848–910) King of León, Galicia and Asturias Alfred the Great (848/849–899) King of Wessex, England Antiochus III the Great (c. 241–187 BC) Ruler of the Seleucid Empire Ashoka[6] (c. 304–232 BC) Indian emperor of the Maurya dynasty Ashot I of Iberia[7] (died 826/830) Presiding prince of Caucasian Iberia (in modern Georgia) Askia Mohammad I[8] (c. 1442–1538) Ruler of the Songhai Empire Bhumibol Adulyadej (1927–2016) King of Thailand Bolesław I the Brave[9] (967–1025) First King of Poland Casimir III the Great (1310–1370) King of Poland (1333–70) Catherine the Great (1729–1796) Empress of Russia Charlemagne (died 814) ("Charles the Great") King of the Franks and Emperor of the Romans Chlothar II (584–629) King of Neustria and King of the Franks Conrad, Margrave of Meissen (c. 1097–1157) Margrave of Meissen Constantine the Great (c. 272–337) Roman emperor Cnut the Great (c. 985 or 995–1035) King of England (1016–35), Denmark (1018–35) and Norway (1028–35). Cyrus the Great (c. 600 BC or 576 BC–530 BC) Founder and ruler of the Persian Achaemenid Empire Darius I (550–486 BC) Third ruler of the Achaemenid Empire Eucratides I[10] (reigned c. 170–145 BC) Ruler of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom and the Indo-Greek Kingdom Farrukhan the Great[11] Ispahbadh of Tabaristan (712–728) Ferdinand I of León (c. 1015–1065) King of León and Count of Castile Frederick the Great (1712–1786) King of Prussia Genghis Khan (1162–1227) Founder and Great Khan of the Mongol Empire Gerhard III, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg (c. 1292–1340) German prince who ruled Schauenburg and Holstein-Rendsburg and for a while a large part of Denmark Gero (c. 900–965) Ruler of Marca Geronis, a very large march in Europe

View Blog:

Folk dances of Punjab by M.Yaseen Khan

Folk dances of Punjab Punjabi dances are an array of folk and religious dances of the Punjabi people indigenous to the Punjab region, straddling the border of India and Pakistan. The style of Punjabi dances ranges from very high energy to slow and reserved, and there are specific styles for men and women. Some of the dances are secular while others are presented in religious contexts. The dances are typically performed at times of celebration, such as Harvest (Visakhi), Weddings, Melas (Festivals) likeLohri, Jashan-e-Baharan (Spring Festival) etc., at which everyone is encouraged to dance. Married Punjabi couples usually dance together. The husband dances in the style of male Punjabi dances, frequently with arms raised, and the wife dances in the style of female Punjabi dances. Main Punjabi folk dance for men or for all is Bhangda or Bhangra and for females is Giddha or Giddhah. Common Punjabi Folk Dances for "Females" Punjabi Girls dancing Sammi Giddha Jaago Kikli Luddi Common Punjabi Folk Dances for Males Dhamaal Dance Bhangra Malwai Giddha Jhumar Luddi Jalli Mirza Sial Koti Jugni Khichan Dhamal Dankara Khatka (Sword Dance) Common Punjabi Folk Dances for Males and Females Bhangra Karthi Jindua Dandass See also[edit] Bhangra (dance) Giddha Sammi Gatka (Sword dance) External links[edit]   https://youtu.be/oV5IsGBk0VM

View Blog:

Firefly by M.Yaseen Khan

Firefly The Lampyridae are a family of insects in the beetle order Coleoptera. They are winged beetles, commonly called fireflies or lightning bugs for their conspicuous use of bioluminescence during twilight to attract mates or prey. Fireflies produce a "cold light", with no infrared or ultraviolet frequencies. This chemically produced light from the lower abdomen may be yellow, green, or pale red, with wavelengths from 510 to 670 nanometers.[2] About 2,000 species of fireflies are found in temperate and tropical climates. Many are in marshes or in wet, wooded areas where their larvae have abundant sources of food. Their larvae emit light and often are called "glowworms" in Eurasia and elsewhere. In the Americas, "glow worm" also refers to the related Phengodidae. In many species, both male and female fireflies have the ability to fly, but in some species, the females are flightless.[3] Biology A larviform female showing light-emitting organs on abdomen Fireflies tend to be brown and soft-bodied, often with the elytra, or front wings, more leathery than those of other beetles. Although the females of some species are similar in appearance to males, larviform females are found in many other firefly species. These females can often be distinguished from the larvae only because they have compound eyes. The most commonly known fireflies are nocturnal,[4] although there are numerous species that are diurnal. Most diurnal species are not luminescent; however, some species that remain in shadowy areas may produce light. A few days after mating, a female lays her fertilized eggs on or just below the surface of the ground. The eggs hatch three to four weeks later, and the larvae feed until the end of the summer. The larvae are commonly called glowworms (not to be confused with the distinct beetle family Phengodidae or the fly genus Arachnocampa.) Lampyrid larvae have simple eyes. The term glowworm is also used for both adults and larvae of species such as Lampyris noctiluca, the common European glowworm, in which only the nonflying adult females glow brightly and the flying males glow only weakly and intermittently.   A video of fireflies. Fireflies hibernate over winter during the larval stage, some species for several years.[clarification needed] Some do this by burrowing underground, while others find places on or under the bark of trees. They emerge in the spring. After several weeks of feeding on other insects, snails and worms, they pupate for 1.0 to 2.5 weeks and emerge as adults. The larvae of most species are specialized predators and feed on other larvae, terrestrial snails, and slugs. Some are so specialized that they have grooved mandibles that deliver digestive fluids directly to their prey. Adult diet varies: some are predatory, while others feed on plant pollen or nectar. Some, like the European Glow-worm beetle, Lampyris noctiluca, have no mouth. Most fireflies are quite distasteful to eat and sometimes poisonous to vertebrate predators. This is due at least in part to a group of steroid pyrones known as lucibufagins, which are similar to cardiotonic bufadienolides found in some poisonous toads.[5] Light and chemical production

View Blog:

The Way to Happiness by M.Yaseen Khan

The Way to Happiness The Way to Happiness is a 1980 booklet written by science-fiction author and Scientologyfounder L. Ron Hubbard listing 21 moral precepts. The booklet is distributed by The Way to Happiness Foundation International, a Scientology-related nonprofit organization founded in 1984. Hubbard wrote The Way to Happiness “in an attempt to bring a betterment of man’s ethical dimension,” according to scholar Silvio Calzolari. He realized the need for a moral code apart from religion. Scientology describes the Way to Happiness as “the first moral code entirely founded on common sense and it is not the only one not of religious nature. It does not contain anything appealing to nothing but to the good sense of the reader.”[1] The Way to Happiness is used as part of Scientology's Criminon rehabilitation program and is promoted by Scientology celebrities. The unsolicited distribution of personalised copies of the booklet to schools and mayors' offices has caused controversy, and while it is promoted as secular in nature, critics have stated that it includes ideas that are specific to Scientology, and is used as a recruiting tool.[citation needed] The booklet has been translated into 70 languages, which is a Guinness World Record for the most translations of a single work.[2] Foundation The Way to Happiness Foundation International is a non-profit 501(c)(3),[3] incorporated in 1984.[4] Headquartered at 201 East Broadway, Glendale, California, the foundation coordinates the activities of the Way to Happiness international network, including continental and national officies, associates and local groups.[5] The Way to Happiness Foundation International is a division of the Association for Better Living and Education (ABLE), and is a "Scientology-related entity" under the 1993 IRS Closing Agreement.[6] Booklet The Way to Happiness booklet contains a set of 21 precepts,[7] which were written by L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology. Some of the precepts include "Take Care of Yourself," "Set A Good Example," "Do Not Murder," "Don't Do Anything Illegal," and "Try Not To Do Things To Others That You Would Not Like Them to Do To You."[8] It was first published in 1981 by Regent House, Los Angeles as a 48-page paper-covered booklet (ISBN 0-9605930-0-4). This book is frequently given out by Scientologists. A campaign in the early 1990s to distribute the book in United States schools was described in Church of Scientology publications as "the largest dissemination project in Scientology history" and "the bridge between broad society and Scientology."[9] A song titled "The Way to Happiness" appears on the music album The Road to Freedom, with music and lyrics by Hubbard.[10] The Way to Happiness forms the core of the Church of Scientology prison program Criminon.[11] It is also used in the Scientology-affiliated organization Narconon - all clients receive a pamphlet of The Way to Happiness when they begin the program.[12] Volunteer Ministers, a Scientology-affiliated organization which responds to disaster scenes, distributes The Way to Happiness pamphlets, and did so in the wake of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake,[13] and the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre.[14] The Scientology organization Concerned Businessmen's Association of America (CBAA) has also distributed The Way to Happiness, though representatives of the group have denied connections to Scientology.[15] A 1993 article in Newsweek described cases where schools in Bellflower, California and Brooklyn, New York were influenced by CBAA to use The Way to Happiness in their schools, without knowing of the connections to Scientology.[15] A 1990 Los Angeles Times article described the situation of a school in Fresno, California, where CBAA representatives refused to sponsor a contest at the school if The Way to Happiness pamphlet was not distributed.[15] The booklet has been distributed to hotels.[16] Promoted by celebrities Scientologist Nancy Cartwright, the voice actor for Bart Simpson, mailed 1 million copies of The Way to Happiness booklet to residents of San Fernando Valley, California in December 2007.[7] Cartwright told the Daily News of Los Angeles: "The mailing was from me to the San Fernando Valley community, the highest gang-infested area of Los Angeles. I thought it would make an impact, give someone a tool in order to make their lives happier at home."[7] Isaac Hayes distributed The Way to Happiness pamphlets at his jazz performances in 2005.[17] Tom Cruise has distributed The Way to Happiness pamphlets, and passed out brochures embossed with his name at the elementary school where the 2005 movie

View Blog:

Places in New Zealand

  Places in New Zealand    Destination North Island Packing in cosmopolitan cities, authentic opportunities to experience Māori culture, and the country’s bubbling volcanic heart, the North Island is an exceedingly versatile destination. Destination South Island Welcome to one of the world’s ultimate outdoor playgrounds, bursting with opportunities for adventure amid diverse and inspiring landscapes. Walk on the Wild Side With just a million people scattered across 151,215 sq km, the South Island has a population density even lower than Tasmania in Australia. Destination Auckland Region The greater Auckland region encompasses the city proper and the gorgeous surrounding towns and landscapes. It's rare that visitors restrict themselves solely to the city area. And why would you? There's plenty to see and do right in the heart of the city, but travelling further afield opens the opportunities considerably. Destination Christchurch & Canterbury Nowhere in New Zealand is changing and developing as fast as postearthquake Christchurch. Visiting the country’s second-largest city as it's being rebuilt and reborn is both interesting and inspiring. Destination Queenstown & Wanaka With a cinematic background of mountains and lakes, and a ‘what can we think of next?’ array of adventure activities, it’s little wonder Queenstown tops the itineraries of many travellers. Slow down slightly in Wanaka – Queenstown’s less flashy cousin – which also has good restaurants, bars and outdoor adventures on tap.

View Blog:

103 Ways to Live a Happier Life

View Blog:

Jasminum sambac by M.Yaseen Khan

  Jasminum sambac Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine) is a species of jasmine native to a small region in the eastern Himalayas in Bhutan and neighbouring India and Pakistan. It is cultivated in many places, especially across much of South and Southeast Asia. It is naturalised in many scattered locales: Mauritius, Madagascar, the Maldives, Cambodia, Indonesia, Christmas Island, Chiapas, Central America, southern Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the Lesser Antilles.[3][4][5] Jasminum sambac is a small shrub or vine growing up to 0.5 to 3 m (1.6 to 9.8 ft) in height. It is widely cultivated for its attractive and sweetly fragrant flowers. The flowers may be used as a fragrant ingredient in perfumes and jasmine tea. It is known as the Arabian jasmine in English. It is the national flower of the Philippines, where it is known as sampaguita, as well as being one of the three national flowers of Indonesia, where it is known as melati putih. Taxonomy and nomenclature Jasminum sambac is classified under the genus Jasminum under the tribe Jasmineae.[6] It belongs to the olive family Oleaceae.[7] Despite the English common name of "Arabian jasmine", Jasminum sambac is not originally native to Arabia. The habits of Jasminum sambac support a native habitat of humid tropical climates and not the arid climates of the Middle East. Early Chinese records of the plant points to the origin of Jasminum sambac as eastern South Asia and Southeast Asia.Jasminum sambac (and nine other species of the genus) were spread into Arabia and Persia by man, where they were cultivated ingardens. From there, they were introduced to Europe where they were grown as ornamentals and were known under the common name "sambac" in the 18th century.[8][9] Medieval Arabic "zanbaq" meant jasmine flower-oil from the flowers of any species of jasmine. This word entered late medieval Latin as"sambacus" and "zambacca" with the same meaning as the Arabic, and then in post-medieval Latin plant taxonomy the word was adopted as a label for the J. sambac species.[10] The J. sambac species is a good source for jasmine flower-oil in terms of the quality of the fragrance and it continues to be cultivated for this purpose for the perfume industry today. The Jasminum officinale species is also cultivated for the same purpose, and probably to a greater extent. In 1753, Carl Linnaeus first described the plant as Nyctanthes sambac in the first edition of his famous book Systema Naturae. In 1789,William Aiton reclassified the plant to the genus Jasminum. He also coined the common English name of "Arabian jasmine",[11]cementing the misconception that it was Arabian in origin.[8] Other common names of Jasminum sambac include:[12] Arabic - Full (فل), and in Iraq "Razqi" (رازقي) Bengali - Bel/Beli (বেলীফুল) Catalan - Xamelera Cebuano - Manol Chamorro - Sampagita Chinese - Mo Li Hua (茉莉花) English - Arabian jasmine, Tuscan jasmine, Sambac jasmine Greek - Fouli (Φούλι) Gujarati - Mogro (મોગરો) Hawaiian - Pikake Hindi and Marathi - Moghrā (मोगरा) Indonesian - Melati Putih Japanese - Matsurika (茉莉花, まつりか) Kannada - Dundu Mallige (ದುಂಡು ಮಲ್ಲಿಗೆ) Khmer - Mlis (ម្លិះ) Konkani - Mogare Malay - Melur[13] or Melati[14] Malayalam - Koda Mulla

View Blog:

Kublai Khan

  Kublai Khan Kublai (Mongolian: Хубилай, Xubilaĭ; Middle Mongol: Qubilai) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire(Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position). He also founded the Yuan dynasty in China as a conquest dynasty in 1271, and ruled as the first Yuan emperor until his death in 1294. Kublai was the fourth son of Tolui (his second son with Sorghaghtani Beki) and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He succeeded his older brother Möngke as Khagan in 1260, but had to defeat his younger brother Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War lasting until 1264. This episode marked the beginning of disunity in the empire.[1] Kublai's real power was limited to China and Mongolia, though as Khagan he still had influence in the Ilkhanate and, to a significantly lesser degree, in the Golden Horde.[2][3][4] If one counts the Mongol Empire at that time as a whole, his realm reached from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea, from Siberia to what is now Afghanistan – one fifth of the world's inhabited land area.[5] In 1271, Kublai established the Yuan dynasty, which ruled over present-day Mongolia, China, Korea, and some adjacent areas, and assumed the role of Emperor of China. By 1279, the Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty was completed and Kublai became the first non-native emperor to conquer all of China. Early years[edit] Kublai Khan was the fourth son of Tolui, and his second son with Sorghaghtani Beki. As his grandfather Genghis Khanadvised, Sorghaghtani chose a Buddhist Tangut woman as her son's nurse, whom Kublai later honored highly. On his way home after the Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia, Genghis Khan performed a ceremony on his grandsons Möngke and Kublai after their first hunt in 1224 near the Ili River.[6] Kublai was nine years old and with his eldest brother killed a rabbit and an antelope. His grandfather smeared fat from killed animals onto Kublai's middle finger in accordance with a Mongol tradition. After the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, in 1236, Ögedei gave Hebei (attached with 80,000 households) to the family of Tolui, who died in 1232. Kublai received an estate of his own, which included 10,000 households. Because he was inexperienced, Kublai allowed local officials free rein. Corruption amongst his officials and aggressive taxation caused large numbers of Chinese peasants to flee, which led to a decline in tax revenues. Kublai quickly came to his appanage in Hebei and ordered reforms. Sorghaghtani sent new officials to help him and tax laws were revised. Thanks to those efforts, many of the people who fled returned. The most prominent, and arguably most influential, component of Kublai Khan's early life was his study and strong attraction to contemporary Chinese culture. Kublai invited Haiyun, the leading Buddhist monk in North China, to his ordo in Mongolia. When he met Haiyun in Karakorum in 1242, Kublai asked him about the philosophy of Buddhism. Haiyun named Kublai's son, who was born in 1243, Zhenjin (Chinese: True Gold).[7] Haiyun also introduced Kublai to the formerly Daoist and now Buddhist monk, Liu Bingzhong. Liu was a painter, calligrapher, poet, and mathematician, and he became Kublai's advisor when Haiyun returned to his temple in modern Beijing.[8] Kublai soon added the Shanxi scholar Zhao Bi to his entourage. Kublai employed people of other nationalities as well, for he was keen to balance local and imperial interests, Mongol and Turk. Enthronement and civil war[edit] Main article: Toluid Civil War Kublai received a message from his wife that his younger brother Ariq Böke had been raising troops, so he returned north to the Mongolian plains.[20] Before he reached Mongolia, he learned that Ariq Böke had held a kurultai (Mongol great council) at the capital Karakorum, which had named him Great Khan with the support of most of Genghis Khan's descendants. Kublai and the fourth brother, the Il-Khan Hulagu, opposed this. Kublai's Chinese staff encouraged Kublai to ascend the throne, and almost all the senior princes in North China and Manchuria supported his candidacy.[21] Upon returning to his own territories, Kublai summoned his own kurultai. Few members of the royal family supported Kublai's claims to the title, though the small number of attendees included representatives of all the Borjigin lines except that of Jochi. This kurultai proclaimed Kublai Great Khan, on April 15, 1260, despite Ariq Böke's apparently legal claim. Kublai Khan was chosen by his many supporters to become the next Great Khanat the Grand Kurultai in the year 1260. Kublai Khan and His Empress Enthroned, from a Jami al-Twarikh (or Chingiznama). Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar, 1596. Mughal Court. Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper. India. Freer Gallery of Art. F1954.31 [1] This led to warfare between Kublai and Ariq Böke, which resulted in the destruction of the Mongolian capital at Karakorum. In Shaanxiand Sichuan, Möngke's army supported Ariq Böke. Kublai dispatched Lian Xixian to Shaanxi and Sichuan, where they executed Ariq Böke's civil administrator Liu Taiping and won over several wavering generals.[22] To secure the southern front, Kublai attempted a diplomatic resolution and sent envoys to Hangzhou, but Jia broke his promise and arrested them.[23] Kublai sent Abishqa as new khan to the Chagatai

View Blog:

Most Beautiful Places in China

Most Beautiful Places in China Most Beautiful Places in China would like to show you the most popular scenic cities with stunning natural scenery. China has many cities with spectacular views that will make a feast for your eyes and even lead you to the dreamy land. Sometimes areas with gorgeous natural beauty are located outside city in a prefecture governed by, and with the same name as, a city. TopChinaTravel has, though very hard, tried to pick out 10 of the most popular China scenic cities for you that with precious top scenery (in no particular order). Guilin (Yangshuo/Longsheng) Situated in South China, Guilin is like a glittering pearl on a green carpet, the scenery here enjoys the praise of "top landscape in the world". It is renowned for its Karst landscape, exquisite mountains, wired caves and especially the limpid Li River that runs from downtown to Yangshuo County, all of which mix together and form a giant elegant Chinese painting. At the same time, you would not wanna miss the unique beauty of graceful rice fields in Longsheng County.  Li River, Guilin Guilin Highlights: ♦ Li River, is the top ranked attraction in Guilin, which expressed perfectly the inner core of scenery and also the custom of the city - mild, delicate, genial but also proud. It is said that the river between Yangdi and Xingping (of Yangshuo County) is the most outstanding section. ♦ Longji Rice Terraces is a very special site that considered the best of its kind, attracted people with its creative layout, well-toned figure and extraordinary size. Jiuzhaigou Situatied in the east part of Sichuan Province, Jiuzhaigou county owns one of the most famous fairy-land-like spots of the world – Jiuzhaigou Valley, which is a legendry land that recognized by UNESCO as World Natural Heritage in 1992. Jiuzhaigou County is also a good place for people to experience unique Tibetan culture and unspoiled local custom.  Jiuzhaigou Valley Jiuzhaigou Highlights: ♦ Called as the living paradise, Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic Area is reputed for its bright green waters, icy waterfalls, colorful forest (especially in autumn) and pure snow mountains surrounded. It is also home of varied creatures like wild pandas, white-lipped deer.  ♦ Huanglong, a World Natural Heritage site, touching Jiuzhaigou, is also famous for its colorful ponds, snowy mountains, deep valleys, and dense forest. Between 3,145 and 3,578 meters above sea level at the foot of Xuebaoding, the main peak of Mt. Minshan, lies a 3.6-km-long calcified hill, resembling a giant golden dragon galloping among the virgin forest, and this is how the mountain was named. Huangshan Situated on the mid-east part of China, Huangshan city owns abundant natural and cultural resources. Boasted grand mountain-view sites, elegant water-view spots and primary national forest reserves, this city is a real popular tourist city of China. In 1990, the most outstanding site Yellow Mountain (Mt. Huangshan) was recognized by UNESCO as World Natural Heritage. Huangshan Highlights: ♦ Yellow Mountain (Mt. Huangshan) is one of the top mountain-view spots of China and known as the No. 1 Mountain under heaven. It features imposing peaks, grotesquely-shaped rocks, steep cliffs, fantastic caves and those peculiarities that make the mountain outstanding among others.  ♦ Hongcun Village is an ancient village with a history of 400 to 500 years. The original residential style and features of the Ming and Qing Dynasties were preserved

View Blog:

China by M.Yaseen Khan

    China / SEE & DO The 14 Most Beautiful Places In China You Didn't Know Existed  Jessica DawdyUpdated: 9 February 2017 One of the world’s largest and oldest civilizations, it’s no surprise that China is filled with countless lesser-known gems and hidden attractions waiting to be discovered. This diverse country’s astounding man-made attractions are rivaled by its remarkable natural wonders. From singing sand dunes to some of the tallest statues on the planet, here are some of the most beautiful places in China that you need to see. © oarranzli/Flickr Jiuzhaigou Jiuzhaigou’s enormous lake is filled with water that changes color throughout the day and year. The color is caused by a combination of algae and calcified rocks found at the bottom of the lake, as well as the reflection of the surrounding landscape. Autumn is the best time of year to visit the lake, when it takes on a rainbow of different hues. Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China   © P Bibler/Flickr Zhangye Danxia Landform Nicknamed the ‘painted mountains’ of Danxia, this incredible landscape is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site. In this section of the Gobi Desert, the folding of layered oceanic crust created exposed rock layers of different colors and textures. Their unusual shapes, which resemble strange cones and towers, evolved over centuries of exposure to wind and rain and the colorful sedimentation layers add unique striped patterns. Zhangye Danxia Landform, Gansu, China   © Matthew Stinson/Flickr

View Blog:

Accessories from ancient Chinese royal court add t

Accessories from ancient Chinese royal court add to beauty of summer In the loop: bracelets from the Palace Museum collection CREDIT: OFFICIAL WEIBO ACCOUNT OF THE PALACE MUSEUM 18 JULY 2017 • 10:30AM     Bi Nan

View Blog:

Amazing Benefits Of Cherries For

 Amazing Benefits Of Cherries For Skin, Hair And Health   Who wouldn’t love cherries? Apart from tasting really good, they also offer very good nutritional value. Each cherry tree produces about 7000 cherries every harvest season. They are available in a variety of colours ranging from yellow to black but the ones that are mostly consumed are red in colour.   Cherries also come in different shapes from round to heart; They can be eaten as snacks and are also used in making tarts and cherry pies or juice. They benefit us in many ways as it is a source of nutrients and vitamins. They also help in burning fat, however they do not show a drastic loss in weight, you can substitute them with higher calorie food in order to reduce your daily calorie intake. Read below to know few cherry benefits. Benefits of Cherry 1. They contain anthocyanins which are good for maintaining a healthy body. The anti oxidants help in inhibiting the oxidation promoted by oxygen and anti oxidants that help protect the body from damaging the preradicals or ORAC (oxygen radical absorption capability) it also measures the total anti oxidant value. Our body should at least contain about 3000-5000 oral units daily to reach the significant oxygen capacity that is required in the blood. 2. Cherries contain melatonin which is five times more than the blackberries, strawberries and helps cure insomnia (which is a sleep deficiency) and maintaining healthy joint function. It is also suggested for jet lag. 3. They also act as anti inflammatory agent   4. It also helps the body to fight against cancer, aging, headaches etc. 5. Cherries also help to control blood pressure and heart rate thus helping our cardiovascular system Save cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo shared by jayneandd 6. Cherries contain about 100 calories per cup and provide us with the perfect amount of calories required daily. They also help us in losing weight, as you can toss sliced cherry in lunch time or eat a handful of them in the afternoon; you can also drink a cup of cherry juice by mixing water and raw cherries in a blender and topping it with ice or just eat raw cherries. You can also eat cherry by dipping it in nonfat yogurt, whipped cream and cinnamon. This also tastes very good unlike other raw vegetables and fruits. 7. Cherry fruit benefits also include provision of the right amount of ORAC (oxygen radical absorption capability) units to the body. 8. Cherries are also alkaline content foods which means they will help to maintain the body’s ideal pH balance. [ Read: Health Benefits Of Apples ]

View Blog:

Citrullus colocynthis

Citrullus colocynthis Citrullus colocynthis, with many common names including colocynth,[2] bitter apple,[2] bitter cucumber,[2] desert gourd,[citation needed] egusi,[3] vine of Sodom,[2] or wild gourd,[2] is a desert viny plant native to the Mediterranean Basin and Asia, especially Turkey (especially in regions such as İzmir), Nubia, and Trieste. It resembles a common watermelon vine, but bears small, hard fruits with a bitter pulp. It originally bore the scientific name Colocynthis citrullus.   Origin, distribution, and ecology C. colocynthis is a desert viny plant that grows in sandy, arid soils. It is native to the Mediterranean Basin and Asia, and is distributed among the west coast of northern Africa, eastward through the Sahara, Egypt until India, and reaches also the north coast of the Mediterranean and the Caspian Seas. It grows also in southern European countries as in Spain and on the islands of the Grecian archipelago. On the island of Cyprus, it is cultivated on a small scale; it has been an income source since the 14th century and is still exported today. It is an annual or a perennial plant (in wild) in Indian arid zones and has a great survival rate under extreme xeric conditions.[4] In fact, it can tolerate annual precipitation of 250 to 1500 mm and an annual temperature of 14.8 to 27.8 °C. It grows from sea level up to 1500 meters above sea level on sandy loam, subdesert soils, and sandy sea coasts with a pH range between 5.0 and 7.8.[5] Characteristics and morphology Roots and stems The roots are large, fleshy, and perennial, leading to a high survival rate due to the long tap root. The vine-like stems spread in all directions for a few meters looking for something over which to climb. If present, shrubs and herbs are preferred and climbed by means of axiliary branching tendrils.[4] Leaves Very similar to watermelon, the leaves are palmate and angular with three to seven divided lobes. Flowers The flowers are yellow and solitary in the axes of leaves and are borne by yellow-greenish peduncles. Each has a subcampanulated five-lobed corolla and a five-parted calyx. They are monoecious, so the male (stamens) and the female reproductive parts (pistils and ovary) are borne in different flowers on the same plant. The male flowers’ calyx is shorter than the corolla. They have five stamens, four of which are coupled and one is single with monadelphous anther. The female flowers have three staminoids and a three-carpel ovary. The two sexes are distinguishable by observing the globular and hairy inferior ovary of the female flowers.[4] A C. colocynthis female flower Iranian C. colocynthis Ripe fruit of C. colocynthis Fruits The fruit is smooth, spheric with a 5– to 10-cm-diameter and extremely bitter taste. The calyx englobe the yellow-green fruit which becomes marble (yellow stripes) at maturity. The mesocarp is filled with a soft, dry, and spongy white pulp, in which the seeds are embedded. Each of the three carpels bears six seeds. Each plant produces 15 to 30 fruits.[5] Seeds The seeds are grey and 5 mm long by 3 mm wide. They are edible but similarly bitter, nutty-flavored, and rich in fat and protein. They are eaten whole or used as an oilseed. The oil content of the seeds is 17–19% (w/w), consisting of 67–73% linoleic acid, 10–16% oleic acid, 5–8% stearic acid, and 9–12% palmitic acid. The oil yield is about 400 l/

View Blog:

Giddha

Giddha Giddha (Punjabi: گدها, giddhā) is a popular folk dance of women in Punjab region of India and Pakistan. The dance is often considered derived from the ancient dance known as the ring dance and is just as energetic as Bhangra; at the same time it manages to creatively display feminine grace, elegance and flexibility. It is a very colourful dance form which is now copied in all regions of the country. Women perform this dance mainly at festive or social occasions.[1] The dance is followed by rhythmic clapping and a typical traditional folk song is sung by the aged ladies in the background. There is a spontaneous display of joy whenever the performance takes place History Giddha is said to be originated from the ancient ring dance which was dominant in Punjab in the olden days. Women show the same level of energy which the men show while performing Bhangra. The fragrance of feminine grace can be easily understood if one watches the dance with interest.[2] Dress Code Traditionally women used to wear short shirt (choli) with ghahra or lehenga in bright colours such as yellow, green, red, purple, orange, etc. with heavy jewellery. Nowadays many have also started wearing salwar kameez in the same colours and jewellery. The attire is completed by wearing a tikka on the forehead.[3]    

View Blog:

Bhangra (dance) by M.Yaseen Khan

Bhangra (dance)   This article is about dance genres. For the popular music genre, see Bhangra (music). The term Bhaṅgṛā (Punjabi: ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi), بھنگڑا (Shahmukhi); pronounced [pə̀ŋɡɽaː]Listen) refers to the traditional dance from the Indian subcontinent originating in the Majha area of the Punjab region,[1] free form traditional Bhangra originating in Punjab, India and modern Bhangra developed by the Punjabi diaspora.   Contents    1Varieties 1.1Traditional Bhangra/Folk dance of Majha 2Free form traditional bhangra 3Gallery 4See also 5References 6Further reading 7External links   Varieties Traditional Bhangra/Folk dance of Majha The origins of traditional Bhangra are speculative. According to Dhillon (1998), Bhangra is related to the Punjabi dance 'bagaa' which is a martial dance of Punjab.[2]However, the folk dance of Majha originated in Sialkot and took root in Gujranwalla, Sheikhupur, Gujrat (districts in Punjab, Pakistan) and Gurdaspur (district in Punjab, India).[2][3][4] The traditional form of Bhangra danced in the villages of Sialkot district is regarded as the standard.[5] Although the main districts where traditional Bhangra is performed are in Punjab, Pakistan, the community form of traditional Bhangra has been maintained in Gurdaspur district, Punjab, India and has been maintained by people who have settled in Hoshiarpur, Punjab India[6] after leaving what is now Punjab, Pakistan. Traditional Bhangra is performed in a circle

View Blog:

Beautiful Village Home with Modern Design Compleme

Beautiful Village Home with Modern Design Complements The Meadowview House is a daring architecture project which belongs to Platform 5 Architects and is located in Bedfordshire, England. It is a contemporary family home especially designed for a retired couple in a peaceful village. Surrounding by agricultural fields, the designers of the home were inspired to create a project based on a simple linear form, with no dramatic angles or unexpected wall turns. The overall result is an elegant residence, inspiring tranquility and comfort. The interior is truly spectacular, with large open spaces and a daring, but very tasteful color palette. Stylish wooden stairs connect the levels and natural light is welcomed through the generous-sized windows. A few ceiling windows let in some extra light and make for a great design addition. Paintings and lighting items act as diverse and fresh decorating elements in order to give the interiors a unique feel. Collect this idea         Collect this idea         Collect this idea         Collect this idea         Collect this idea         Collect this idea  

View Blog:

House Designs In Pakistan

House Designs In Pakistan   If you want to get different design for your house construction then this article is best for your new ideas so must read it. House construction is most important part for our life and if you want to build house with modern designs then before construction different type of research is more important as compare to construction procedure. If you can finalize house map design then after this step house construction will start and you cannot change on map design during construction because map design is build with each room or each covered area length and width so we are mention try to focus on you map design. House Designs In Pakistan Normal Size House In Pakistan: In Pakistan real Estate and Construction business is very popular that is the reason you can get hundreds of Construction Company’s name. In Pakistan normally 4 type of Plot or house sale purchase and construction is done by individuals or societies. 5 Marla House 7 Marla House

View Blog:

Kabaddi by M.Yaseen Khan

  Kabaddi Kabaddi is a contact team sport that originated in "Ancient Tamil Territories". It is popular in South Asia and is the state game of the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Haryana, Maharashtra, Bihar, and Punjab. It is also the national sport of Bangladesh.[1] Two teams compete, each occupying its own half of the court. They take turns sending a "raider" into the opposing team's half and earn points if the raider manages to touch opposing team members and return to the home half, all while chanting word "kabaddi". However, if the raider is tackled and prevented from returning, the opposing team gets the point. Kabaddi is derived from Tamil word kai(கை) pidi(பிடி) which means to "hold hands". This game was developed based on Jallikattu. The game is known by its regional names in different parts of the subcontinent, such as Kabaddi or "Chedugudu" in Andhra Pradesh Kabaddi in Karnataka and Telangana, hadudu in Bangladesh, bhavatik in Maldives, kauddi or kabaddi in the Punjab region, Hu-Tu-Tu in Eastern India and chadakudu in Tamil Nadu. The game is known by different names of Tamil origin such as Kabaddi, Sadugudu, palinjadugudu, etc. Earlier the raider has to sing a song repeatedly without break . The song varies depending on the region in which the game is played. Later it was condensed to repeating a single word like Kabaddi or Sadugudu. The great Indian epic Mahabharatha has made an analogy of the game. Abimanyu tried to break the Chakravyugam (kaurav formation) but failed. History Kabaddi originated in ancient India. Kabaddi received international exposure during the 1936 Berlin Olympics, demonstrated by India. The game was introduced in the Indian National Games at Calcutta in 1938. In 1950 the All India Kabaddi Federation (AIKF) came into existence and framed the rules. Kabaddi was introduced to and popularised in Japan in 1979 by Sundar Ram of India, who toured Japan on behalf of Asian Amateur Kabaddi Federation for two months to introduce the game. In 1979, matches between Bangladesh and India were held across India. The first Asian Kabaddi Championship was held in 1980 and India emerged as champion, beating Bangladesh in the final. The other teams in the tournament were Nepal, Malaysia, and Japan. The game was included for the first time in the Asian Games in Beijing in 1990 where seven teams took part. Variation At first this game is designed and played as simulator version for bull sports Jallikattu, raiders are considered as bulls who play against the defenders. So essence of the game is the holding of the raiders by the defenders. Though variations emerged and rules were framed, the game’s principal objective remained unchanged. Standard style A kabaddi court Modern Rules of Kabaddi as played in ProKabaddi In the international team version of kabaddi, two teams of seven members each occupy opposite halves of a field of 10 by 13 metres (33 ft × 43 ft) in case of men and 8 by 12 metres (26 ft × 39 ft) in case of women.[2] Each has three supplementary players held in reserve. The game is played with 20-minute halves and a five-minute halftime break during which the teams exchange sides. Two teams consist of 7 players each on the mat, but it’s perhaps the only sport where attacking (raiding) is an individual attempt and the lone raider is faced by a challenge of a 7 man defensive unit. It is mandatory for raider to chant word "kabaddi" when the 30 second raid is in play to

View Blog:

HORSE RIDING by M.Yaseen Khan

  HORSE RIDING (Equestrianism) Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse),[1] more often known as riding, horseback riding(American English) or horse riding (British English),[2] refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, transportation, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, and competitive sport.  Overview of equestrian activities A young Tibetan rider. Horse riding is an essential means of transportation in parts of the world where the landscape does not permit other means Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch. They are also used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, dressage, endurance riding, eventing, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, vaulting, polo, horse racing, driving, and rodeo. (See additional equestrian sports listed later in this article for more examples.) Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows, where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses (and other equids such as mules and donkeys) are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in almost every part of the world; many parks, ranches, and public stables offer both guided and independent riding. Horses are also used for therapeutic purposes, both in specialized paraequestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development. Horses are also driven in harness racing, at horse shows and in other types of exhibition, historical reenactment or ceremony, often pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies (parades, funerals), police and volunteer mounted patrols, and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. History of horse use Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden approximately 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests that horses were ridden long before they were driven. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bitson horses, as a stallion that was buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit.[3] However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals. In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as light and heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation, trade and agriculture. Horses lived in North America, but died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493.[4] An equestrian Mughal nobleman on horseback. Horse racing Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse (or horses) were the fastest, and horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbredshave the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds also race. Types of horse racing Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is known as flat racing and is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club. Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses also jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is also called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of approximately a quarter-mile. Seen mostly in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, Appaloosas, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are also raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become very popular in the United States and in Europe. The Federation Equestre International (FEI) governs international races, and the American Endurance Ride Conference (AERC) organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an even start. Races are usually 50 to 100 miles (80 to 161 km), over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness, and verify that the horse is fit to continue. The first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner. Additional awards are usually given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles (40–32 km) are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie (in North America, organized by Ride and Tie Association). Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: two humans and one horse. The humans alternately run and ride. Show Jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle also commonly known as a jump. There are usually multiple jumps in a show and if the horse hits the jump then they will get points deducted in a show. In harness:

View Blog:

Demoiselle crane( Koonj)

Demoiselle crane( Koonj) The demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) is a species of crane found in central Eurasia, ranging from the Black Sea to Mongolia and North Eastern China. There is also a small breeding population in Turkey. These cranes are migratory birds. Birds from western Eurasia will spend the winter in Africa whilst the birds from Asia, Mongolia and China will spend the winter in the subcontinent. The bird is symbolically significant in the Culture of Pakistan, where it is known as Koonj.[2] Characteristics Individual from Tal Chhapar Sanctuary, Churu, Rajasthan The demoiselle is 85–100 cm (33.5–39.5 in) long, 76 cm (30 in) tall and has a 155–180 cm (61–71 in) wingspan. It weighs 2–3 kg (4.4–6.6 lb). It is the smallest species of crane.[3][4] The demoiselle crane is slightly smaller than the common crane but has similar plumage. It has a long white neck stripe and the black on the foreneck extends down over the chest in a plume. It has a loud trumpeting call, higher-pitched than the common crane. Like other cranes it has a dancing display, more balletic than the common crane, with less leaping. Life Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden The demoiselle crane lives in a variety of different environments, including desert areas and numerous types of grasslands (flooded, mountain, temperate and tropical grassland) which are often within a few hundred metres of streams or lakes. However, when nesting, they prefer patchy areas of vegetation which is tall enough to conceal them and their nests, yet short enough to allow them look out for predators whilst incubating their eggs. Demoiselle cranes have to take one of the toughest migrations in the world. In late August through September, they gather in flocks of up to 400 individuals and prepare for their flight to their winter range. During their migratory flight south, demoiselles fly like all cranes, with their head and neck straight forward and their feet and legs straight behind, reaching altitudes of 16,000–26,000 feet (4,900–7,900 metres). Along their arduous journey they have to cross the Himalayan mountains to get to their over-wintering grounds in India. Many die from fatigue, hunger and predation from golden eagles. Simpler, lower routes are possible, such as crossing the range via the Khyber Pass. However, their presently preferred route has been hard-wired by countless cycles of migration. At their wintering grounds, demoiselles have been observed flocking with common cranes, their combined totals reaching up to 20,000 individuals. Demoiselles maintain separate social groups within the larger flock. In March and April, they begin their long spring journey back to their northern nesting grounds. In Khichan, Rajasthan in India, villagers feed the cranes on their migration and these large congregations have become an annual spectacle. Congregation of cranes in Khichan, Rajasthan The demoiselle crane is evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. Symbolism in North Indian culture

View Blog:

Life in a Pakistani Village by M.Yaseen Khan

Life in a Pakistani Village   A Way of Life…But More Natural · · Pakistan is the cradle of Indus Valley Civilization, civilisation that is spread over more than 4000 years of history.Archaeological excavations here have revealed evidence of the meticulously planned cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro that lived and died along the banks of the mighty Indus and its tributaries. The ancient Hindu epics narrate life between the 7th and 5th century BC which carry rich descriptions of the land and people of Indus at that time. These relics throw light on the culture and changing architectural styles of Punjab since the Harappan age. At Taxila near Islamabad, sites associated with great Gandhara Civilization yielded remarkable relics that showcase the magnificient age of Buddhism in the region. But along with its magnificent past, the rural life in present day Pakistan is as rich even today as it used to be before. The lush green crops which ripen in summer to yield golden harvests, fruit laden orchards which bear delicious fruits similar to those of the paradise and above all a mouth watering food that makes many a chefs to envy. The luscious fruits are so dominant in Punjab’s rural culture that a special variety of mangoes is called Samr-e-Bahisht, literally meaning the fruit of the paradise.  The Punjabi folk in Pakistani rural scene are extrovert; sociable guys who like to eat well and dress well.

View Blog:

Bamboo construction

Bamboo construction Bamboo can be utilized as a building material as for scaffolding, bridges and houses. Bamboo, like true wood, is a natural composite material with a high strength-to-weight ratio useful for structures.[1] Bamboo has a higher compressive strength than wood, brick or concrete and a tensile strength that rivals steel.[2][3] Bamboos are some of the fastest-growing plants in the world,[4] due to a unique rhizome-dependent system. Certain species of bamboo can grow 35 inches/890 mm within a 24-hour period, at a rate of 0.00003 km/h (a growth of approximately 1 millimeter (or 0.02 inches) every 2 minutes).[5] As a building material In its natural form, bamboo as a construction material is traditionally associated with the cultures of South Asia, East Asia and the South Pacific, to some extent in Central and South America, and by extension in the aesthetic of Tiki culture. In China and India, bamboo was used to hold up simple suspension bridges, either by making cables of split bamboo or twisting whole culms of sufficiently pliable bamboo together. One such bridge in the area of Qian-Xian is referenced in writings dating back to 960 AD and may have stood since as far back as the third century BC, due largely to continuous maintenance. Bamboo has also long been used as scaffolding; the practice has been banned in China for buildings over six stories, but is still in continuous use for skyscrapers in Hong Kong.[6] In the Philippines, the nipa hut is a fairly typical example of the most basic sort of housing where bamboo is used; the walls are split and woven bamboo, and bamboo slats and poles may be used as its support. In Japanese architecture, bamboo is used primarily as a supplemental and/or decorative element in buildings such as fencing, fountains, grates and gutters, largely due to the ready abundance of quality timber.[7] Bamboo scaffolding can reach great heights. Various structural shapes may be made by training the bamboo to assume them as it grows. Squared sections of bamboo are created by compressing the growing stalk within a square form. Arches may similarly be created by forcing the bamboo's growth into the desired form, costing much less than it would to obtain the same shape with regular wood timber. More traditional forming methods, such as the application of heat and pressure, may also be used to curve or flatten the cut stalks.

View Blog:

Stilt house

17 Surprising Benefits Of Grapes The health benefits of grapes include its ability to treat constipation, indigestion, fatigue, kidney disorders, macular degeneration and prevention of cataracts. Grapes are one of the most popular fruits in the world because of its taste, texture, flavor, variety and ease of portability. This popular and delicious fruit is also packed with a lot of important nutrients. Apart from the fruit of grape plant, the seeds are also beneficial for health such as it helps reduce swelling and prevent eye diseases as a result of diabetes. Grape seed extract has high antioxidant content.   Grapes Nutrition Facts Grapes are a great source of phytonutrients, mainly phenols and polyphenols, and contain other important vitamins such as vitamin K, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and folate. They also contain mineralslike potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sodium. Grapes have high water content that helps keep the body hydrated, and also contain dietary fiber, healthy carbs, antioxidants and moderate amount of protein. Flavonoids, like myricetin and quercetin, in grapes help the body to reduce the damage caused by free radicals and slow down aging. Due to its high nutrient content, grapes also play an important role in ensuring a healthy and active life. Health Benefits Of Grapes Grapefruits are both healthy and tasty at the same time. Some of the great benefits of grapes include their ability to treat constipation, indigestion, fatigue, kidney disorders, bone health, macular degeneration and the prevention of cataracts. Treat Asthma Due to their well-known therapeutic value, grapes can be used as a cure for asthma. In addition to that, the hydrating power of grapes is also high, which increases the moisture present in the lungs and reduces asthmatic events. Strengthen Bones Grapes are a wonderful source of micro-nutrients like copper, iron, and manganese, all of which are important in the formation and strength of the bones. Adding grapes to your diet on a regular basis can prevent the onset of age-related conditions like osteoporosis. Manganese is an extremely important element in the body, which aids in everything from protein 

View Blog:

Truly Amazing Places

Truly Amazing Places  1. The Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia The Great Barrier Reef is the largest collection of coral reefs in the world, spanning over 1,400 miles. It’s so large that it can be seen from space, and it’s among one of the Seven Wonders of the Natural World. It is theplace to go diving, offering a one-of-a-kind display of underwater life. 2. Pyramids of Giza, Egypt   As the only one of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World still largely intact, the Pyramids of Giza are definitely worth a visit. Dating back to around 2,560 BC, the Great Pyramid of Giza stood as the tallest man-made structure for over 3,800 years. 3. Stonehenge, Amesbury, England        Lots of mystery surrounds Stonehenge, and contrary to those who believe it’s just a pile of 25-ton rocks, it’s actually a beautiful sight. Book a guided tour to visit the center, and at sunset, enjoy the stunning glow of the setting sun between Stonehenge’s pillars. 4. Salar De Uyuni, Bolivia     This massive salt flat–the largest in the world–spans a massive 4,086 square miles. Formed by several ancient lakes, this salt flat becomes so reflective in the rainy season that it’s used to calibrate satellites. It’s effectively the world’s largest mirror and a breathtaking sight. 5. The Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA     Carved over thousands of years by the Colorado River, the Grand Canyon is a sight to behold that one simply can’t fathom without being there. The massive rock walls span for over 200 miles. 6. Antelope Canyon, Arizona, USA       The Antelope Canyon in Arizona is a picturesque series of crevices you wouldn’t believe wasn’t a photography trick until you checked it out yourself. The way water carved out the crevices millions of years ago–coupled with the manner in which the light hits each wall–makes the rocks appear different colors, creating a dazzling display. 7. Easter Island, Rapa Nui, Chile     Like Stonehenge, no one really knows the story behind the 887 Easter Island “moai” statues. Even so, they offer visitors a great adventure. Plus, travelers can enjoy other Easter Island adventure options, like hiking and scuba diving. 8. Reed Flute Caves, China     Today, the Reed Flute Caves are highlighted by multicolored lights, turning the 240-meter-long cave system into a stunning experience. As one of China’s most

View Blog:

Camel by M.Yaseen Khan

Camel A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. The three surviving species of camel are the dromedary, or one-humped camel (C. dromedarius), which inhabits the Middle Eastand the Horn of Africa; the Bactrian, or two-humped camel (C. bactrianus), which inhabits Central Asia; and the critically endangered wild Bactrian camel (C. ferus) that has limited populations in remote areas of northwest China and Mongolia. Bactrian camels take their name from the historical Bactria region of Central Asia (Yam & Khomeiri, 2015).[3] Additionally one other species of camel [4] in the separate genus Camelops, C. hesternus [5] lived in western North America and became extinct when humans entered the continent at the end of the Pleistocene. Both the dromedary and the Bactrian camels have been domesticated; they provide milk, meat, hair for textiles or goods such as felted pouches, and are working animals with tasks ranging from human transport to bearing loads. Ecological and behavioral adaptations A camel's thick coat is one of its many adaptations that aid it in desert-like conditions. Somalia has the world's largest population of camels.[23] Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water.[19] Unlike other mammals, their red blood cells are oval rather than circular in shape. This facilitates the flow of red blood cells during dehydration[24] and makes them better at withstanding high osmotic variation without rupturing when drinking large amounts of water: a 600 kg (1,300 lb) camel can drink 200 L (53 US gal) of water in three minutes.[25][26] Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature and water consumption that would kill most other animals. Their temperature ranges from 34 °C (93 °F) at dawn and steadily increases to 40 °C (104 °F) by sunset, before they cool off at night again.[19] In general, to compare between camels and the other livestock, camels lose only 1.3 liters of fluid intake every day while the other livestock lose 20 to 40 liters per day (Breulmann, et al., 2007)[27] Maintaining the brain temperature within certain limits is critical for animals; to assist this, camels have a rete mirabile, a complex of arteries and veins lying very close to each other which utilizes countercurrent blood flow to cool blood flowing to the brain.[28] Camels rarely sweat, even when ambient temperatures reach 49 °C (120 °F).[9] Any sweat that does occur evaporates at the skin level rather than at the surface of their coat; the heat of vaporizationtherefore comes from body heat rather than ambient heat. Camels can withstand losing 25% of their body weight to sweating, whereas most other mammals can withstand only about 12–14% dehydration before cardiac failure results from circulatory disturbance.[26] Domesticated camel calves lying in sternal recumbency, a position that aids heat loss The camels' thick coats insulate them from the intense heat radiated from desert sand; a shorn camel must sweat 50% more to avoid overheating.[31] During the summer the coat becomes lighter in color, reflecting light as well as helping avoid sunburn.[26]The camel's long legs help by keeping its body farther from the ground, which can heat up to 70 °C (158 °F).[32][33] The two humped camels classified as bigger than the dromedary camels and for this reason, the skin became significantly more helpful for usage as wool and leather (Yam & Khomeiri, 2015).[3] Dromedaries have a pad of thick tissue over the sternum called the pedestal. When the animal lies down in a sternal recumbent position, the pedestal raises the body from the hot surface and allows cooling air to pass under the body.[28] Genetics Domesticated camels at the Pyramids of Giza, Egypt The karyotypes of different camelid species have been studied earlier by many groups,[43][44][45][46][47][48] but no agreement on chromosome nomenclature of camelids has been reached. A 2007 study flow sorted camel chromosomes, building on the fact that camels have 37 pairs of chromosomes (2n=74), and found that the karyotime consisted of one metacentric, three submetacentric, and 32 acrocentric autosomes. The Y is a small metacentric chromosome, while the X is a large metacentric chromosome.[49] Evolution

View Blog:

What Will Save Humanity

  What Will Save Humanity Humanity is about to face its greatest trial and its most difficult challenges. Many people are feeling this, of course—a vague sense of anxiety, pervasive concern over the future—while others still dream that life will continue as they have known it, only better now, for it must be better, they think. But humanity is entering its time of great trial and difficulty. This must be accepted if you are to understand where your life is going, if you are to understand the sequence of events, if you are to understand how you must prepare for the future—a future that will be unlike the past in so many ways. This is not a negative perspective. It is a revelation of what is coming. Those who argue against this are perpetuating their own sense of denial, revealing their weakness and their inability to face a changing set of circumstances. People’s hopes and dreams cannot now be the foundation of their lives, for they must prepare for what is coming so that they may survive the Great Waves of change and be of service to others, which is ultimately what they are here to do. You may project any ideas upon the future—your hopes, your fears, your dreams, your anxieties. You may paint a happy picture or a frightening picture for yourself. But life is moving. It is not dominated or even affected by your projections. People’s attitudes, of course, are important. It is important to have a supportive attitude, but this attitude must be founded upon a real understanding of what is happening around you, where your life is going and what life will require of you for the future. You build your positive, constructive attitude around a recognition of reality. Certain things have been set in motion now that you cannot change by wishful thinking or by your own personal admonitions. The Creator of all life has sent a New Message into the world to prepare humanity for this new era, for all the Revelations that have been given to humanity before cannot prepare it for what is coming now. The wisdom of the great traditions remains as an inspiration, as a correction, as an emphasis and as a higher standard. But a New Message from God must come now to prepare humanity for the Great Waves of change that are coming to the world and for humanity’s encounter with intelligent life from beyond the world, which represents a new reality and a new challenge for the human family. You can face these things and learn of them through the revelations of God’s New Message, through your own experience and through the signs that the world is giving you now—signs which are coming every day to inform you and to prepare you, to warn you and to shake you out of your self-preoccupation and your attachment to your hopes and your dreams. These revelations will be shocking. They may be emotionally difficult for you, for they will require you to reconsider many things. They may arouse tremendous fear and anxiety because you will see that you are not prepared and you are not yet strong enough to face these things, even emotionally. But no matter what your initial reactions, it is far better to see, to know and to be prepared than to remain in ignorance or denial while the world changes around you. God’s New Revelation provides a warning, a blessing and a preparation for the Great Waves of change and for humanity’s encounter with a Greater Community of intelligent life. These two great phenomena more than anything else will affect the future and the destiny of humanity, the lives of every person in the world today and the future of their children. People are consumed with other things, of course, with other problems that seem significant and grave in the moment. But these things are small and often insignificant compared to the power of the Great Waves of change and humanity’s encounter with a Greater Community of intelligent life. What will save the world now will not be these preoccupations, these fantasies, these admonitions that people everywhere are still maintaining to try to assure themselves that life will give them what they want and that they have control over their destiny. Your control over your destiny must come from a greater power within you, a power that God has placed there. Whether you are religious or not, no matter what nation you live in or what religion that you devote yourself to, the power and presence of this deeper Knowledge lives within you. It is true for everyone, for God does not discriminate. God is not delighted with the religious and angry with the unreligious. God has placed the saving grace within each person. The real purpose of religion is to bring people to this saving grace. Religion in all of its forms is intended to do this. Even though religion has taken on other manifestations and assumed other purposes and in many cases has been adopted by political forces, this is its fundamental purpose: to bring you to Knowledge, to bring you to this deeper guiding intelligence that the Creator of all life has placed within you and within each person as a potential. The fact that the world is in its present deteriorating condition is evidence that people are not aware of Knowledge and are not following Knowledge. They are following ambition. They are following their social conditioning. They are following their grievances. They are following their ideals, all things of the mind – the personal, worldly mind. But there is a deeper mind within you now, and it is this greater intelligence that will respond to God’s New Message. It is this greater intelligence that will be your raft to navigate the difficult waters ahead. Only God knows what will save humanity. You may have many plans and theories. You may insist upon your ideas and your beliefs. You may even claim that your ideas are sanctioned by God or directed by God, but only God knows what will save humanity. For humanity must now be saved—not for Heaven, but for its future here in this world—so that the world may remain a habitable environment for humanity and so that you may learn to deal with competition from beyond the world and all the many influences that will be placed upon humanity by other nations in the universe who seek to have the world for themselves, to benefit themselves. When you begin to learn of the Great Waves of change, which the world is revealing to you with each passing day and which God’s New Message addresses directly, and when you begin to face the reality that the world is undergoing intervention from races from beyond the world who seek to gain control of humanity and the resources of the world – if you can face these things, which will be a great challenge, then you will realize that you do not have an answer. Perhaps this will lead you to feel helpless and hopeless. But you will realize you do not have an answer and that the answers that you can imagine, or that you believe will be effective, will be insufficient to deal with challenges of this magnitude. Good ideas here will not be potent enough to deal with the challenges to come and the challenges that are already here. What will save humanity now will be recognition, courage and necessity. The recognition is that the Great Waves of change are upon you, that humanity has destroyed so much of the life-sustaining resources of the world, and that you are living in a world in decline—of declining resources, of environmental degradation, of changing climate and the ever-growing temptation of nations to go to war with one another. As you face the reality that

View Blog:

Kallar Kahar: blessed by nature

Kallar Kahar: blessed by nature  At a distance of 26 kilometres southwest of Chakwal city lies the sleepy town of Kallar Kahar. Located beside the Lahore-Islamabad Motorway, Kallar Kahar is considered to be a crown of the Salt Range. Having a vast natural lake, centuries-old garden, Takht-i-Baburi, the shrine of a revered sufi saint and a habitat of peacocks, this hilly town has become a must-stop for commuters who travel on motorway and Chakwal-Sargodha Road. Besides being the sole tourist spot in the Chakwal district, it also attracts hundreds of local visitors during Eid days. But Kallar Kahar has never got the proper attention of local politicians and rulers. “Had this scenic spot been in any other country, it would have become one of the most sought-after destinations for tourists,” said a senior official of the Punjab government. The history of Kallar Kahar is traced to the period of Arab invader Mohammad Bin Qasim who after defeating Raja Dahir defeated his son, Jay Singh. On the request of Jay Singh, the Raja of Kashmir not only granted him refuge but also handed him the area located on the southern border of Kashmir. Historian Zaffar Nadvi in his book ‘History of Sindh’ states that the capital of that area was Kallar Kahar.  

View Blog:

Taj Mahal by M.Yaseen Khan

Taj Mahal Taj Mahal Location Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India Coordinates 27°10′30″N78°02′31″E Height 73 m (240 ft) Built 1632–53[1] Architect Ustad Ahmad Lahauri Architectural style(s) Mughal architecture Visitors 7–8 million[2] (in 2014) Location of Agra within India   UNESCO World Heritage Site Criteria Cultural: (i) [3] Reference 252 Inscription 1983 (7th Session) [edit on Wikidata] The Taj Mahal (/ˌtɑːdʒ məˈhɑːl/, more often /ˈtɑːʒ/;[4] meaning Crown of the Palace[5]) is an ivory-white marble mausoleumon the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan (reigned 1628–1658), to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The tomb is the centrepiece of a 17-hectare (42-acre)[6] complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years. The Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees (US$827 million). The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage". Described by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore as "the tear-drop on the cheek of time",[7][8] it is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India's rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year. In 2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of the World (2000–2007) initiative.     Inspiration The Taj Mahal was commissioned by Shah Jahan in 1631, to be built in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, a Persian princess who died giving birth to their 14th child, Gauhara Begum.[8] Construction of the Taj Mahal began in 1632.[9] The imperial court documenting Shah Jahan's grief after the death of Mumtaz Mahal illustrate the love story held as the inspiration for Taj Mahal.[10][11] The principal mausoleum was completed in 1643[9] and the surrounding buildings and garden were finished about five years later.[citation needed] Architecture and design Main article: Origins and architecture of the Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on design traditions of Persian and earlier Mughal architecture. Specific inspiration came from successful Timurid and Mughal buildings including the Gur-e Amir (the tomb of Timur, progenitor of the Mughal dynasty, in Samarkand),[12] Humayun's Tomb, Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb (sometimes called the Baby Taj), and Shah Jahan's own Jama Masjid in Delhi. While earlier Mughal buildings were primarily constructed of red sandstone, Shah Jahan promoted the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones. Buildings under his patronage reached new levels of refinement.[13] Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal "Shah Jahan on a globe" from the Smithsonian Institution Artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal Tomb The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex of the Taj Mahal. It is a large, white marble structure standing on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building with an iwan (an arch-shaped doorway) topped by a large dome and finial. Like most Mughal tombs, the basic elements are Persian in origin.[14] The base structure is a large multi-chambered cube with chamfered corners forming an unequal eight-sided structure that is approximately 55 metres (180 ft) on each of the four long sides. Each side of the iwan

View Blog:

Top 10 Beautiful Places in Japan for Nature Lovers

    Top 10 Beautiful Places in Japan for Nature Lovers The land of sushi, cherry blossoms, temples, gardens, cities with neon skyscrapers… Of course it’s Japan we’re talking about! This amazing country has such a rich culture ready for us to explore it. If you have the chance to visit Japan, you can enjoy the beauty of the cities, such as Tokyo or Kyoto, but the option of visiting the natural beauty isn’t excluded. In fact, Japan is known for having breathtaking gardens and national parks. This list offers you ten amazing places for you to visit it. There’s nothing like nature! 1. Hitachi Seaside Park via liveinternet.ru The Hitachi Seaside Park is located in Hitachinaka, Ibraki. It is famous for the wonderful flowers growing there. Depending on when you go, throughout the year you will find different flowers. During spring, the whole park is filled with small, blue flowers and there are 4.5 million of them! Then, starting from September and October, the park is filled with the colors of autumn. Other flowers can be found there through the whole year. There is also a small amusement park and a Ferris wheel. 2. Mount Fuji  via jaclynelizabethgreen.wordpress.com it’s impossible to talk about Japan’s nature and not mention the Mount Fuji. It truly is one of the greatest

View Blog:

Mulberries nutrition facts by M.Yaseen Khan

Mulberries nutrition facts Refreshingly succulent, tart and sweet mulberries are indeed rich in numerous health benefiting flavonoid phytonutrients. Botanically, they are the berries obtained from the silkworm tree belonging to the Moraceae family, within the Genus: Morus.Scientific name: Morus nigra. L. In Spanish, they are known as moras. More than hundred species of Morus exist. In the taxonomy, the species generally identified by the color of flower buds and leaves, but not by the color of the berries. So, a mulberry plant can exhibit different colored berries; black, purple, red, white, etc., on the same plant. Mulberry-Morus alba. A white mulberry plant can have different color berries. Moras buds and flowers. Photo courtesy: mauroguanandi. Three species have been recognized for their economic importance. White mulberry (Morus alba) is native to eastern and central China. Red or American mulberry (Morus rubra) is native to the eastern United States. Black mulberry (Morus nigra) is native to western Asia. Mulberries are large, deciduous trees native to the warm, temperate, and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Technically, mulberry fruit is an aggregation of small fruits arranged concentrically around the central axis as in blackberry or loganberries. Each fruit measures 2-5 cm in length. In most species, mulberries feature purple-red color while ripening; however, there can be white, red, purple or multiple variegated colors on the same berry. Health benefits of mulberries Delicious, fleshy, succulent mulberries are less in calories (just 43 calories per 100 g). They compose of health-promoting phytonutrient compounds like polyphenol pigment antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins that are essential for optimum health. Mulberries have significantly high amounts of phenolic flavonoid phytochemicals called anthocyanins. Scientific studies have shown that consumption of berries has potential health effects against cancer, aging and neurological diseases, inflammation, diabetes, and bacterial infections. The berries contain resveratrol, another polyphenol flavonoid antioxidant. Resveratrol protects against stroke risk by altering molecular mechanisms in the blood vessels; reducing their susceptibility to damage through reduced activity of angiotensin (a systemic hormone causing blood vessel constriction that would elevate blood pressure) but potentiating production of the vasodilator hormone, nitric oxide. Also, these berries are excellent sources of vitamin-C (36.4 mg per 100, about 61% of RDI), which is also a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents, counter inflammation and scavenge harmful free radicals. Further, the berries also contain small amounts of vitamin-A, and vitamin-E in addition to the antioxidants mentioned above. Consumption of mulberry provides another group of health promoting flavonoid poly phenolic antioxidants such as lutein, zeaxanthin, ß-carotene and a-carotene in small but notably significant amounts. Altogether, these compounds help act as protect from harmful effects of oxygen-derived free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a role in aging and various disease processes. Zeaxanthin, an important dietary carotenoid selectively concentrates into the retinal macula lutea, where it thought to provide antioxidant functions and protects the

View Blog:

Surprising Benefits Of Papaya (Pawpaw)

Surprising Benefits Of Papaya (Pawpaw) The health benefits of papaya include better digestion, relief from toothache, regulates menstruation,  stronger immunity, weight loss, skin care and the promotion of better heart health. Papaya also known as Carica Papaya, paw paw or papaw is believed to prevent cancer. No wonder, the fruit is quite popular for its high nutritive and medicinal value. Table of Contents What is Papaya? Health Benefits of Papaya Better Digestive Health Promotes Weight Loss Prevents Infections Relieves Toothache Anticancer Properties Skin Care Improves Heart Health Reduces Acne and Burns Anti-Inflammatory Effects Useful for Macular Degeneration Treats Constipation Regulates Menstruation Prevents Arthritis Improves Immunity Side Effects of Papaya What Is Papaya? Papaya is a cerise-orange colored juicy fruit, which is not only fragrant and delicious but also very healthy. It has been famous for hundreds of years and it was once called the “fruit of the angels” by Christopher Columbus. Papaya is a natural source of vitaminsand minerals that are essential for the normal functioning of the body. It is famous for the luscious taste and sunlit color of the tropics and can be eaten as a fruit in raw form, a smoothie, a milkshake, and as a vegetable in various recipes. Latex derived from the raw papaya fruit is used as a meat tenderizer and is also used in the manufacturing of several cosmetic, skin, and beauty products, as well as certain chewing gums. They are available for consumption throughout the year. The whole fruit,

View Blog:

Top Tourist Attractions in Portland, Oregon

Top Tourist Attractions in Portland, Oregon Portland, Oregon, is a delight to visit. It has everything a visitor could possibly want: great food, great shopping and great sights to see. The Willamette River bisects the state’s largest city and joins with the mighty Columbia at Portland’s north boundary, giving the city the nickname River City. Portland also is known as the Rose City, because of its outstanding Rose Garden and the Rose Festival it’s hosted since 1907; more than a half-million people turn out for the Grand Floral parade every June. So why should travelers stay home when they can visit the amazing attractions in Portland? 1. Washington Park flickr/TravelingOtter Washington Park is one of the city’s oldest parks, dating back to 1891. As such, it is filled with history and some of the best known tourist attractions in Portland. There are memorials to the Lewis & Clark Expedition and their guide, Sacajawea. The park center is home to the cast-iron Chiming Fountain that features gargoyles at the base. It was created by a Swiss woodcarver who modeled it after a Renaissance fountain. Plus, the city’s first zoo was located here. The park is also home to one of the most highly ranked Japanese garden in North America and the outstanding Rose Garden, the flower Portland is famous for. Because Washington Park is so popular, parking is limited during the summer months; the city recommends MAX Light Rail instead. 2. Pearl District flickr/LikeWhere The name Pearl District may be a misnomer. While visitors may be able to find pearl jewelry there, the area got its name because of its trendiness. As one of Portland’s hottest neighborhoods, it’s full of great restaurants, art galleries, unique boutiques and businesses that want to be where it’s all happening in downtown Portland. Book lovers will especially love the Pearl District since its home to the original Powell’s City of Books, the world’s largest independent book seller that has more than a million new and used books in 3,500 sections for sale. 3. Lan Su Chinese Garden flickr/

View Blog:

Best Day Trips in the Netherlands

Best Day Trips in the Netherlands 1. Day Trip from Amsterdam to Volendam and Windmills When you think of Holland, what comes to mind? If you’re like many travelers from around the world, you’ll think of wooden clogs, cheese and windmills. See all of this, and so much more, on a guided half-day tour departing from Amsterdam to Volendam, Marken en Zaanse Schans. The day begins with a comfortable coach ride out of Amsterdam. The journey winds through several charming Dutch villages, and you’ll be treated to a fascinating audio commentary along the way. Learn that many of these villages are on reclaimed land, and discover the incredible role that Dutch waterways play in development. The first stop of the tour is Volendam, just 30 minutes outside of Amsterdam. In Volendam, you’ll get to visit a traditional local cheese factory, sampling their tasty wares and getting an inside look at how authentic Dutch cheese is manufactured. You’ll also have some time to explore on your own, which could include browsing the local Dutch clothing on display at the town’s museum. You can also upgrade your tour to include a ferry to a fishing town called Marken. In Marken, snap plenty of pictures of the traditional stilt houses, which once again showcase just how near to the water many of these villages are. You’ll also be able to watch a local craftsman in Marken carve and then paint the iconic wooden clogs that are now so associated with Dutch culture.

View Blog:

Best Places to Visit in Russia

Best Places to Visit in Russia Russia, once the largest and most powerful member of the former USSR, nonetheless remains a fascinating country to visit. It is a country of contrasts, from great subtropical beaches to bitterly cold winter regions in the north. The east may have fewer people, but its lovely cities are among the most popular places to visit in Russia and can hold their own against the west. Russia is steeped in history everywhere a traveler goes, from vicious battles to great classical music and literature. And almost everywhere visitors can see examples of magnificent art, not only in museums but also in its churches. 1. Moscow  As the capital of Russia, Moscow is the most important city in Russia, but not just for political reasons alone. This city of more than 12 million is also well known for its artistic endeavors, including ballet, symphonies and art. Onion-shaped domes of historic churches fill the skyline. The stately Kremlin and impressive Red Square, one of the largest squares in the world, are sights not to be missed, as are statues of Lenin and Stalin, controversial leaders in the 20th century. Further evidence that Moscow’s past wasn’t always squeaky clean can be seen in the Gulag and Cold War museums. 2. Saint Petersburg  Russia’s second largest city may be known as Leningrad, but most people refer to it by its birth name, St. Petersburg. Founded in 1703 by Tsar Peter the Great, St. Petersburg was once the imperial capital of Russia; its name was changed to Leningrad in 1924. Because of its location on the Neva River, which feeds into the Gulf of Finland and then into the Baltic Sea, the city is a popular northern cruise destination and one of the most popular places to visit in Russia. Known as the cultural capital of Russia, the city boasts one of the finest art collections in the world at the Hermitage, with churches adding to the city’s magnificent art. Nevsky Prospekt is the city’s famous shopping and dining street. 3. Golden Ring The Golden Ring strings together several cities outside of Moscow that fill the senses with awe. Picturesque countrysides filled with cherry orchards, quaint cottages, onion-shaped domes and iconic churches that contain the country’s oldest art make this region a special place to visit. One of the oldest regions in Russia, today it is very popular with Russian tourists who want to experience

View Blog:

Best Places to Visit in Africa

  Best Places to Visit in Africa Africa is an enormous continent, and it offers countless destinations worth exploring. In a trip through Africa, you can meet the Masai Mara people in Kenya, look out onto the plains of the Serengeti or relax on a tropical island. Africa is diverse and beautiful, and there is no end to what you can see, do and explore there. As you plan your next African journey, be sure to include at least one from this list of best places to visit in Africa as your schedule will allow. 1. Giza Necropolis (Egypt)  flickr/Tommy Wong If you have always wanted to see the pyramids in Egypt, then make Giza your next travel destination. Giza is the gateway to Egypt’s most iconic structures, and it is very close to the city of Cairo. While in Giza, you can step inside the Great Pyramid of Khufu, now the last remaining structure of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World. You can also tour the Sphinx, several smaller pyramids and a number of incredible museums helping to explain the role of these pyramids and their significance in Egyptian history. 2. Serengeti National Park (Tanzania) flickr/lince In Northeast Tanzania is the Serengeti National Park, one of Africa’s most incredible conservation areas. The name Serengeti means endless plains, and that is exactly what you’ll find within the park. More than a million wildebeest, and over 200,000 zebras, migrate through the plains each year. When you visit the Serengeti National Park, you will be able to see wildlife like cheetahs, leopards, giraffes, buffalo, gazelles and so much more. Hot air balloon trips as well as photo safaris are both incredible ways to make the most of the Serengeti. 3. Victoria Falls (Zambia & Zimbabwe) Right on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe is Victoria Falls, an incredible waterfall on the Zambezi River. In Zimbabwe, the falls as well as the surrounding town is known as Victoria Falls. Across the border in Zambia, the falls are called Mosi-oa-Tunya. From December to March, the falls are more dramatic because it is also the rainy season, but the rest of the year can offer a less obscured view. In addition to admiring the views, you can enjoy Victoria Falls by canoeing or rafting near its base or having a romantic sunset cruise beneath the falls. 4. Masai Mara National Reserve (Kenya)  Africa is inhabited by many different people groups, but few as are fascinating as the Masai. This group owns the Masai Mara National Reserve toward the southern part of Kenya, and every year thousands of tourists come to explore the scenery and the wildlife. In addition to seeing everything from rhinos to lions, you can visit a local village to learn more about the Masai Mara culture, cuisine, customs and dress. 5. Cape Town (South Africa)  flickr/paulscott56 The capital city of South Africa is Cape Town, an extraordinary, historic and vibrant city named for its location on the Cape of Good Hope. To get to know the history of Cape Town, be sure to explore incredible landmarks like the colorful homes in the Bo-Kaap neighborhood as well as Robben Island, where political prisoners like Nelson Mandela were once held. One of the top natural attractions is Table Mountain, which offers breathtaking views over the Cape of Good Hope as well as the sprawling city. You can hike up Table Mountain or take a ride on the cable cars. 6. Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Tanzania)  The nature preserve known as the Ngorongoro Conservation Area is one of Tanzania’s many attractions. The area is named after the Ngorongoro Crater, a volcanic caldera in the center of the preserve. The crater is a highlight, and so is the steep ravine called Oldupai Gorge. The conservation area is also one of the best places to visit in Africa for nature lovers, and just some of the wildlife you might spot while visiting can include the African buffalo, black rhinoceros, hippopotamus, blue wildebeest and even the occasional Tanzanian cheetah. 7. Luxor (Egypt) 

View Blog:

Great Day Trips from Paris

Great Day Trips from Paris Travelers descend on Paris, the City of Light, from all over the world. As one of the world’s great cities, this is only natural. However, travelers who want to be truly enlightened will head out of Parisfor a day to see some of France’s other famous attractions. Everything from cathedrals to theme parks to battlefields can easily be reached from the French capital. Here are some of the best day trips from Paris: 1. Palace of Versailles The Palace of Versailles is everything people believe a palace should be: opulence, opulence and more opulence. The palace began life was a hunting lodge in the early 17th century, but quickly grew into a prestigious home for French royalty. Queen Marie Antoinette is probably most closely associated with the palace but her indulgences were to cost the queen her life during the French Revolution. Fascinating statuary, art by Leonardo da Vinci, the Hall of Mirrors, carefully landscaped grounds and broad walkways combine for a great day trip from Paris. 2. Mont Saint-Michel  Rising up from the midst of vast mud flats is the rocky island of Mont Saint-Michel, located off France’s northwestern coast in Normandy. The tidal island is significant for its construction of medieval structures built as if stacked upon one another and crowned with the star attraction, the Abbey of Mont Saint-Michel. The island is connected to the mainland by a causeway. During low tide, a muddy sandbar appears to provide access by foot, but tourists are strongly advised not walk across it because of the dangers presented by the powerful tides. There are no direct train services between Paris and Mont St Michel, but it is possible to travel to Pontorson by train and then complete the last leg of the journey by bus. 3. Chartres Cathedral 

View Blog:

The Golden Temple, Amritsar by M.Yaseen Khan

The Golden Temple, Amritsar The Golden Temple (Enlarge)  The Golden Temple, located in the city of Amritsar in the state of Punjab,is a place of great beauty and sublime peacefulness. Originally a small lake in the midst of a quiet forest, the site has been a meditation retreat for wandering mendicants and sages since deep antiquity. The Buddha is known to have spent time at this place in contemplation. Two thousand years after Buddha's time, another philosopher-saint came to live and meditate by the peaceful lake. This was Guru Nanak (1469-1539), the founder of the Sikh

View Blog:

Jallianwala Bagh

Jallianwala Bagh Jallianwala Bagh (Hindi: जलियांवाला बाग) is a public garden in Amritsar in the Punjab state of India, and houses a memorial of national importance, established in 1951 by the Government of India, to commemorate the massacre of peaceful celebrators including unarmed women and children by British occupying forces, on the occasion of the Punjabi New Year on April 13, 1919 in the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Colonial British Raj sources identified 379 fatalities and estimated about 1100 wounded.[1] Civil Surgeon Dr. Smith indicated that there were 1,526 casualties.[2] The true figures of fatalities are unknown, but are very likely to be many times higher than the official figure of 379. The 6.5-acre (26,000 m2) garden site of the massacre is located in the vicinity of Golden Temple complex, the holiest shrine of Sikhism. The memorial is managed by the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Trust, which was established as per the Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Act, Act No. 25 of 1 May 1951 (in English). Retrieved on 10 August 2016. Contents   [hide]  1Jallianwala Bagh massacre 2Etymology 3References 4External links

View Blog:

Health is Wealth: 10 Golden Rules for A Longer, He

Health is Wealth: 10 Golden Rules for A Longer, Healthier Life Knowing how to make money is important but, without a healthy lifestyle, key factors enabling the task can be sorely affected.  Energy levels, mental sharpness, and communication skills can all drop to unproductive levels.  Both the National Institutes for Health, and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide valuable information regarding behaviors necessary for a healthier life.  A healthy body provides resources needed for being more effective in generating greater revenue and enjoying personal time.  Consider these 10 Golden Rules: Get Competing Personal Loan Offers In Minutes Compare rates from multiple vetted lenders. Discover your lowest eligible rate.   Find My Best Rate   It’s quick, free and won’t hurt your credit score     1. Maintain a Healthy Diet. The saying ‘you are what you eat’ is actually quite true.  This phrase dates back to the year 1826, but gained its greatest popularity in the U.S. during the hippie movement when organic foods gained popularity.

View Blog:

Crane (bird)

Crane (bird) Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes. There are fifteen species of crane in four genera. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Cranes live on all continents except Antarctica and South America. They are opportunistic feeders that change their diet according to the season and their own nutrient requirements. They eat a range of items from suitably sized small rodents, fish, amphibians, and insects to grain, berries, and plants. Cranes construct platform nests in shallow water, and typically lay two eggs at a time. Both parents help to rear the young, which remain with them until the next breeding season.[1] Some species and populations of cranes migrate over long distances; others do not migrate at all. Cranes are solitary during the breeding season, occurring in pairs, but during the non-breeding season they are gregarious, forming large flocks where their numbers are sufficient. Most species of cranes have been affected by human activities and are at the least classified as threatened, if not critically endangered. The plight of the whooping cranes of North America inspired some of the first US legislation to protect endangered species. Description The bare area of skin on the face of a sandhill crane. This can change colour or even expand in area when the bird is excited The cranes are large to very large birds, including the world's tallest flying bird. They range in size from the demoiselle crane, which measures 90 cm (35 in) in length, to the sarus crane, which can be up to 176 cm (69 in), although the heaviest is the red-crowned crane, which can weigh 12 kg (26 lb) prior to migrating. They are long-legged and long-necked birds with streamlined bodies and large rounded wings. The males and females do not vary in external appearance, but on average males tend to be slightly larger than females.[2] The plumage of the cranes varies by habitat. Species inhabiting vast open wetlands tend to have more white in the plumage than do species that inhabit smaller wetlands or forested habitats, which tend to be more grey. These white species are also generally larger. The smaller size and colour of the forest species is thought to help them maintain a less conspicuous profile while nesting; two of these species (the common and sandhill cranes) also daub their feathers with mud to further hide while nesting. The long coiled trachea that produces the trumpeting calls of cranes (sarus crane, Antigone antigone) Most species of crane have some areas of bare skin on the face; the only two exceptions are the blue and demoiselle cranes. This skin is used in communication with other cranes, and can be expanded by contracting and relaxing muscles, and change the intensity of colour. Feathers on the head can be moved and erected in the blue, wattled and demoiselle cranes for signalling as well. Also important to communication is the position and length of the trachea. In the two crowned-cranes the trachea is shorter and only slightly impressed upon the bone of the sternum, whereas the trachea of the other species is longer and penetrates the sternum. In some species the entire sternum is fused to the bony plates of the trachea, and this helps amplify the crane's calls, allowing them to carry for several kilometres.[2][3] Distribution and habitat See also: List of Gruiformes by population Demoiselle cranes in Mongolia. Central Asian populations of this species migrate to Northern India in the winter The cranes have a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring across most of the world continents. They are absent from Antarctica and, mysteriously, South America. East Asia is the centre of crane diversity, with eight species, followed by Africa, which holds five resident species and wintering populations of a sixth. Australia, Europe and North America have two regularly-occurring species each. Of the four crane genera, Balearica (two species) is restricted to Africa, and Leucogeranus (one species) is restricted to Asia; the other two genera, Grus (including Anthropoides and Bugeranus) and Antigone, are both widespread.[2][4] Most species of crane are dependent on wetlands and require large areas of open space. Most species of crane nest in shallow wetlands. Some species nest in wetlands but move their chicks up onto grasslands to feed (while returning to wetlands at night), whereas others remain in wetlands for the entirety of the breeding season. Even the demoiselle crane and blue crane, which may nest and feed in grasslands (or even arid grasslands or deserts), require wetlands for roosting in during the night. The only two species that do not always roost in wetlands are the two African crowned cranes (Balearica), which are the only cranes to roost in trees.[2] Some crane species are sedentary, remaining in the same area throughout the year, while others are highly migratory, travelling thousands of kilometres each year from their breeding sites. A few species have both migratory and sedentary populations. Behaviour and ecology Common cranes in Israel. Many species of crane gather in large groups during migration and on their wintering grounds The cranes are diurnal birds that vary in their sociality by season. During the breeding season they are territorial and usually remain on their territory all the time. In contrast in the non-breeding season they tend to be gregarious, forming large flocks to roost, socialise and in some species feed. Species that feed predominately on vegetable matter in the non-breeding season feed in flocks to do so, whereas those that feed on animals will usually feed in family groups, joining flocks only during resting periods, or in preparation for travel during migration. Large aggregations of cranes are important for safety when resting and also as places for young unmated birds to meet others.[2] Calls and communication Cranes are highly vocal and have a large vocabulary of specialized calls. The vocabulary begins soon after hatching with low, purring contact calls for maintaining contact with their parents, as well as food begging calls. Other calls used as chicks include alarm calls and "flight intention" calls, both of which are maintained into adulthood. The cranes' duet calls are most impressive. They can be used for individual recognition (see below external link).[5] Feeding

View Blog:

Four Tiny Islands You Should Never Visit

Four Tiny Islands You Should Never Visit Tiny Islands That You’ll Never Visit: Snake Island, Brazil Off the coast of Brazil sits Ilha de Queimada Grande, or as it’s known in colloquial English, Snake Island. Comprising roughly 110 acres of trees, the island is uninhabited and travel to it is expressly forbidden by the Brazilian navy. Why? Because Queimada Grande is home to hundreds of thousands of golden lanceheads, the snake pictured above.   Unique to Queimada Grande, the golden lancehead typically grows to be about two feet long but at times can grow to nearly double that length. And its venom is poisonous. Very, very poisonous. Generally, lanceheads are responsible for 90% of snake bite-related fatalities in Brazil. The mortality rate from a lancehead bite is 7% if the wound goes untreated — and as high as 3% even if treatment is given. The venom causes a grab bag of symptoms which includes kidney failure, necrosis of muscular tissue, brain hemorrhaging, and intestinal bleeding. Scary stuff, to be sure. For Snake Island, the picture is even scarier. The data above does not include bites from the golden lancehead, as there are no official records of a golden lancehead-caused fatality due to the de facto quarantine on the Brazilian island. A chemical analysis of golden lancehead venom suggests that the snake is much more dangerous than its continental cousins: golden lancehead viper venom is faster acting and more powerful — perhaps five times more powerful. Two foot-long snakes with such powerful venom, combined, means that getting close to one carries with it a high risk of death. And getting close to one is all but certain on Snake Island. Even the most conservative estimate suggests that the golden lancehead population density on Queimada Grandeis one per square meter; others suggest a population as high as five per square meter. Regardless, as one site points out, even at the lower estimate, “you’re never more than three feet away from death.”

View Blog:

Health Benefits & Uses of Sabja Seeds (Tukmaria –

  Health Benefits & Uses of Sabja Seeds (Tukmaria – Basil Seeds) & Its Side Effects  You have probably not seen the name of sabja seeds or tukmaria seedsanywhere or hear its name but Basil name is pretty famous because they often used in tasty & healthy recipes, I am going to introduce you to the hidden health benefits of Sabja seeds, which is rarely famous but they are loaded with essential nutrients and health benefits.   Introduction of Basil Seeds Basil seeds include a good similarity to chia seeds and loaded with fiber and many health benefits. It is mainly used in drinks of summer times because of its capability to maintain the cooling effect of drink and keep your stomach cool and also maintain a fine digestive system. How Basil Reached to the US? Basil initially originated in Asia and Africa, and In approximately 350 BC, basil was introduced to Greece by the unbelievable warrior Alexander the Great. It reached to England through India and lastly it visited the US in the 1600s.   Common Names of Basil Seed    Basil seeds have numerous name around the world, following are few of them-: Sabja Seeds, Sabja Ginjalu, Sabja Vethai Falooda Seeds, Arabic Falooda Seeds Selashi Tukmaria Hazbo Tuk Malanga Seeds, Tukmalanga Seeds Basilic Cultive, Basilien Kraut Sweet Basil Seeds, Thai Holy Basil Names in Other Languages Sabzah, sabja(Hindi) Baburi (Punjabi) Sabja vittanālu, Vebudipatri (Telugu) Kala pingain, Tirunutpatchi,Ramtulsi, Kamkasturi (Tamil) Hazbo (Kashmiri10) Tukhmalanga (Urdu) Tulsi (Oriya, Bengali) Tirunitru (Malayalam) Sabajhi (Sindhi) Basilic Cultive (French) Basilien Kraut (German) Hột é (Vietnamese) or Selasih (Indonesian or Malaysian) Manjarika, Bisya,

View Blog:

Ispaghol | Psyllium Husk

Ispaghol | Psyllium Husk Psyllium husk Psyllium /ˈsɪliəm/, or ispaghula /ˌɪspəˈɡuːlə/, is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage. Psyllium is mainly used as a dietary fiber to relieve symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea and occasionally as a food thickener. Research has also shown benefits in reducing blood cholesterol levels. The plant from which the seeds are extracted tolerates dry and cool climates and is mainly cultivated in northern India. Psyllium products are marketed under several brand names, such as Metamucil, Fybogel, Konsyl, and Lunelax. Uses Constipation Psyllium is mainly used as a dietary fiber, which is not absorbed by the small intestine. The purely mechanical action of psyllium mucilage is to absorb excess water while stimulating normal bowel elimination. Although its main use has been as a laxative, it is more appropriately termed a true dietary fiber and as such can help reduce the symptoms of both constipation and mild diarrhea. The laxative properties of psyllium are attributed to the fiber absorbing water and subsequently softening the stool. It however does increase flatulence to some degree.[1] High blood cholesterol Psyllium fiber has been shown in studies to lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels while another common fiber, methylcellulose, has not shown these benefits.[2][3][4] The use of soluble-fiber cereals is an effective and well-tolerated part of a prudent diet for the treatment of mild to moderate

View Blog:

Lemon Grass – Side Effects and Health Benefits

Lemon Grass – Side Effects and Health Benefits Botanical Name of Lemon Grass: Cymbopogon citratus.citroengras, te limon, zacate limon, West Indian lemongrass, cana-cidreira, cana-limão, capim-cidró, capim-santo, erva-cidreira, herbe citron, pasto limón, patchuli-falso, verveine des Indes, zacate limón, Zitronengras, citronnelle, tanglad, fever grass, hierba de limon, erba di limone, sera, bhustrina and takra. Habitat: Lemon grass is endemic to Southeast Asia, particularly India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. It has been introduced in many US states, including California and Florida; and in South America, particularly Brazil. Description: Lemon grass is a tender perennial of the grass family and resembles many of its members in the long, upright blades, but with leaves at the ends, and growing in clumps. These blades are sharp, denser than most grasses, with a thick solid, almost bulb-like base of a few inches, and has a height of three to six feet. Blades are deep nearly bluish-green in color, white near the thick, clumpy stems, and branch from this bulb in dense white growths. When cut they have the appearance of a scallion. Flowers are rare on lemon grass plants, but when they do bear, they are large heads with false reddish-brown spikes. Plants reach around five feet in height and four feet in breadth. The telltale fragrance of this lemon-scented plant is due to the presence of essential oils in the tube-like cells. Plant Parts Used: Leaves and Oil (medicinally). Leaves and Stem (culinary).   The Lemon Grass Plant (Cymbopogon citratus) – Attribution: Hakcipta Yosri Therapeutic Uses, Benefits and Claims of Lemon Grass Lemon grass is low in calories and has no cholesterol, making it a beneficial flavoring for cooking and teas. The essential oil in this plant called citral is highly fragrant and contains a substance believed to be beneficial in relieving spasm, muscle cramps, headaches, and the symptoms of rheumatism.

View Blog:

9 Amazing Benefits Of Lemon Ginger

9 Amazing Benefits Of Lemon Ginger   lemon ginger tea to increase their health, due to its ability to boost the immune system, reduce fever, improve cognition, regulate blood sugar, aid digestion, soothe pain, increase hair health and protect the skin. Table of Contents Benefits of Lemon Ginger Tea How to Make Lemon Ginger Tea? Benefits of Lemon Ginger Tea Treats Nausea and Reduces Indigestion Improves Cognitive Function Skin Care

View Blog:

Identify a butterfly

Identify a butterfly Large Blue(Maculinea arion) White Admiral(Limenitis camilla) Purple Emperor(Apatura iris) Red Admiral(Vanessa atalanta) Painted Lady(Vanessa cardui) Small Tortoiseshell(Aglais urticae) Peacock(Aglais io) Comma(Polygonia c-album) Swallowtail(Papilio machaon) Duke of Burgundy(Hamearis lucina) Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary(Boloria selene) Pearl-bordered Fritillary(Boloria euphrosyne) High Brown Fritillary(Argynnis adippe) Dark Green Fritillary(Argynnis aglaja) Silver-washed Fritillary(Argynnis paphia) Marsh Fritillary(Euphydryas aurinia) Glanville Fritillary(Melitaea cinxia)

View Blog:

Pole star

Pole star Pole star or polar star is a name of Polaris in the constellation Ursa Minor, after its property of being the naked-eye star closest to the Earth's north celestial pole. Indeed, the name Polaris, introduced in the 18th century, is shortened from New Latin stella polaris, meaning "pole star". Polaris is also known as Lodestar, Guiding Star, or North Star from its property of remaining in a fixed position throughout the course of the night and its use in celestial navigation. It is a dependable indicator of the direction toward the geographic north pole, although not exact; it is virtually fixed, and its angle of elevation can also be used to determine latitude. The south celestial pole lacks a bright star like Polaris to mark its position. At present, the naked-eye star nearest to the celestial south pole is the faint Sigma Octantis, which is sometimes called the South Star. The identity of the pole stars gradually changes over time because the celestial poles exhibit a slow continuous drift through the star field. The primary reason for this is the precession of Earth's rotational axis, which causes its orientation to change over time. Precession causes the celestial poles to trace out circles on the celestial sphere approximately once every 26,000 years, passing close to different stars at different times (with an additional slight shift due to the proper motion of the stars). In a more general sense, a pole star may be any fixed star close to either celestial pole of any given planetary body. History[edit] In classical antiquity, Beta Ursae Minoris (Kochab) was closer to the celestial north pole than Alpha Ursae Minoris. While there was no naked-eye star close to the pole, the midpoint between Alpha and Beta Ursae Minoris was reasonably close to the pole, and it appears that the entire constellation of Ursa Minor, in antiquity known as Cynosura (Greek Κυνοσούρα "dog's tail") was used as indicating the northern direction for the purposes of navigation by the Phoenicians.[1] The ancient name of Ursa Minor, anglicized as cynosure, has since itself become a term for "guiding principle" after the constellation's use in navigation. Alpha Ursae Minoris (Polaris) was described as ἀειφανής "always visible" by Stobaeus in the 5th century, when it was still removed from the celestial pole by about 8°. It was known as scip-steorra ("ship-star") in 10th-century Anglo-Saxon England, reflecting its use in navigation. At around the same time, in the Hindu Puranas, it became personified under the name Dhruva ("immovable, fixed"). In the medieval period, Polaris was also known as stella maris "star of the sea" (from its use for navigation at sea), as in e.g. Bartholomeus Anglicus (d. 1272), in the translation of John Trevisa (1397): "by the place of this sterre place and stedes and boundes of the other sterres and of cercles of heven ben knowen: therefore astronomers beholde mooste this sterre. Then this ster is dyscryved of the moste shorte cercle; for he is ferre from the place that we ben in; he hydeth the hugenesse of his quantite for unmevablenes of his place, and he doth cerfifie men moste certenly, that beholde and take hede therof; and therfore he is called stella maris, the sterre of the see, for he ledeth in the see men that saylle and have shyppemannes crafte."[2] Polaris was associated with Marian veneration from an early time, Our Lady, Star of the Sea being a title of the Blessed Virgin. This tradition goes back to a misreading of Saint Jerome's translation of Eusebius' Onomasticon, De nominibus hebraicis (written ca. 390). Jerome gave stilla maris "drop of the sea" as a (false) Hebrew etymology of the name Maria. This stilla maris was later misread as stella maris; the misreading is also found in the manuscript tradition of Isidore's 

View Blog:

Important Tips for Good Health by M.Yaseen Khan

  Important Tips for Good Health Health is wealth. It is very well said. Without health nothing can be achieved, nothing can be enjoyed. Health is the most important aspect of ones life. If we have a sound health then we can have a sound life. An unhealthy body makes you feel deprived of energy, ill and despondent. It swaps all the confidence from a person. A healthy body gives strength, confidence and the energy to take up any challenge the life offers. A healthy and fit body can easily manage the day to day stresses. When all the functions and systems of the body are working well we conclude that a body is healthy. Maintaining a good health is as important as breathing. If you have a poor health and you remain ill most of the time then this is a high time you start thinking about it. For maintaining a healthy life one has to change his daily routine. One has to start exercising and consuming a proper diet. The diet you take up really affects the kind of health you have. Exercising, meditation, yoga are many other options which can help you stay healthier. Here are some tips for maintaining a healthy body: 1. Your breakfast should be high on fiber.

View Blog:

Tips for good health by M.Yaseen Khan

Tips for good health   As you get older, your health becomes more of a priority. We have compiled a list of handy tips that will help you to stay fit and healthy and to improve your general wellbeing. 1. Healthy eating and drinking Healthy eating is important as the food you eat can have a huge impact on your health.A nutritious, balanced diet rich in fibre, fruits and vegetables is essential for maintaining a healthy body and mind, especially in later life. 2. Giving up smoking Giving up smoking will have a positive effect on your health. You will breathe more easily; your circulation, skin, hair and teeth will improve; and your risk of serious disease will fall. 3. Get plenty of fresh air Getting out in the fresh air is not only good for your physical health, but for your mental health too. Exposure to sunlight boosts your vitamin D levels, which is essential for your teeth and bones and also makes you feel happier! Going outdoors as often as possible,

View Blog:

10 Harmful Effects Of Soft Drinks You Must Remembe

  10 Harmful Effects Of Soft Drinks You Must Remember   Harmful Effects Of Soft Drinks Harmful Effects Of Sodas Type 2 Diabetes Obesity risk in children Heart disease Dental problems Kidney trouble Cancer Asthma Not only do soft drinks offer no nutrition, they also contain harmful chemicals. Their high sugar content, often high-fructose corn syrup, can cause diabetes and affect the heart and liver. Preservatives like phosphoric acid can cause bone loss and kidney disease and citric acid can cause severe dental erosion. The caramel color in cola and the chemicals in the containers are also linked to cancer. Drink infused water or kombucha instead. A rare glass of soda is not poison, but a can of cola a day certainly is. If you are in the habit of guzzling cans of soft drinks after a hot day out, with your evening spirit, or to wash down a meal, you need to go easy. The harmful effects of soft drinks extend beyond weight gain and obesity. Soft drinks can cause diabetes, asthma, heart, liver, and kidney disease, bone loss, tooth decay, and cancer. Any beverage without “hard” alcohol or dairy products in it may come under the bracket of soft drinks, but they usually indicate the sweet, bubbly, carbonated sodas or flavored drinks retailing across the country. The “Contains No Fruit” label ironically tells us about the zero nutritional content of the drink. More worrying than the lack of nutrition, however, is the high level of unhealthy ingredients in the average soft drink and the health risk they pose. So exactly what health conditions does having soft drinks give rise to? Here’s the list. 1. Increases Risk Of Diabetes And Metabolic Syndrome The high sugar levels in the average drink cause a sharp spike in your blood glucose level, and without helping you stay satiated for long. As a result, your body feels hunger and fatigue, unleashing a vicious cycle that negatively impacts your waistline and ups your risk of type 2 diabetes.1 While the WHO has set the limit of daily consumption of sugar at 6 tsps, a 12 oz can of soft drink contains 10 teaspoons of sugar.2 Having 1 or more soft drinks per day leads to a substantial weight gain and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes in women.3 In men too, having 1 or 2 servings of such drinks daily increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (by 26%) and metabolic syndrome.4 Diet soda can make you crave sugar, and you may end up eating more sugary food. Diet Soda Can Make You Gain Weight And no, diet soda doesn’t help. Contrary to what they are advertised for, diet sodas may actually make you gain weight. Researchers believe that artificial sweeteners in the sodas don’t satisfy your sweet tooth like normal sugar and you tend to reach for more sugar as a result.5 Plus, aspartame is an artificial sweetener that has been under the scanner since the 1980s. Although experts have cleared it for now, aspartame has been implicated in cancer in some animal studies.6 Artificial sweeteners like sorbitol may also cause irritable bowel syndrome.7 2. Raises Obesity Risk In Children Since children enjoy guzzling these sugary drinks (often replacing healthy foods), they are at a greater risk. As one study indicates, decreasing soft drinks intake can significantly reduce obesity in children and adolescents.8 Considering many of them have no nutritional benefits, these drinks have no place in children’s diet. The caffeine in many of them can replace the nutrient-dense foods like milk and suppress hunger in children. 3. Raises Risk Of Heart Disease Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type-2 diabetes, all of which become more likely with sugary drink consumption, are all markers for cardiovascular disease.9

View Blog:

5 Best Day Trips in Thailand

5 Best Day Trips in Thailand 1. Day Trip from Bangkok to Ayutthaya with River Cruise The city of Bangkok is a dazzling example of Thai hospitality and history. To expand on that adventure, be sure to spend some time on the Chao Phraya River, which runs through Bangkok and is a tremendous part of the local culture. Combined with a visit to the Ayutthaya Temples, this is an unforgettable day trip that ticks all the boxes. The day begins in Bangkok, where you’ll begin the one-hour drive north to Ayutthaya. For 400 years, Ayutthaya was the capital of Siam, and it boasts an incredibly rich heritage for the Thai people and its culture. Once you arrive, you’ll be treated to a guided tour of the area’s most significant temples. Wander through the ancient ruins of the Royal Palace to see Wat Phra Si Sanphet, the largest of the temples, and marvel at the row of chedis, or stupas, that still remain. In Wat Phanan Choeng, you’ll get up close to a seated Buddha statue with incredible significance to the Thai people. Beyond the temples, you’ll even have the opportunity to admire the summer palace of King Rama IV, which boasts an unusual blend of architectural styles and designs. After a delicious lunch in Ayutthaya, you’ll begin the return journey to Bangkok. However, this route is enjoyed on a river boat along the Chao Phraya. This is a truly fantastic way to see many of the most famous temples on the banks of the river, and you’ll be treated to phenomenal views as you get closer to Bangkok. The tour concludes with a personal drop-off at your hotel in the Thai capital. 2. Phang Nga Bay Canoe Cave Tour from Phuket The island of Phuket in Thailand is a true treasure, and a destination packed with stunning beaches, incredible cuisine and nonstop opportunities for recreation. One of the most exciting ways to explore the island is with a canoe cave tour in and around Phang Nga Bay. Your day begins with a pickup from any of the major hotels in Phuket. This makes it extra convenient to sightsee without a hassle. You’ll head to Phang Nga Bay, located at the southernmost tip of Phuket. Phang Nga Bay is incredibly famous, and you may recognize it from its many roles in books, films and television shows. Most notable is when Phang Nga Bay

View Blog:

10 White Houses, 4 Arcs de Triomphe, 2 Sphinxes

10 White Houses, 4 Arcs de Triomphe, 2 Sphinxes ... Now China’s Tower Bridge Attracts Scorn 查看简体中文版 Photo   A bridge in the eastern Chinese city of Suzhou was modeled on London’s Tower Bridge — but with four towers instead of two. CreditAgence France-Presse — Getty Images BEIJING — China has at least 10 White Houses, four Arcs de Triomphe, a couple of Great Sphinxes and at least one Eiffel Tower. Now a version of London’s Tower Bridge in the eastern Chinese city of Suzhou has rekindled a debate over China’s rush to copy foreign landmarks, as the country rethinks decades of urban experimentation that has produced an extraordinary number of knockoffs of world-renowned structures. This week, photographs of the bridge were posted online by various news outlets. One headline proclaimed: “Suzhou’s Amazing ‘London Tower Bridge’: Even More Magnificent Than the Real One.” Indeed. Suzhou’s urban planners had clearly stepped up their game. The bridge, completed in 2012, has four towers — compared with the two spanning the Thames in London — making room for a multilane road. Continue reading the main story   Posing for wedding photographs in the eastern city of Hangzhou against the backdrop of a Paris-inspired neighborhood that has its own Eiffel Tower. CreditJohannes Eisele/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images Cars and pedestrians crowd the bridge and its observation platforms. At night, the towers are bathed in blue and yellow light. Not surprisingly, it has also attracted couples eager for a European sheen to their wedding photographs. Continue reading the main story

View Blog:

Egyptian pyramids by M.Yaseen Khan

  Egyptian pyramids The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. As of November 2008, sources cite either 118 or 138 as the number of identified Egyptian pyramids.[1][2] Most were built as tombs for the country's pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdomperiods.[3][4][5] The earliest known Egyptian pyramids are found at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. The earliest among these is the Pyramid of Djoser (constructed 2630 BC–2611 BC) which was built during the third dynasty. This pyramid and its surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep, and are generally considered to be the world's oldest monumental structures constructed of dressed masonry.[6] The most famous Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Several of the Giza pyramids are counted among the largest structures ever built.[7] The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence. Historical development The Mastabat al-Fir’aun at Saqqara By the time of the Early Dynastic Period, those with sufficient means were buried in bench-like structures known as mastabas.[8][9] The second historically-documented Egyptian pyramid is attributed to the architect Imhotep, who planned what Egyptologists believe to be a tomb for the pharaoh Djoser. Imhotep is credited with being the first to conceive the notion of stacking mastabas on top of each other, creating an edifice composed of a number of "steps" that decreased in size towards its apex. The result was the Pyramid of Djoser, which was designed to serve as a gigantic stairway by which the soul of the deceased pharaoh could ascend to the heavens. Such was the importance of Imhotep's achievement that he was deified by later Egyptians.[10] The most prolific pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist rule. It was during this time that the most famous pyramids, the Giza pyramid complex, were built. Over time, as authority became less centralized, the ability and willingness to harness the resources required for construction on a massive scale decreased, and later pyramids were smaller, less well-built and often hastily constructed. Long after the end of Egypt's own pyramid-building period, a burst of pyramid-building occurred in what is present-day Sudan, after much of Egypt came under the rule of the kings of Napata. While Napatan rule was brief, ending in 661 BC, Egyptian culture made an indelible impression, and during the later Kingdom of Meroë(approximately in the period between 300 BCE – 300 CE), this flowered into a full-blown pyramid-building revival, which saw more than two hundred Egyptian-inspired indigenous royal pyramid-tombs constructed in the vicinity of the kingdom's capital cities. Al-Aziz Uthman (1171–1198) tried to destroy the Giza pyramid complex. He gave up after damaging the Pyramid of Menkaure because the task proved too huge.[11] Pyramid symbolism Diagram of the interior structures of the Great Pyramid. The inner line indicates the pyramid's present profile, the outer line indicates the original profile. The shape of Egyptian pyramids is thought to represent the primordial mound from which the Egyptians believed the earth was created. The shape of a pyramid is thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun, and most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone, in order to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed from a distance. Pyramids were often also named in ways that referred to solar luminescence. For example, the formal name of the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur was The Southern Shining Pyramid, and that of Senwosret at el-Lahun was Senwosret is Shining. While it is generally agreed that pyramids were burial monuments, there is continued disagreement on the particular theological principles that might have given rise to them. One suggestion is that they were designed as a type of "resurrection machine."[12] The Egyptians believed the dark area of the night sky around which the stars appear to revolve was the physical gateway into the heavens. One of the narrow shafts that extend from the main burial chamber through the entire body of the Great Pyramid points directly towards the center of this part of the sky. This suggests the pyramid may have been designed to serve as a means to magically launch the deceased pharaoh's soul directly into the abode of the gods.[12] All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile, which, as the site of the setting sun, was associated with the realm of the dead in Egyptian mythology.[13] Number and location of pyramids In 1842, Karl Richard Lepsius produced the first modern list of pyramids – see Lepsius list of pyramids – in which he counted 67. A great many more have since been discovered. As of November 2008, 118 Egyptian pyramids have been identified.[3] The location of Pyramid 29, which Lepsius called the "Headless Pyramid", was lost for a second time when the structure was buried by desert sands subsequent to Lepsius' survey. It was found again only during an archaeological dig conducted in 2008.[14] Many pyramids are in a poor state of preservation or buried by desert sands. If visible at all, they may appear as little more than mounds of rubble. As a consequence, archaeologists are continuing to identify and study previously unknown pyramid structures. The most recent pyramid to be discovered was that of Sesheshet at Saqqara, mother of the Sixth Dynasty pharaoh Teti. The discovery was announced by Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, on 11 November 2008.[4]

View Blog:

Chagai

Chagai Chagai-I is the code name of five simultaneous underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15 hrs PST on 28 May 1998.[1]:281[3][4] The tests were performed at Ras Koh Hillsin the Chagai District of Balochistan Province.[5] Chagai-I was Pakistan's first public test of nuclear weapons. Its timing was a direct response to India's second nuclear tests, on 11 and 13 May 1998. These tests by Pakistan and India resulted in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1172 and economic sanctions on both states by a number of major powers, particularly the United States and Japan. By testing nuclear devices, Pakistan became the seventh nation to publicly test nuclear weapons.[6]:14–15[7] Pakistan's second nuclear test, Chagai-II, followed on 30 May 1998.     Background Several historical and political events and personalities in the 1960s and early 1970s led Pakistan to gradually transition to a program of nuclear weapons development, that began in 1972.[8]Plans for nuclear weapons testing started in 1974.[1]:182–183[7][9]:470–476 Chagai-I was the result of over two decades of planning and preparation, Pakistan becoming the seventh of eight nations that have publicly tested nuclear weapons.[6]:14–15[7] The timing of Chagai-I was a direct response to India's second nuclear tests, Pokhran-II, also called Operation Shakti, on 11 and 13 May 1998.[6]:1–15[10][11]:191–198 Chagai-I was Pakistan's first of two public tests of nuclear weapons. Pakistan's second nuclear test, Chagai-II, followed on 30 May 1998. In 2005, Benazir Bhutto testified that "Pakistan may have had an atomic device long before, and her father had told her from his prison cell that preparations for a nuclear test had been made in 1977, and he expected to have an atomic test of a nuclear device in August 1977."[12] However, the plan was moved on to December 1977 and later it was delayed indefinitely to avoid international reaction; thus obtaining deliberate ambiguity.[12] In an interview with Hamid Mir in Capital Talk which aired on Geo News in 2005, Dr. Samar Mubarakmand confirmed Bhutto's testimony and maintained that PAEC developed the design of an atomic bomb in 1978 and had successfully conducted a cold test after building the first atomic bomb in 1983.[12] Location PAEC's scientists chose sites at the high-altitude granite mountain ranges with extreme hot weather. Safety and security required a remote, isolated and unpopulated mountainous area.[7][9]:470–476The Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) conducted tests[1]:182 to select a "bone dry" mountain capable of withstanding a 20–40 kilotonne (kt) detonation from the inside. The scientists wanted dry weather, and very little wind to spread radioactive fallout.[7] Koh Kambaran located in the Ras Koh Hills was selected in 1978. Due to widespread imprecise reporting which mentioned the Chagai Hills region prior to the actual explosion, there is sometimes geographic confusion. Both the Chagai Hills and the Ras Koh Hills are situated in the Chagai District, but the Ras Koh Hills lie to the south of Chagai Hills, and are separated from the Chagai Hills by a large valley.[13][14] Throughout the 1980s, the Governor of Balochistan, General Rahimuddin Khan, led the civil engineering work.[7] Decision After India's Pokhran-II tests on 13–15 May 1998, statements by Indian politicians further escalated the situation.[15] Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif curtailed his state visit to Kazakhstan to meet with President Nursultan Nazarbayev and returned to Pakistan.[16] The decision to conduct tests took place at a meeting that Sharif convened with the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Jehangir Karamat, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, Ishfaq Ahmad, and Munir Ahmad Khan and members of the Cabinet of Pakistan.[17]:101–102 In talks with Sharif, the President of the United States, Bill Clinton, offered a lucrative aid package in an attempt to get Pakistan to refrain from nuclear testing

View Blog:

Jackfruit nutrition facts by M.Yaseen Khan

Jackfruit nutrition facts Jackfruit is absolutely one of a kind tropical fruit recognized for its unique shape, and size. The fruity flavor of its sweet arils (bulbs) can be appreciated from a distance. In common with other tropical fruits such as durian, banana, etc., it is also rich in energy, dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins and free from saturated fats or cholesterol; fitting it into one of the healthy treats to relish! Botanically, this popular Asian tropical fruit belongs to the family of Moraceae, of the genus: Artocarpus and is closely related to figs, mulberry, and breadfruit. Scientific name: Artocarpus heterophyllus. Jackfruit tree with a heavy yield. Huge jackfruit tree. ackfruit is a huge tree that grows to as high as 30 meters, larger than mango, breadfruit, etc. It is believed to be indigenous to the Southwestern rain forests of India. Today, it widely cultivated in the tropical regions of the Indian subcontinent, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brazil for its fruit, seeds, and wood. The tree grows best in tropical humid and rainy climates but rarely survives cold and frosty conditions. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). Golden-yellow color edible aril (bulb). (Photo courtesy:laughlin) In a season, each tree bears as many as 250 large fruits, supposed to be the biggest tree-borne fruits in the world.The fruit varies widely in size, weigh from 3 to 30 kg, and has oblong or round shape, measuring 10 cm to 60 cm in length, 25 to 75 cm in diameter. While unripe fruits are green, they turn light brown and spread a strong sweet, fruity smell once ripe. As in the durian fruit, the outer surface of the jackfruit is also covered by blunt spikes which become soft as the fruit ripen. Its interior consists of eye-catching orange-yellow color edible bulbs. Each bulb consists of sweet flesh (sheath) that encloses a smooth, oval, light-brown seed. There may be as many as 50 to 500 edible bulbs embedded in a single fruit interspersed in-between thin bands of fibers. Jackfruit seed encased inside a thin, transparent outer cover. It largely composes of starch and protein. Each seed measures about 2 to 4 cm in length, and 1 to 3 cm in thickness. Almost all the parts of the tree secrete white sticky latex-like milk (juice) upon infliction of injury. Health benefits of jackfruit 100 g of edible jackfruit bulbs provide 95 calories. The fruit made of soft, easily digestible flesh (arils) made up of simple sugars like fructose and sucrose that when eaten replenishes energy and revitalizes the body instantly. Jackfruit is rich in dietary fiber, which makes it a good bulk laxative. The fiber content helps protect the colon mucous membrane by binding to and eliminating cancer-causing chemicals from the colon. The fresh fruit has small but significant amounts of vitamin-A, and flavonoid pigments such as carotene-ß, xanthin, lutein, and cryptoxanthin-ß. Together, these compounds play vital roles in antioxidant and vision functions. Vitamin-A also required for maintaining the integrity of mucosa and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin-A and carotenes has been found to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers. Jackfruit is a good source of antioxidant vitamin-C, provides about 13.7 mg or 23% of RDA.

View Blog:

Walnut( Akhrot)

  Walnut( Akhrot) A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia. Technically a walnut is the seed of a drupe or drupaceous nut, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is used for food after being processed while green for pickled walnuts or after full ripening for its nutmeat. Nutmeat of the eastern black walnut from the Juglans nigra is less commercially available, as are butternut nutmeats from Juglans cinerea. The walnut is nutrient-dense with protein and essential fatty acids. Characteristics Walnuts are rounded, single-seeded stone fruits of the walnut tree commonly used for the meat after fully ripening. Following full ripening, the removal of the husk reveals the wrinkly walnut shell, which is usually commercially found in two segments (three-segment shells can also form). During the ripening process, the husk will become brittle and the shell hard. The shell encloses the kernel or meat, which is usually made up of two halves separated by a partition. The seed kernels – commonly available as shelled walnuts – are enclosed in a brown seed coat which contains antioxidants. The antioxidants protect the oil-rich seed from atmospheric oxygen, thereby preventing rancidity.[1] Walnuts are late to grow leaves, typically not until more than halfway through the spring. They secrete chemicals into the soil to prevent competing vegetation from growing. Because of this, flowers or vegetable gardens should not be planted close to them. Types The two most common major species of walnuts are grown for their seeds – the Persian or English walnut and the black walnut. The English walnut (J. regia) originated in Persia, and the black walnut (J. nigra) is native to eastern North America. The black walnut is of high flavor, but due to its hard shell and poor hulling characteristics it is not grown commercially for nut production. Numerous walnut cultivars have been developed commercially, which are nearly all hybrids of the English walnut.[2] Other species include J. californica, the California black walnut (often used as a root stock for commercial breeding of J. regia), J. cinerea(butternuts), and J. major, the Arizona walnut. Other sources list J. californica californica as native to southern California, and Juglans californica hindsii, or just J. hindsii, as native to northern California; in at least one case these are given as "geographic variants" instead of subspecies (Botanica). Walnut Production – 2014[3] CountryProduction (millions of tonnes)  China 1.60  United States 0.52  Iran 0.45  Turkey 0.18  Mexico 0.13 World 3.46 Production In 2014, worldwide production of walnuts (in shell) was 3.46 million tonnes, with China contributing 46% of the world total (table).[3] Other major producers were (in the order of decreasing harvest): United States, Iran, Turkey and Mexico. The average worldwide walnut yield was about 3.5 tonnes per hectare in 2014.[3] Eastern European countries had the highest yield, with Slovenia and Romania each harvesting about 19 tonnes per hectare.[3] In 2014, the United States was the world's largest exporter of walnuts, followed by Turkey.[4] The Central Valley of California produces 99 percent of total United States commerce in English walnuts.[5] Storage Walnuts, like other tree nuts, must be processed and stored properly. Poor storage makes walnuts susceptible to insect and fungal mold infestations; the latter produces aflatoxin – a potent carcinogen. A mold-infested walnut batch should be entirely discarded.[1] The ideal temperature for longest possible storage of walnuts is in the −3 to 0 °C (27 to 32 °F) and low humidity – for industrial and home storage. However, such refrigeration technologies are unavailable in developing countries where walnuts are produced in large quantities; there, walnuts are best stored below 25 °C (77 °F) and low humidity. Temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F), and humidities above 70 percent can lead to rapid and high spoilage losses. Above 75 percent humidity threshold, fungal molds that release dangerous aflatoxin can form.[1][6] Food use Walnut meats are available in two forms; in their shells or shelled. The meats can be as large as halves or any smaller portions that may happen during processing, candied or as an ingredient in other foodstuffs. Pickled walnuts that are the whole fruit can be savory or sweet depending on the preserving solution. Walnut butters can be homemade or purchased in both raw and roasted forms. All walnuts can be eaten on their own (raw, toasted or pickled) or as part of a mix such as muesli, or as an ingredient of a dish. For example, walnut soup and walnut pie are prepared using walnuts as a main ingredient. Walnut Whip, coffee and walnut cake, and pickled walnuts are more examples. Walnut is the main ingredient of Fesenjan, a khoresh (stew) in Iranian cuisine. Walnuts are also popular in brownie recipes, as ice cream toppings, and walnut pieces are used as a garnish on some foods.[7] Nocino is a liqueur made from unripe green walnuts steeped in alcohol with syrup added. Walnut oil is available commercially and is chiefly used as a food ingredient particularly in 

View Blog:

Rainbow by M.Yaseen Khan

Rainbow A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured circular arc. Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun. Rainbows can be full circles. However, the observer normally sees only an arc formed by illuminated droplets above the ground,[1] and centered on a line from the sun to the observer's eye. In a primary rainbow, the arc shows red on the outer part and violet on the inner side. This rainbow is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water, then reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it. In a double rainbow, a second arc is seen outside the primary arc, and has the order of its colors reversed, with red on the inner side of the arc. This is caused by the light being reflected twice on the inside of the droplet  Overview Image of the end of a rainbow at Jasper National Park A rainbow is not located at a specific distance from the observer, but comes from an optical illusion caused by any water droplets viewed from a certain angle relative to a light source. Thus, a rainbow is not an object and cannot be physically approached. Indeed, it is impossible for an observer to see a rainbow from water droplets at any angle other than the customary one of 42 degrees from the direction opposite the light source. Even if an observer sees another observer who seems "under" or "at the end of" a rainbow, the second observer will see a different rainbow—farther off—at the same angle as seen by the first observer. Rainbows span a continuous spectrum of colours. Any distinct bands perceived are an artefact of human colour vision, and no banding of any type is seen in a black-and-white photo of a rainbow, only a smooth gradation of intensity to a maximum, then fading towards the other side. For colours seen by the human eye, the most commonly cited and remembered sequence is Newton's sevenfold red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet,[2][3] remembered by the mnemonic, Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain (ROYGBIV). Rainbows can be caused by many forms of airborne water. These include not only rain, but also mist, spray, and airborne dew. Visibility Rainbows can form in mist, such as that of a waterfall. Rainbows may form in the spray created by waves (called spray bows). Rainbows can be observed whenever there are water drops in the air and sunlight shining from behind the observer at a low altitude angle. Because of this, rainbows are usually seen in the western sky during the morning and in the eastern sky during the early evening. The most spectacular rainbow displays happen when half the sky is still dark with raining clouds and the observer is at a spot with clear sky in the direction of the sun. The result is a luminous rainbow that contrasts with the darkened background. During such good visibility conditions, the larger but fainter secondary rainbow is often visible. It appears about 10° outside of the primary rainbow, with inverse order of colours. The rainbow effect is also commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. In addition, the effect can be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. Rarely, a moonbow, lunar rainbow or nighttime rainbow, can be seen on strongly moonlit nights. As human visual perception for colour is poor in low light, moonbows are often perceived to be white.[4] It is difficult to photograph the complete semicircle of a rainbow in one frame, as this would require an angle of view of 84°. For a 35 mm camera, a wide-angle lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required. Now that software for stitching several images into a panorama is available, images of the entire arc and even secondary arcs can be created fairly easily from a series of overlapping frames. From above the earth such as in an aeroplane, it is sometimes possible to see a rainbow as a full circle. This phenomenon can be confused with the glory phenomenon, but a glory is usually much smaller, covering only 5–20°. The sky inside a primary rainbow is brighter than the sky outside of the bow. This is because each raindrop is a sphere and it scatters light over an entire circular disc in the sky. The radius of the disc depends on the wavelength of light, with red light being scattered over a larger angle than blue light. Over most of the disc, scattered light at all wavelengths overlaps, resulting in white light which brightens the sky. At the edge, the wavelength dependence of the scattering gives rise to the rainbow.[5] Light of primary rainbow arc is 96% polarised tangential to the arch.[6] Light of second arc is 90% polarised.  Number of colours in spectrum or rainbow A spectrum obtained using a glass prism and a point source is a continuum of wavelengths without bands. The number of colours that the human eye is able to distinguish in a spectrum is in the order of 100.[7] Accordingly, the Munsell colour system (a 20th-century system for numerically describing colours, based on equal steps for human visual perception) distinguishes 100 hues. The apparent discreteness of main colours is an artefact of human perception and the exact number of main colours is a somewhat arbitrary choice. Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet                                    Newton, who admitted his eyes were not very critical in distinguishing colours,[8] originally (1672) divided the spectrum into five main colours: red, yellow, green, blue and violet. Later he included orange and indigo, giving seven main colours by analogy to the number of notes in a musical scale.[2][9] Newton chose to divide the visible spectrum into seven colours out of a belief derived from the beliefs of the ancient Greek sophists, who thought there was a connection between the colours, the musical notes, the known objects in the Solar System, and the days of the week.[10][11][12] Rainbow (middle: real, bottom: computed) compared to true spectrum (top): unsaturated colours and different colour profile According to Isaac Asimov, "It is customary to list indigo as a color lying between blue and violet, but it has never seemed to me that indigo is worth the dignity of being considered a separate color. To my eyes it seems merely deep blue."[13] The colour pattern of a rainbow is different from a spectrum, and the colours are less saturated. There is spectral smearing in a rainbow owing to the fact that for any particular wavelength, there is a distribution of exit angles, rather than a single unvarying angle.[14] In addition, a rainbow is a blurred version of the bow obtained from a point source, because the disk diameter of the sun (0.5°) cannot be neglected compared to the width of a rainbow (2°). The number of colour bands of a rainbow may therefore be different from the number of bands in a spectrum, especially if the droplets are particularly large or small. Therefore, the number of colours of a rainbow is variable. If, however, the word rainbow is used inaccurately to mean spectrum, it is the number of main colours in the spectrum. Variations Multiple rainbows

View Blog:

Process of Gur making in the traditional setup

Process of Gur making in the traditional setup Gur can be used as a substitute of sugar in our rural areas. Mostly our people like to use Gur in tea and other desserts as substitute of sugar. One may directly use sugarcane juice as a drink but there is a need to wash and clean the sugarcane properly. Gur is boiled in water and after cooling it can be used as a cold drink in summers. It has cooling effects. Even in urban areas people do use Gur instead of sugar for having some change taste. Gur is the traditional sweet obtained from the sugarcane.  I did visit to a Gur Ghani (Ghani is a local term used for that traditional setup, where the process of Gur making is done. This process is very simple and can be completed with in few simple steps. In following picture male females along with children, all busy together in the harvesting and peeling of sugarcane in the fields. In the first stage, the sugarcane is crushed under the crusher machine to get the juice or syrup, then collected in a separate container installed with the crusher machine. Bagass (the leftover of the sugarcane after squeezing its all juice) is used as a fuel for boiling sugarcane \

View Blog:

HEALTH AND TSATE

HEALTH AND TSATE Vegetable Recipes Our Vegetable Recipes section contains a variety of healthy vegetable recipes. Vegetables are a rich source of antioxidants and protect us from many diseases. Green vegetables contain essential vitamins & minerals and are thus very beneficial for health. Try our easy vegetable recipes. Momos Momos is a popular recipe from the land of China. Learn how to make/prepare Momos by following this easy recipe. • Veg.   • Easy    Rating: 7.6 / 10 (259 votes) Bread Pizza Bread Pizza is a very popular recipe. Learn how to make/prepare Bread Pizza by following this easy recipe. • Veg.   • Easy    Rating: 9.0 / 10 (121 votes) Palak Paneer Palak Paneer is a popular dish in Northern India and the spicy dish is best consumed with roti, the Indian flatbread. The paneer is allowed to soak in the flavours of palak and other spices by cooking it on a medium flame. Sounds enticing! • Veg.   • Average    Rating: 8.3 / 10 (119 votes) Chili Potato One of the most favorite Indo-Chinese recipes, the Chili Potato is a variant of French Fries, just that the potatoes are coated with chili sauce, giving it that fire one craves for. • Veg.   • Average    Rating: 8.5 / 10 (131 votes) Vegetable Soup Vegetable Soup is a very popular recipe. Learn how to make/prepare Vegetable Soup by following this easy recipe. • Veg.   • Easy    Rating: 8.1 / 10 (111 votes) Gobi Manchurian Gobi Manchurian is a the best food anyone can think of if they are craving for some yummy food. Made in a typical Chinese way, these is one dish that you will definitely end up over-eating! • Veg.   • Easy    Rating: 8.7 / 10 (163 votes) Cheese Pasta Cheese Pasta is a very popular recipe. Learn how to make/prepare Cheeze Pasta by following this easy recipe.

View Blog:

Places to Visit in Murree

Places to Visit in Murree The Mall Road: Mall road is the famous rialto in Murree. A road full of life, hotels, restaurants, handicraft shops and ecstatic faces. People who visit Murree, get their rooms on Mall road. This is the place where people just walk till 2am or 3am in morning and relish the comely weather. It has bazaar downstairs, like 10 feet below the main Mall road. This is a place of shopping for visitors. Mall road is utilized to ambulate around and to have aliment. It can be best visited after the sunset. if you optate to preserve time visit hills at day time and Mall Road at night when you have to just shop or dine. It is a slope starting from General Post Office. Pabulum & misc. sovenier shops are situated on the both sides of Road. It is open till midnight. You can buy everything at Mall and dine a variety of Pakistani dishes. Pindi Point: Pindi point is one of the prime points to visit in Murree. It is 15 minutes walk from mall road. It has a resplendent view of vallies and mountains. You can optically discern Pindi city from there. Chairlift rides go down 1.5 km from Pindi Point to Bansara Gali are authentically relishable. Scenary from chair hoist is magnificent. Zigzag road passes below. Great pine trees stand throughout the peregrination. When go down the valley there is a cessation point. You can relish a lot there. There is a coffee shop & children play land. Hills of Patriata can be optically discerned there. A great jungle commences there. You can relish tracking. Chair hoist is open from 9am till 6 pm. Kashmir Point: eave Mall road from other end, going up GPO and ambulate for fifteen minutes, about 1 km it will leads to Kashmir point. You may hike up the Kashmir point. The way passing by the Cadet College Murree goes towards the Murree Residence of the President of Pakistan. It has a pulchritudinous optical discernment optically discerning. You can visually perceive Kashmir mountains from this point. It is the highest spot in Murree and due to incrementing rush on Mall road, this point is taking visitor’s attention day by day. Now it has a long bazaar, an ecstasy land and lots of victualing places. Most of the visitors came to facilitate down and relax in Murree and need a quite place to live so they prefer to book a room in Kashmir point in lieu of Mall road. Patriata(Incipient Murree): Incipient Murree is about 15 kilometer away from main Murree hills on the Lower Topa side. It is a well developed hill station with great high elevated trees, pulchritudinous hills. This is famous due to chair hoist, which worth a ride. A world class chair hoist & cable car system takes you from Incipient Murree to Patriata. Total ride is about 7 km long. Incipient Murree is on ground level between the hills. Here you have to buy the ticket for Chair Hoist + Cable Car which is Rs. 200/- then a chair hoist ride takes you to a middle hill. You can visually examine Kashmir mountains from middle Hill where Chair Hoist takes you. You may stay here for some time & relish Tea/Coffee or just walk around. From there Cable car takes you to Patriata Hill. where you have much stuff to do. Ambulate liberatingly everywhere. Just walk in the direction where most of the tourists are peregrinated. Straight road takes you to the apex of the hill. Where scenary is panoramic. On one side you can visually examine Murree Hills & on the other side snow covered Kashmir Hills. The Chair Hoist & Cable Car journey is memorable of life time. You can witness lots of great scenaries of near & far hills. In winter all hills are covered with snow while in summer lush green scenaris could be visually perceived. You may peregrinate with a horse but ASK/FINE-TUNE CHARGES afore leaving otherwise they will charge you an extravagant amount. Similary don’t hire a guide within patriata. People will come around you like they are availing you in taking pictures but then they ask immensely colossal amount for those accommodations. Private car from Murree charges about Rs. 800/- for return journey. Driver will leave you at the gate of TDCP PATRIATA RESORT at Incipient Murree & then take you back to Murree when you’ve culminated. You can’t stay there for long. Last cable car is at 5 pm which take every visitor back. At that time a person goes all the way whistling to check if there is any one left and then take last cable car. River Neelam: It is a nice place to have a picnic. People use to have snack and lunch at the corner of this river or sometimes in it. One can feel the gelid wind and cool dihydrogen monoxide which inclines to be the best thing in summer. Relish the peregrination to this river Neelam, Mountains covered with lush green trees and high slopes of mountains engenders an ocular perceiver catching view. One don’t get acquainted with the time if relishing this cool wind and dihydrogen monoxide there. Bhurban: Bhurban, boosting with five star Pearl Continental Hotel owned by Pakistan’s best hotel chain and a nine aperture Golf course has cropped recently as another tourist magnetization in Murree area. Lying at an altitude of 6000 ft, Bhurban is situated at a distance of 13 kilometers from Murree on one of main roads leading to Azad Kashmir. People use to visit Pearl Continental Hotel Bhurban which is on pulchritudinous location. It has rooms starting from Rs. 10,ooo/- per day which changes according to season. It has an ingression fee of Rs. 300/- which you can spend in the hotel in any activity. There is a Helicopter Pad which has a pulchritudinous valley view. Kuldana: Kuldana is the denomination of an astronomically comely hill, which spreads over a lush green area of about five square kilometers. The area is densely populated by an astronomically immense variety of trees and plants and inhabited by sundry kinds of wild life species specially birds, butterflies and monkeys. At times snow leopards, cheetahs and jackals can withal be visually perceived crossing roads and tracks. Upper Topa and Lower Topa: Upper Topa and Lower Topa comprise the Murree Hills in Murree. Established by the British during their rule of the subcontinent, it is located at an altitude of 7000 ft and provides a congenial getaway for tourists in the scorching summer. The winter season often covers Upper Topa with a blanket of snow. Upper Topa and Lower Topa comprise the Murree Hills in Murree. Established by the British during their rule of the subcontinent, it is located at an altitude of 7000 ft and provides a congenial getaway for tourists in the scorching summer. The winter season often covers Upper Topa with a blanket of snow. Gallery

View Blog:

What's Better For Weight Loss:... by M.Yaseen Khan

What's Better For Weight Loss: Green Tea Or Green Coffee? More than just a pick-me-up, your morning cup of tea or coffee may actually help your weight-loss efforts! But when it comes to fat loss, which one of these greens reigns supreme?     When it comes to losing fat, no magic pill or powder can replace consistent work in the gym and a clean diet. Your efforts will always trump anything a supplement can do. That said, there are a handful of ingredients that may help boost your metabolism and enhance your weight-loss efforts. Two of those ingredients—green tea and 

View Blog:

Best Places to Stay in Moscow

 Best Places to Stay in Moscow Moscow isn’t all soldiers marching in goose step or austere Stalinist buildings. It’s also not all covert agents lurking in dark alleys – Moscow is, after all, the setting for many spy novels. One of the great capitals of the world, Moscow boasts many outstanding attractions, from St. Basil’s Cathedral to the Kremlin and Red Square. When you visit Moscow, you’ll want to have a few sips of Russia’s most popular spirit, vodka, and sample some traditional foods such as borscht and blini. Not only can you dine like a tsar, you can sleep like one, too. Some of the best places to stay in Moscow feature opulent, elegant furnishings from the imperialist era of the 19th century. 1. Hotel Metropol Moscow The Hotel Metropol is an historic landmark in Moscow. Under construction from 1899 to 1907, noted artists of the day help decorated the reinforced concrete dome. It was the first Moscow hotel to have in-room telephones and hot water. The Metropol is the only hotel built before the 1917 Russian Revolution that stands today. For a few years after the revolution, it housed Soviet bureaucrats, but reclaimed its hotel status in the 1930s. It’s located on Theatre Square close to the Bolshoi. 2. Moscow Marriott Grand Hotel The exterior of the 

View Blog:

Magnificent Angkor Temples

Magnificent Angkor Temples Situated between the Tonle Sap lake and the Kulen Mountains in Cambodia, Angkor contains the magnificent remains of several capitals of the Khmer Empire. Angkor served as the seat of the Khmer Empire, which flourished from approximately the 9th to 15th centuries. The hundreds of temples surviving today are but the sacred skeleton of the vast political, religious and social center of the ancient empire. At its zenith the city boasted a population of one million people, the largest preindustrial city in the world.   After the fall of the Khmer empire the Angkor temples were abandoned and reclaimed by the jungle for centuries. Situated amid dense rainforest and rice paddies, many of the temples at Angkor have now been restored and welcome over two million tourists each year. 1. Angkor Wat Temple flickr/Peter Garnhum   Angkor Wat (meaning “City Temple”) is the most magnificent and largest of all Angkor temples. The structure occupies and enormous site of nearly 200 hectares (494 acres). A huge rectangular reservoir surrounds the temple which rises up through a series of three rectangular terraces to the central shrine and tower at a height of 213 meters (669 feet). This arrangement reflects the traditional Khmer idea of the temple mountain, in which the temple represent Mount Meru, the home of the gods in Hinduism. Built under the reign of king Suryavarman II in the first half of the 12 century, Angkor Wat is the pinnacle of Khmer architecture. The famous bas-reliefs encircling the temple on the first level depict Hindu epics including the mythical “Churning of the Ocean of Milk”, a legend in which Hindu deities stir vast oceans in order to extract the nectar of immortal life. The reliefs, including thousands of female dancers, are carved into the wall of the third enclosure of the temple. In the late 13th century, Angkor Wat gradually moved from a Hindu temple to a Theravada Buddhist one. Unlike other temples at Angkor which were abandoned after the fall of the Khmer empire in the 15th century, Angkor Wat remained a Buddhist shrine. 2. Bayon Temple flickr/huminiak The Bayon temple features a sea of over 200 massive stone faces looking in all direction. The curious smiling faces, thought by many to be a portrait of king Jayavarman VII himself or a combination of him and Buddha, are an instantly recognizable image of Angkor. Built in the 12th century by King Jayavarman VII as part of a massive expansion of his capital Angkor Thom, the Bayon is built at the exact center of the royal city. The Bayon is the only state temple at Angkor built primarily as a Mahayana Buddhist shrine dedicated to the Buddha. Following Jayavarman’s death, it was modified by later Hindu and Theravada Buddhist kings in accordance with their own religious beliefs. The Bayon temple rises through three levels to a height of around 43 meters (140 feet). The outer gallery on the first level depicts scenes from everyday life and historical events, while the inner gallery on the next higher level

View Blog:

Best Places To Visit In Turkey by M.Yaseen Khan

View Blog:

The 7 Wonders Of The World by M.Yaseen Khan

The 7 Wonders Of The World The symbol of love, the ivory-white mausoleum of marble, the Taj Mahal, is well known across the world for its historical value, its tale of love, and stunning beauty. It truly deserves to be one of the seven wonders of the world. The Taj Mahal is located in the India's historic city of Agra. It houses the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal, the wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. It is said that the Emperor loved his wife dearly and after her death decided to build the Taj Mahal to remind the world of their tale of love. The construction of the Taj Mahal was completed by 1632. The estimated cost of construction of this monument at that time is estimated to be equivalent to US$827 million in 2015. In 1983, the Taj Mahal was inscribed by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. Today, it attracts 7 to 8 million annual visitors to Agra. 1. Great Pyramid of Giza (Honorary Candidate) - Completed c. 2560 BC   The greatness of the Great Pyramid of Giza is quite relevant in the fact that though it did not compete for the title of the seven wonders of the world, it was assigned the honorary title as it simply had to be included in the list. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the biggest and the oldest one among the three pyramids forming the Giza Pyramid Complex. The pyramid is in El Giza, Egypt. Egyptologists believe that this pyramid was build over a period of 10 to 20 years and completed by around 2560 BC. For over 3,800 years, the Great Pyramid of Giza stood tall as the world’s tallest structure till this position was replaced by the skyscrapers of the modern world. The Pyramid has baffled engineers and architects across the world as to how it was constructed in times when modern infrastructural facilities did not exist. The pyramid houses the tomb of Khufu, the Fourth Dynasty Egyptian pharaoh. 2. Great Wall of China - Since 7th century BC The Great Wall of China, a global tourist hotspot, is known across the world for its uniqueness, great length, and historical value. For a number of reasons, it deserves to be one of the seven wonders of the world. The Great Wall of China is associated with thousands of years of Chinese history. A series of walls were initially built by Chinese empires and states over a period of many years, beginning as early as the 7th century BCE. These walls were then joined together to result in the Great Wall of China. UNESCO inscribed the site as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1987.

View Blog:

Earth's energy budget

Earth's energy budget Earth's climate is largely determined by the planet's energy budget, i.e., the balance of incoming and outgoing radiation. It is measured by satellites and shown in W/m2.[1] Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between energy Earth receives from the Sun,[2] and energy Earth radiates back into outer space after having been distributed throughout the five components of Earth's climate system and having thus powered the so-called "Earth’s heat engine".[3] This system is made up of earth's water, ice, atmosphere, rocky crust, and all living things.[4] Quantifying changes in these amounts is required to accurately model the Earth's climate.[5]   Incoming, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave flux radiation, shows energy received from the sun (Jan 26–27, 2012).   Outgoing, longwave flux radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (Jan 26–27, 2012). Heat energy radiated from Earth (in watts per square metre) is shown in shades of yellow, red, blue and white. The brightest-yellow areas are the hottest and are emitting the most energy out to space, while the dark blue areas and the bright white clouds are much colder, emitting the least energy. Received radiation is unevenly distributed over the planet, because the Sun heats equatorial regions more than polar regions. The atmosphere and ocean work non-stop to even out solar heating imbalances through evaporation of surface water, convection, rainfall, winds, and ocean circulation. Earth is very close to be (but not perfectly) in radiative equilibrium, the situation where the incoming solar energy is balanced by an equal flow of heat to space; under that condition, global temperatures will be relatively stable. Globally, over the course of the year, the Earth system —land surfaces, oceans, and atmosphere— absorbs and then radiates back to space an average of about 240 watts of solar power per square meter. Anything that increases or decreases the amount of incoming or outgoing energy will change global temperatures in response.[6] However, Earth's energy balance and heat fluxes depend on many factors, such as atmospheric composition (mainly aerosols and greenhouse gases), the albedo (reflectivity) of surface properties, cloud cover and vegetation and land use patterns. Changes in surface temperature due to Earth's energy budget do not occur instantaneously, due to the inertia of the oceans and the cryosphere. The net heat flux is buffered primarily by becoming part of the ocean's heat content, until a new equilibrium state is established between radiative forcings and the climate response.[7]   Contents   [hide]  1Energy budget 1.1Incoming radiant energy (shortwave) 1.2Earth's internal heat and other small effects 1.3Longwave radiation 2Earth's energy imbalance

View Blog:

Earth Energies

Earth Energies Investigating the theory that certain natural earth-energies were detectable by prehistoric humans and utilised in ways that are essentially lost to us in a modern technological setting. It is generally accepted that the large number of megaliths around the ancient world were constructed as part of a cultural expression, both lending identity to the human species and connecting it to the natural world. They have been speculated as being built as meeting places, defensive structures, for funerary purpose and for worshiping the earth mother. The tradition of megalithic building can now be traced back to at least 8,000 BC (see Gobekli Tepe), and probably peaked sometime in the 4th millennium, but we still have little, if no idea, what it was that originally led the builders to begin constructing the vast numbers of fantastic megalithic structures, of which only the smallest percentage remain today. Modern physicists have confirmed that all matter in the universe, from the suns and planets, to the gasses, water, and organic life itself, are all composed of the same 'stuff'. Stuff that in its most basic form is made of small particles of energy. The universe can be seen in this respect as an 'energy soup' of which we (organic life) are just one of numerous natural expressions. Everything we see is composed of energy. It is what holds us together and what keeps us apart. The 'illusion' of matter has given us the physical world as we know it, but we, the space between us and all things are still all formed from the same energy. The association between high levels of artificial EMF and 'Serious Health Problems' (12) leaves no doubt that we are sensitive to such frequencies, perhaps poignant then that it is to the worlds (now greatly drowned out) natural 'heartbeat', the Schumann resonance of 7.8 Hz, that living things have been shown to benefit the most. (10)   Leylines and Chakras: One of the most obvious fingerprints of human activity, from around the ancient world and into the present day, is a natural tendency towards designing buildings in geometric patterns. Something which in its simplest form consists of the construction of an alignment of man-made and/or natural features on the landscape, perhaps offering us the simplest definition of what is loosely termed today a 'Ley-line'.  Along with this 'linear mentality', it also appears that there a clear preference to build the megaliths with quartzite, along with many of them being built in places of what might be best termed as 'abnormal' natural background energies. Perhaps it is time to explore the idea that there was another reason for their construction, apart from those mentioned above.    This work has already been extensively researched by Paul Deveraux and his Dragon Project: 'The Dragon Project, latterly the Dragon Project Trust (DPT), was founded in 1977 in order to mount an interdisciplinary investigation into the rumour (existing in both folklore and modern anecdote) that certain prehistoric sites had unusual forces or energies associated with them. The DPT, a loose and shifting consortium of volunteers from various disciplines, conducted many years of physical monitoring at sites in the UK, and other countries. In the end, it was concluded that most stories about "energies" were likely to have no foundation in fact, and in a few cases might be due to mind states and psychological effects produced by certain locations. But hard evidence of magnetic and radiation anomalies was found at some sites, and some questionable evidence of infrared and ultrasonic effects also. In addition, it was found that the kind of locations favoured by megalith builders tended to have a higher than average incidence of unusual light-ball phenomena or "earth lights". (6) The concept of 'earth chakras' is nothing new, with whole mountain ranges being recognised as being physically connected by mandala's of oriental temples built into the living landscape. Something which appears almost alien to the modern western mind. However, the prehistoric European landscape was similarly interconnected by networks of geometric alignments, somewhat akin to the oriental and pre-columbian concept of landscape alignments. The art/science of Geodesy appears to have been practiced at the highest levels in prehistory, with evidence still present from around the ancient world suggesting that the most sacred/important ancient sites were placed at positions with relevant geodetic latitudes/longitudes.       Telluric Currents: A telluric current or Earth current, is an electric current which moves underground or through the sea. Telluric currents result from both natural causes and human activity, and although discrete, these currents interact in a complex pattern. The currents are extremely low frequency and travel over large areas at or near the surface of Earth. Telluric currents are phenomena observed in the Earth's crust and mantle. In September 1862, an experiment to specifically address Earth currents was carried out in the Munich Alps (Lamont, 1862). The currents are primarily geomagnetically induced currents, which are induced by changes in the outer part of the Earth's magnetic field, which are usually caused by interactions between the solar

View Blog:

Snow transport

Snow transport Main menu   Snow cornices up to several metres in height bear witness to the immense influence exerted on the snowpack in the Alps by winds. In a wind tunnel and at measuring sites we are investigating where the wind erodes and deposits snow and how the snow changes during transport.   Fig. 1: Large cornices on La Pare. Image: Ueli Grundisch Storm-force winds occur frequently in the Alps. The wind creates ripples and swirls, as well as snow cornices that overhang leeward slopes (Fig. 1). In irregular terrain it transports snow from peaks and crests, completely fills gullies and bowls, and can make entire transportation routes impassable. This process changes not only the local snow quantities, but also the layering and stability of the snowpack. The snow crystals themselves also undergo transformation during transport; they become smaller as a consequence of evaporation

View Blog:

Pakistan Village Life by M.Yaseen Khan

Pakistan Village Life portion of this post. Pakistan is an agriculture based country and most of the population lives in the rural areas. People living in the villages have their own way of  life which is quite different from the city dwellers. Their life is simple, they have a cleaner pollution free environment and they eat simple, healthy and pure diet. In this segment, the real life in villages is shown through photos (Pics) . The life in rural areas and Pakistani villages is worth seeing. A Woman Making Chappati (Roti/Phulka) in the Open A Woman Preparing Lunch for Guests.  A Typical Outdoor Kitchen in the Compound of a House in a Village An Indoor Kitchen in a Pakistani Village House.  A Village House and a huge Tree A Woman feeding Peacock at Mithi, Sindh Two Women go towards a Pond to fetch Water in Thar Desert  A Typical Village House in Kundian, District Mianwali.  A Typical Pakistani Village. Look at the simple mud house. Villagers life is also very simple. A Village House in Punjab A Small Canal and a Bridge A Dera & ‘Khoo’ (Well) at the Canal Bank in Sultan Pur. The village Sultan Pur is located around 30-40 km from Sargodha towards Shah Pur side. A Village House in Punjab. A typical village house in Punjab with hand pump, tractor and cattle. A Mud Hut and a Cart in a Fruit Garden in a Village Harvesting Wheat Crop in a Village. Villagers and their women folk are busy in harvesting the bumper wheat crop. They will try to immediately store or sell the wheat lest the untimely rain destroy the yield. A Villager Thrashing Rice Stalks on a Drum . Obviously the poor farmer can not afford to hire a thrasher. Wheat Crop with Mountains in the Background in a Village in Mianwali, Punjab Gur (Raw Sugar) Being Made from the Sugarcane Juice 

View Blog:

Beautiful Azad Kashmir

Beautiful Azad Kashmir Azad Kashmir (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) is a self-governing region under Pakistani control. It was once part of the former princely state of Jammu & Kashmir. Banjosa Lake, Azad Kashmir. Banjosa city is a small tourist resort located 12 miles from Rawalakot, District Poonch, Azad Kashmir. Rawalakot is approximately 75 miles (120 km) from the capital Islamabad. Banjosa Lake, surrounded by thick forest of whispering pine trees, is a picturesque tourist spot. Photos of Azad Kashmir: Banjosa Lake, Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir Photos of Azad Kashmir: Banjosa Lake, Rawlakoat Pearl Continental Hotel, Muzaffarabad Beautiful Eye Catching View of Muzaffarabad City from PC Hotel. Picture is taken from the Marcopolo Restaurant of Pearl Continental Hotel, Muzaffarabad covering the front lawn and the city. Another Panoramic View of Muzaffarabad City from Pearl Continental Hotel.  A Picturesque View of Muzaffarabad City. 

View Blog:

Pakistan Capital Islamabad

Pakistan Capital Islamabad Islamabad, located in the Pothohar Plateau, is the capital of Pakistan. After the creation of Pakistan, Karachi was declared as the capital of new-born county. After the construction of Islamabad during early 1960s, the capital was shifted from Karachi to Islamabad. Aerial View of Islamabad from 9,500 feet AMSL. Khanpur Dam can be viewed in the backdrop An Aerial view of Lake View Park, Islamabad. Banni Gala is in the Background. Lake View Park provides following facilities:- Sitting Pagoda, Picnic Point, Ibex Club, Rock Climbing Gym, Motor Sports Ranch, Fancy Aviary, Festival Arena, Passenger Road Train, Paintball Battlefield, Boating Area, Fishing Area and Swimming Pool.  A Beautiful view of Islamabd and Rawal Dam. Rawal Dam has been built over Rawal Lakethat provides water to the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.  A Road in Islambabd An Extremely Beautiful View of Faisal Mosque Aerial View of Faisal Mosque, Islamabad Beautiful View of Faisal Mosque, Islamabad. Faisal Mosque is a landmark of Islamabad. This largest mosque of Pakistan is located at the foot of Margalla Hills. It was designed by Vedat Dalokay, a Turkish architect. The mosque bears the name of Saudi King, Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, who gave a grant of $120 million for its construction. The construction of the mosque began in 1976 and was completed in 1986.  Beautiful View of Faisal Mosque, Islamabad Faisal Mosque at Night Night View of Faisal Mosque

View Blog:

Remarkable Volcanoes in Japan

5 Remarkable Volcanoes in Japan From majestic Mount Fuji to an underwater volcano that formed a new island just last year, Japan’s 109 active volcanoes account for around 10 percent of all of the active volcanoes in the world. With more than 70 percent of Japan covered in mountainous terrain, it’s no surprise the country’s volcanoes play a significant roles in the culture and mythology of Japan. Whether viewing a smoldering volcano from a safe distance or scaling a dormant peak, the volcanoes in Japan offer awe-inspiring travel experiences. 1. Mount Fuji Located less than two hours from Tokyo, Mount Fuji is Japan’s most recognizable landmark, visited by millions and climbed by more than 300,000 people each year. Legend says that Mount Fuji was created in a single day; geologically, the current volcano is believed to have formed over the top of an older volcano around 10,000 years ago. The climb up Fuji is so popular there’s a post office at the top so that those who reach the summit can send a postcard back home from the crest of the 3,800 meter (12,400 foot) high peak. It’s a steep and arduous climb, however. Travelers looking for a less taxing experience can enjoy spectacular views of Fuji from nearby

View Blog:

Most Gorgeous Small Towns in Greece

Most Gorgeous Small Towns in Greece It’s easy to get carried away using superlatives to describe the small towns you’ll find in Greece. But, really, you need words like stunning, picturesque, scenic and beautiful in your descriptions. Anything else just doesn’t do these small villages justice. From sun-kissed beaches in the south to mountain villages in the north, the small towns in Greece emerge as memorable places you’ll want to visit again. And again. 1. Oia Oia has been attracting travelers since the 13th century. It’s continued over the ages until today it is one of Santorini’s top tourist destinations. People come here for the dramatic views, stunning sunsets and to look at the old captains’ houses – Oia was once a powerhouse in the shipping trade. Buildings are snow white; churches are topped with deep blue domes that match the water surrounding the island. The village is car-free, so you can safely walk the narrow streets, strolling among the many art galleries. 2. Monemvasia  A causeway links the island village of Monemvasia to the Greek mainland on the Peloponnese coast. Monemvasia is a medieval town well noted for its architecture, with red tile roofs topping rustic colored buildings. With waves crashing against the rocks, this former fortress village is quite picturesque. Previous visitors have called Monemvasia a magical, fairy tale place that’s perfect for romance. You’ll be enchanted to when you see the old castle toping the island. The walled village shows off its Byzantine, Venetian and Ottoman past quite well. 3. Symi Town dreamstime/© Gerasimovvv Symi used to be a center for shipbuilding and sponging, but today it is a magnet for travelers. With waterfront cafes and benches overlooking the water, Symi has a cosmopolitan feel as homes climb the hillside on this mountainous island. Since it’s built on a hill, pace yourself as you go from one site to another. Top attractions include an 18th century Greek Orthodox monastery, a castle overlooking the city that was built by the Knights of St. John, and numerous churches and chapels, some built by the Byzantines. 4. Mykonos Town dreamstime/© Niradj Mykonos is a good place to lose yourself in Greek mythology. It’s named for Mykons, who was either the son or grandson of the Greek sun god Apollo. Mykonos Town sits on pretty rocky ground. It’s famous for its windmills that date back to the Venetians; some windmills have been converted to homes. You’ll also want to see Petros the Pelican who

View Blog:

Best Dive Spots in the World

Best Dive Spots in the World Diving is a fun, exotic sport. It is also a great excuse to check out some amazing tropical destinations around the world. Any novice or expert diver will be fascinated by what they see in the depths of some of the top dive spots in the world.   Every diver will probably have his or hers own list of favorite dive spots and numerous top 10s can be found on the web (like here and here) that feature different dive sites around the world. Here is our attempt to list some of the best dive spots in the world. 1. Great Barrier Reef The Great Barrier Reef is one of the most popular diving destinations in the world. It is the largest system of coral reef in the world, stretching more than 3000 kilometers. It is the only reef on Earth that can be seen from space. The Great Barrier Reef also features a host of wildlife including green sea turtles, dolphins, humpback whale and clown fish. 2. Red Sea Reef The Red Sea is one of the most beautiful places in the world to go diving and the holiday resorts along its coast are popular tourist attractions in Egypt. The waters of the Red Sea are renowned for their spectacular visibility and features some of the most exotic seascapes. With its wide expanse of coral formation on the reefs, it is home to thousands of different sea creatures. 3. Darwin and Wolf flickr/88rabbit

View Blog:

Best Places to Visit in Sri Lanka

Best Places to Visit in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka may be a small island in the Indian Ocean but that’s the only thing small about it. The country, formerly known as Ceylon, boasts an ancient civilization, golden sandy beaches with their swaying coconut palms, mountains, and rubber and tea plantations. While visiting the island, you’ll see colonial architecture from the days when the Portuguese, Dutch and English ruled. You’ll see lots of elephants, some of which participate in local festivals and, if you’re lucky, perhaps a leopard or two at a wildlife sanctuary. An overview of the best places to visit in Sri Lanka:  1. Sigiriya flickr/Amila Tennakoon Wannabe archaeologists need to put Sigiriya on their list of must-see places to visit in Sri Lanka. This ancient city is built on a steep slope, topped by a plateau almost 180 meters (600 feet) high. This plateau is known as Lion’s Rock as it oversees the jungles below. Access to the site is through staircases and rooms emanating from the lion’s mouth. You’ll also see ponds, gardens and fountains. Pretty cool! Locals consider the site the eighth wonder of the world. This ancient rock fortress dates back to the third century BC when it was a monastery. It was later turned into a royal residence. 2. Galle Galle’s most famous attraction is its 17th century fort built by Dutch colonists. Sitting on a promontory overlooking the Indian ocean, the fort is known for its architectural style. Galle is considered a prime example of a fortified city. The fortress is not just another pretty place, however; today the fort houses courts and businesses. Galle is becoming known as an arts colony and its expat community – about a third of the city’s homes are owned by foreigners. Other top sights include a natural harbor, Sri Lanka’s oldest lighthouse, a maritime museum, a key Shiva temple and the Jesuit built St. Mary’s Cathedral. 3. Kandy

View Blog:

15 Amazing Benefits Of Lemon by M.Yaseen Khan

15 Amazing Benefits Of Lemon The health benefits of lemon include treatment of indigestion, constipation, dental problems, throat infections, fever, internal bleeding, rheumatism, burns, obesity, respiratory disorders, cholera, and high blood pressure, while it also benefits your hair and skin. Known for its therapeutic property since generations, lemons help to strengthen your immune system, cleanse your stomach, and are considered a blood purifier. Lemon juice, especially, has several health benefits associated with it. It is well known as a useful treatment for kidney stones, reducing strokes, and lowering body temperature. As a refreshing drink, lemonade helps you to stay calm and cool. Table of Contents Nutrition Facts of Lemon Health Benefits of Lemon Treats Indigestion Treats Fever Dental Care Hair Care Skin Care Cures Burns Internal Bleeding Promotes Weight Loss Soothens Respiratory Disorders Treats Cholera Relaxes Foot Treats Rheumatism Reduces Corns Throat Infections Controls Blood Pressure Nutrition Facts Of Lemon The health benefits of lemon are due to its many nourishing 

View Blog:

Rice Crop

  Rice Crop Rice is the most important human food crop in the world, directly feeding more people than any other crop. In 2012, nearly half of world’s population – more than 3 billion people – relied on rice every day. It is also the staple food across Asia where around half of the world’s poorest people live and is becoming increasingly important in Africa and Latin America.  Rice has also fed more people over a longer time than has any other crop. It is spectacularly diverse, both in the way it is grown and how it is used by humans. Rice is unique because it can grow in wet environments that other crops cannot survive in. Such wet environments are abundant across Asia. The domestication of rice ranks as one of the most important developments in history and now thousands of rice varieties are cultivated on every continent except Antarctica. Where is rice grown? Rice is produced in a wide range of locations and under a variety of climatic conditions, from the wettest areas in the world to the driest deserts. It is produced along Myanmar’s Arakan Coast, where the growing season records an average of more than 5,100 mm of rainfall, and at Al Hasa Oasis in Saudi Arabia, where annual rainfall is less than 100 mm. Temperatures, too, vary greatly. In the Upper Sind in Pakistan, the rice season averages 33 °C; in Otaru, Japan, the mean temperature for the growing season is 17 °C. The crop is produced at sea level on coastal plains and in delta regions throughout Asia, and to a height of 2,600 m on the slopes of Nepal’s mountains. Rice is also grown under an extremely broad range of solar radiation, ranging from 25% of potential during the main rice season in portions of Myanmar, Thailand, and India’s Assam State to approximately 95% of potential in southern Egypt and Sudan. Rice occupies an extraordinarily high portion of the total planted area in South, Southeast, and East Asia. This area is subject to an alternating wet and dry seasonal cycle and also contains many of the world’s major rivers, each with its own vast delta. Here, enormous areas of flat, low-lying agricultural land are flooded annually during and immediately following the rainy season. Only two major food crops, rice and taro, adapt readily to production under these conditions of saturated soil and high temperatures.   What types of rice are grown? Two rice species are important cereals for human nutrition: Oryza sativa, grown worldwide, and O. glaberrima, grown in parts of West Africa. These two cultigens—species known only by cultivated plants—belong to a genus that includes about 25 other species, although the taxonomy is still a matter of research and debate. Oryza is thought to have originated about 14 million years ago in Malesia.Since then, it has evolved, diversified, and dispersed, and wild Oryza species are now distributed throughout the tropics. Their genomes can be classified into 11 groups labeled AA to LL, and most of the species can be grouped into four complexes of closely related species in two major sections of the genus (Table 1.1). Just two species, both diploids, have no close relatives and are placed in their own sections of the genus: O. australiensis and O. brachyantha.

View Blog:

Pineapple by M.Yaseen Khan

Pineapple For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). Pineapple A pineapple on its parent plant Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Monocots Clade: Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Bromeliaceae Genus: Ananas Species: A. comosus Binomial name Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. Synonyms[1] List[show] The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples,[2][3] and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family.[4] Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit,[2][5] possibly flowering in 5–10 months and fruiting in the following six months.[5][6] Pineapples do not ripen significantly after harvest.[7] Pineapples can be consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, or preserved. They are found in a wide array of cuisines. In addition to consumption, the pineapple leaves are used to produce the textile fiber piña in the Philippines, commonly used as the material for the men's barong Tagalog and women's baro't saya formal wear in the country. The fiber is also used as a component for wallpaper and other furnishings.[8] Etymology Pineapple and its cross-section A young pineapple in flower The word "pineapple" in English was first recorded to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones). When European explorers encountered this tropical fruit in the Americas, they called them "pineapples" (first referenced in 1664, for resemblance to pine cones).[9][10] In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi word nanas, meaning "excellent fruit",[11] as recorded by André Thevet in 1555, and comosus, "tufted", refers to the stem of the fruit. Other members of the Ananas genus are often called pine, as well, in other languages. In Spanish, pineapples are called piña ("pine cone"), or ananá (ananás) (for example, the piña colada drink).[citation needed] Botany Pineapple in the starting stage The pineapple is a herbaceous perennial, which grows to 1.0 to 1.5 m (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall, although sometimes it can be taller. In appearance, the plant has a short, stocky stem with tough, waxy leaves. When creating its fruit, it usually produces up to 200 flowers, although some large-fruited cultivars can exceed this. Once it flowers, the individual fruits of the flowers join together to create what is commonly referred to as a pineapple. After the first fruit is produced, side shoots (called 'suckers' by commercial growers) are produced in the leaf axils of the main stem. These may be removed for propagation, or left to produce additional fruits on the original plant.[5] Commercially, suckers that appear around the base are cultivated. It has 30 or more long, narrow, fleshy, trough-shaped leaves with sharp spines along the margins that are 30 to 100 cm (1.0 to 3.3 ft) long, surrounding a thick stem. In the first year of growth, the axis lengthens and thickens, bearing numerous leaves in close spirals. After 12 to 20 months, the stem grows into a spike-like inflorescence up to 15 cm (6 in) long with over 100 spirally arranged, trimerous flowers, each subtended by a bract. Flower colors vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through light purple to red.[citation needed] The ovaries develop into berries, which coalesce into a large, compact, multiple fruit. The fruit of a pineapple is arranged in two interlocking helices, eight in one direction, 13 in the other, each being a Fibonacci number.[12] The pineapple carries out CAM photosynthesis,[13] fixing carbon dioxide at night and storing it as the acid malate, then releasing it during the day aiding photosynthesis. Pollination In the wild, pineapples are pollinated primarily by hummingbirds.[2][14] Certain wild pineapples are foraged and pollinated at night by bats.[15] Under cultivation, because seed development diminishes fruit quality, pollination is performed by hand, and seeds are retained only for breeding.[2] Specifically in Hawaii, where pineapples were cultivated and canned industrially throughout the 20th

View Blog:

Honey by M.Yaseen Khan

Honey A jar of honey with a honey dipper and an American biscuit Honey in honeycomb Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.[1] Bees produce honey from the sugary secretions of plants (floral nectar) or other insects (aphid honeydew) through regurgitation, enzymatic activity, and water evaporation. Honey is stored in wax structures called honeycombs.[1][2] The variety of honey produced by honey bees (the genus Apis) is the best-known, due to its worldwide commercial production and human consumption.[3] Honey is collected from wild bee colonies, or from hives of domesticated bees, a practice known as beekeeping. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, and has about the same relative sweetness as granulated sugar.[4][5] It has attractive chemical properties for baking and a distinctive flavor when used as a sweetener.[4] Most microorganisms do not grow in honey, so sealed honey does not spoil, even after thousands of years.[6][7] Honey provides 64 calories in a serving of one tablespoon (15 ml) equivalent to 1272 kJ per 100 g.[8] Honey is generally safe,[9] but may have various, potentially adverse effects or interactions upon excessive consumption, existing diseaseconditions, or use of prescription drugs.[10] Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity, depicted in Valencia, Spain, by a cave painting of humans foraging for honey at least 8,000 years ago.[11][12] Formation[edit] A honey bee on calyx of goldenrod Honey is produced by bees collecting nectar for use as sugars consumed to support metabolism of muscle activity during foraging or to be stored as a long-term food supply.[13][14] During foraging, bees access part of the nectar collected to support metabolic activity of flight muscles, with the majority of collected nectar destined for regurgitation, digestion, and storage as honey.[13][15] In cold weather or when other food sources are scarce, adult and larval bees use stored honey as food.[14] By contriving for bee swarms to nest in human-made hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey. In the hive or in a wild nest, the three types of bees are: a single female queen bee a seasonally variable number of male drone bees to fertilize new queens 20,000 to 40,000 female worker bees[16] Sealed frame of honey Leaving the hive, foraging bees collect sugar-rich flower nectar and return to the hive where they use their "honey stomachs" to ingest and regurgitate the nectar repeatedly until it is partially digested.[13][15][17] Bee digestive enzymes – invertase, amylase, and diastase – along with gastric acid hydrolyze sucrose to a mixture of glucose and fructose.[13][15] The bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes until the product reaches storage quality.[15] It is then placed in honeycomb cells left unsealed while still high in water content (about 20%) and natural yeasts, which, unchecked, would cause the sugars in the newly formed honey to ferment.[14] The process continues as hive bees flutter their wings constantly to circulate air and evaporate water from the honey to a content around 18%, raising the sugar concentration, and preventing fermentation.[14][15] The bees then cap the cells with wax to seal them.[15]As removed from the hive by a beekeeper, honey has a long shelf life and will not ferment if properly sealed.[14] Another source of honey is from a number of wasp species, such as the wasps Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica, which are found in South and Central America. These species are known to feed on nectar and produce honey.[18] Some wasps, such as the Polistes versicolor, even consume honey themselves, switching from feeding on pollen in the middle of their lifecycles to feeding on honey, which can better provide for their energy needs.[19] Production Collection

View Blog:

Volcanoes by M.Yaseen Khan

Volcanoes What is a volcano? A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can cause lateral blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods. Volcano eruptions have been known to knock down entire forests. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flash floods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls. How are volcanoes formed? Volcanoes are formed when magma from within the Earth's upper mantle works its way to the surface. At the surface, it erupts to form lava flows and ash deposits. Over time as the volcano continues to erupt, it will get bigger and bigger. What are the different stages of volcanoes?  Scientists have categorized volcanoes into three main categories: active, dormant, and extinct. An active volcano is one which has recently erupted and there is a possibility that it may erupt soon. A dormant volcano is one which has not erupted in a long time but there is a possibility it can erupt in the future. An extinct volcano is one which has erupted thousands of years ago and there’s no possibility of eruption. Why do volcanoes erupt? The Earth's crust is made up of huge slabs called plates, which fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. These plates sometimes move. The friction causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions near the edges of the plates. The theory that explains this process is called plate tectonics. What are plate tectonics? The theory of plate tectonics is a interesting story of continents drifting from place to place breaking apart, colliding, and grinding against each other. The plate tectonic theory is supported by a wide range of evidence that considers the earth's crust and upper mantle to be composed of several large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another. The plates are all moving in different directions and at different speeds. Sometimes the plates crash together, pull apart or sideswipe each other. When this happens, it commonly results in earthquakes.  Continental Drift: To see this animation again, just refresh this page!This animation shows you what our planet looked like millions of years ago and what it looks like now! (Graphic Credit: Geology Department at University of California, Berkeley) How many volcanoes are there? There are more than 1500 active volcanoes on the Earth. We currently know of 80 or more which are under the oceans. Active volcanoes in the U.S. are found mainly in Hawaii, Alaska, California, Oregon and Washington.   What are the different types of volcanoes? Volcanoes are grouped into four types: cinder cones, composite volcanoes, shield volcanoes and lava volcanoes. Cinder Cones Cinder cones are circular or oval cones made up of small fragments of lava from a single vent that have been blown into the air, cooled and fallen around the vent. Composite Volcanoes

View Blog:

Most Popular Ayutthaya Attractions

Most Popular Ayutthaya Attractions As the former capital of the Thai Kingdom, Ayutthaya was an impressive site, with three palaces and more than 400 temples. Home to over a million people, the island city was one of Asia’s major trading ports and international merchants visiting from around the globe were left in awe. In 1767, the Burmese attacked and conquered Ayutthaya. The majority of the once magnificent reliquary towers, monasteries, temples and palaces were destroyed during this invasion. However, several structures have been restored and tourists are welcome to visit these wonderful Ayutthaya attractions. 1. Wat Phra Mahathat Wat Mahathat (Temple of the Great Relics) is located almost right in the center of Ayutthaya. Apart from being the symbolic center where the Buddha’s relics were enshrined, Wat Mahathat was also the residence of the Supreme Patriarch or leader of the Thai Buddhist monks. At the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767, the large temple was quite thoroughly ransacked by the Burmese. Still, it is one of the most popular attractions in Ayutthaya due to the famous tree that has grown around a Buddha head. 2. Wat Chaiwatthanaram Wat Chaiwatthanaram lies on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, just outside the old city of Ayutthaya. The Khmer-style temple was constructed in 1630 by King Prasat Thong to honor his mother. Situated atop a rectangular platform, a 35-meter (115-foot) high central prang (tower-like spire) is surrounded by four small prangs, which are in turn flanked by eight chedi (stupa)-shaped chapels that sit outside the platform perimeter. Buddha statues once populated the chedis and the outer walls of the temple, painted vividly in gold and black, but fragments are all that remain of these decorative elements.

View Blog:

Best  Trips in Thailand

  Best  Trips in Thailand 1. Day Trip from Bangkok to Ayutthaya with River Cruise The city of Bangkok is a dazzling example of Thai hospitality and history. To expand on that adventure, be sure to spend some time on the Chao Phraya River, which runs through Bangkok and is a tremendous part of the local culture. Combined with a visit to the Ayutthaya Temples, this is an unforgettable day trip that ticks all the boxes. The day begins in Bangkok, where you’ll begin the one-hour drive north to Ayutthaya. For 400 years, Ayutthaya was the capital of Siam, and it boasts an incredibly rich heritage for the Thai people and its culture. Once you arrive, you’ll be treated to a guided tour of the area’s most significant temples. Wander through the ancient ruins of the Royal Palace to see Wat Phra Si Sanphet, the largest of the temples, and marvel at the row of chedis, or stupas, that still remain. In Wat Phanan Choeng, you’ll get up close to a seated Buddha statue with incredible significance to the Thai people. Beyond the temples, you’ll even have the opportunity to admire the summer palace of King Rama IV, which boasts an unusual blend of architectural styles and designs. After a delicious lunch in Ayutthaya, you’ll begin the return journey to Bangkok. However, this route is enjoyed on a river boat along the Chao Phraya. This is a truly fantastic way to see many of the most famous temples on the banks of the river, and you’ll be treated to phenomenal views as you get closer to Bangkok. The tour concludes with a personal drop-off at your hotel in the Thai capital.   2. Phang Nga Bay Canoe Cave Tour from Phuket The island of Phuket in Thailand is a true treasure, and a destination packed with stunning beaches, incredible cuisine and nonstop opportunities for recreation. One of the most exciting ways to explore the island is with a canoe cave tour in and around Phang Nga Bay. Your day begins with a pickup from any of the major hotels in Phuket. This makes it extra convenient to sightsee without a hassle. You’ll head to Phang Nga Bay, located at the southernmost tip of Phuket. Phang Nga Bay is incredibly famous, and you may recognize it from its many roles in books, films

View Blog:

Minar e Pakistan by M.Yaseen Khan

Minar e Pakistan Lahore J  Minar e Pakistan is one of the most important national monuments of Pakistan. Minar e Pakistan is a tall minaret in Iqbal Park Lahore. It’s next to

View Blog:

Sparrow by M.Yaseen Khan

Sparrow Sparrow A male house sparrow Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Passeriformes Suborder: Passeri Infraorder: Passerida Superfamily: Passeroidea Family: Passeridae Rafinesque, 1815 Genera Passer Petronia Carpospiza Hypocryptadius Montifringilla Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds. They are also known as true sparrows, or Old Worldsparrows, names also used for a particular genus of the family, Passer.[1] They are distinct from both the American sparrows, in the family Passerellidae, and from a few other birds sharing their name, such as the Java sparrow of the family Estrildidae. Many species nest on buildings and the house and Eurasian tree sparrows, in particular, inhabit cities in large numbers, so sparrows are among the most familiar of all wild birds. They are primarily seed-eaters, though they also consume small insects. Some species scavenge for food around cities and, like gulls or rock doves will happily eat virtually anything in small quantities.   Contents    1Description 2Taxonomy and systematics 2.1Species 3Distribution and habitat 4Behaviour and ecology 5Relationships with humans 6References 7External links   Description Male house sparrow in Germany Yellow-throated sparrow at Keoladeo National Park, India Generally, sparrows are small, plump, brown and grey birds with short tails and stubby, powerful beaks. The differences between sparrow species can be subtle. Members of this family range in size from the chestnut sparrow (Passer eminibey), at 11.4 centimetres (4.5 in) and 13.4 grams (0.47 oz), to the parrot-billed sparrow (Passer gongonensis), at 18 centimetres (7.1 in) and 42 grams (1.5 oz). Sparrows are physically similar to other seed-eating birds, such as finches, but have a vestigial dorsal outer primary feather and an extra bone in the tongue.[2][3] This bone, the preglossale, helps stiffen the tongue when holding seeds. Other adaptations towards eating seeds are specialised bills and elongated and specialised alimentary canals.[4] Taxonomy and systematics

View Blog:

Domestic pigeon

Domestic pigeon   Domestic rock pigeon Red Sheffield domestic homing pigeon Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae Genus: Columba Species: C. livia Subspecies: C. l. domestica Trinomial name Columba livia domestica Gmelin, 1789[1] Synonyms Columba domestica Columba livia rustica The domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is a pigeon that was derived from the rock pigeon. The rock pigeon is the world's oldest domesticated bird. Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets mention the domestication of pigeons more than 5,000 years ago, as do Egyptian hieroglyphics.[2] Research suggests that domestication of pigeons occurred as early as 10,000 years ago.[2] Pigeons have made contributions of considerable importance to humanity, especially in times of war.[3] In war the homing ability of pigeons has been put to use by making them messengers. So-called war pigeonshave carried many vital messages and some have been decorated for their services. Medals such as the Croix de guerre, awarded to Cher Ami, and the Dickin Medal awarded to the pigeons G.I. Joe and Paddy, amongst 32 others, have been awarded to pigeons for their services in saving human lives.   Contents   [hide]  1Reproduction 2Homing pigeons 3Other purposes of pigeon breeding 3.1For food 3.2Exhibition breeds 3.3Flying/Sporting 4Experimentation 4.1Cognitive science 5Illegal predator killing by enthusiasts 6Pigeon related illness 7Feral pigeons 8See also

View Blog:

The 10 Most Beautiful Roads In Pakistan

The 10 Most Beautiful Roads In Pakistan 1. Karakoram Highway     When it comes to roads and highways, nothing can beat the unique beauty of KKH. Known as the 8th wonder of the world, Karakoram Highway is terrifyingly beautiful. 2. Leepa Valley, Azad Kashmir The road leading to Leepa Valley is splendid for thrill-seekers and adventurers. 3. Pir Sohawa Road, Margalla Hills reddit  Imagine monsoon season, autumn and light rainfall.

View Blog:

Four Astonishingly Beautiful Roads in Pakistan

Four Astonishingly Beautiful Roads in Pakistan It is often said that road trips are a good way to explore the beauty of any place. Have you ever wondered why? Amongst many probable reasons, one might be because these trips offer jaw dropping views to the travelers which otherwise would not be possible to be viewed  if one is traveling via train or airplane. If one is planning for a road trip in Pakistan, there are several roads that promise to be a peaceful yet an amazing companion. Jovago Pakistan has compiled a list of roads in Pakistan which are astonishingly beautiful. Here are a few for your reference:   1. Shigar Road

View Blog:

Best Benefits Of Pomegranate Juice (Anar Ka Ras)

Best Benefits Of Pomegranate Juice (Anar Ka Ras)  How many of you love to pick these glorious red fruits, pomegranates known for their amazing medicinal powers? Pomegranate is a thick skinned super seedy fruit, with a brilliant red hue which is now touted as a wonder fruit by scientific researchers. The name pomegranate derives from the French word “pomegranate” or seeded apple. They are believed to have originated in Iran and brought to Egypt in 1600 BC, where it was not only revered as an important food source but was also widely used for its medicinal value. It was held in high esteem even during those times, as it is evident by their depiction in Egyptian paintings and tombs. Inspired by the abundance of jewel toned seeds within the bright red rind, pomegranate is considered to be a symbol of fertility and prosperity in some cultures. megranate Juice – A Superfood For Good Skin, Hair And Health: Drinking pomegranate juice benefits our health and skin in a myriad of ways. It is one of the few fruits whose juice is as beneficial as the fruit itself.  This is because the peel contains the maximum amount of antioxidants which are released in abundance when the fruit is squeezed while juicing. It is currently ranked alongside blue berries and green tea for its nutritional benefits. Some people might find it a bit cumbersome to deal with the little seeds, which is why, extracting its juice is the best way to utilize the benefits of pomegranate juice. Drinking it allows for a quick and easy assimilation of all the nutrients found in the bloodstream by the body. In comparison to other fruits, pomegranates contain the maximum amount of anti-oxidants. It contains approximately 3 times more antioxidants than green tea and oranges. Freshly squeezed pomegranate juice, being completely unprocessed, triumphs over packaged juice any day, as it retains the maximum number of vitamins. Make sure that the juice is unsweetened as sugar being inflammatory can counteract some of the health benefits of this fruit. Watch a Health Benefits Videos from our YouTube Channel – StyleCrazeTv 10 Amazing Health Benefits Of Pomegranates Nutritional Value Of Pomegranate: Pomegranate is a great source of ellagic acid, and antioxidant and punicic acid, an omega 5 polyunsaturated fatty acid which is highly beneficial for cell regeneration and proliferation. The juice of this fruit is an exceptional source of vitamin A, C and E and minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, potassium, iron, folic acid, niacin, thiamin, folates and riboflavin. Save Click here to view an enlarged version of this infographic. Health Benefits of Pomegranate Juice: Pomegranate has been used for medicinal purposes in the middle and Far East regions for over thousands of years. It was used as a tonic to heal ailments like ulcers and diarrhea. The juice of pomegranate contains antioxidants like anthocyanin and ellagic acid, compounds like gallic acids, and flavonoids like quercetin which offer protection from diabetes, heart diseases, osteoarthritis and several kinds of cancer. 1. Pomegranate Juice Improves Your Heart Health: Pomegranate juice can have a great impact on health, particularly on the health of the heart, by keeping the arteries flexible and decreasing the inflammation in the lining of the blood vessels. It is known to reduce atherosclerosis, which is one of the leading causes of heart disease. It lowers the risk of blockage in the arteries which can cause a restriction in the flow of blood to the heart and brain. In other words it has an anti-atherogenic effect on the heart (1).  It lowers the amount of LDL or bad cholesterol that is retained in the body and increases the amount of good cholesterol or HDL (2). 2. Pomegranate Juice Maintains Your Blood Sugar Levels: Although pomegranate juice contains fructose, it does not elevate the blood sugar levels as other fruit juices do. Studies have shown that there was no significant increase in the blood sugar level of diabetic patients who drank this juice daily for a period of 2 weeks (3). 3. Pomegranate Juice Maintains Your Blood Pressure: Pomegranates are also known to reduce high blood pressure (4). The juice reduces lesions and the inflammation of blood vessels in heart patients. It is a natural aspirin, which keeps the blood from coagulating and forming blood clots. It even acts as a blood thinner allowing for an unrestricted flow of blood through the body.   4. Pomegranate Juice Reduces Risk Of Cancer: Pomegranate juice eliminates free radicals from the body and inhibits the growth and development of cancer and other diseases. Its high contents of anti- oxidants stimulate the white blood cells to neutralize toxins in the body thereby promoting a strong and healthy immune system. Pomegranate is believed to induce apoptosis, a process where the cells destroy themselves. Daily intake of a glass of pomegranate juice can slow down the growth of cancerous cells in prostate cancer (5). Moreover it appears to block aromatase, an enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen, a hormone which plays a crucial role in the development of breast cancer (6). 5. Pomegranate Juice Helps In Treating Diarrhoea And Dysentery: Pomegranate juice is used in the treatment of diarrhoea (7) and dysentery as it plays a vital role in the secretion of enzymes which aids proper digestion. Mixing 1 teaspoon of honey in a glass of pomegranate juice is sure to cure indigestion problems. 6. Pomegranate Juice Boosts Your Immunity: Pomegranate juice has strong anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties which help fight viruses and bacteria and boost our immunity system (8). It significantly reduces microbes that are found in the mouth commonly responsible for cavities and staph infections. Its anti-microbial properties make it an inhibitor of HIV transmission. Out of all the fruits, pomegranate has the highest potential to inhibit the transmission of HIV. 7. Pomegranate Juice Prevents Anaemia: Anaemia is a condition caused by the deficiency of red blood cells in the body. Since pomegranate juice contains ample amount of iron it helps in surmounting the red blood cell deficiency in the body (

View Blog:

Leap year by M.Yaseen Khan

Leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year containing one additional day (or, in the case of lunisolar calendars, a month) added to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year.[1] Because seasons and astronomical events do not repeat in a whole number of days, calendars that have the same number of days in each year drift over time with respect to the event that the year is supposed to track. By inserting (also called intercalating) an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year that is not a leap year is called a common year. For example, in the Gregorian calendar, each leap year has 366 days instead of the usual 365, by extending February to 29 days rather than the common 28. These extra days occur in years which are multiples of four (with the exception of years divisible by 100 but not by 400). Similarly, in the lunisolar Hebrew calendar, Adar Aleph, a 13th lunar month, is added seven times every 19 years to the twelve lunar months in its common years to keep its calendar year from drifting through the seasons. In the Baha'i Calendar, a leap day is added when needed to ensure that the following year begins on the vernal equinox. The name "leap year" probably comes from the fact that while a fixed date in the Gregorian calendar normally advances one day of the week from one year to the next, the day of the week in the 12 months following the leap day (from March 1 through February 28 of the following year) will advance two days due to the extra day (thus "leaping over" one of the days in the week).[2][3] For example, Christmas Day (December 25) fell on a Tuesday in 2001, Wednesday in 2002, and Thursday in 2003 but then "leapt" over Friday to fall on a Saturday in 2004. The length of a day is also occasionally changed by the insertion of leap seconds into Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), owing to the variability of Earth's rotational period. Unlike leap days, leap seconds are not introduced on a regular schedule, since the variability in the length of the day is not entirely predictable. Gregorian calendar An image showing which century years are leap years in the Gregorian calendar. In the Gregorian calendar, the standard calendar in most of the world, most years that are multiples of 4 are leap years. In each leap year, the month of February has 29 days instead of 28. Adding one extra day in the calendar every four years compensates for the fact that a period of 365 days is shorter than a tropical year by almost 6 hours.[4] Some exceptions to this basic rule are required since the duration of a tropical year is slightly less than 365.25 days. The Gregorian reform modified the Julian calendar's scheme of leap years as follows: Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 were not leap years, but the years 1600 and 2000 were.[5] Over a period of four centuries, the accumulated error of adding a leap day every four years amounts to about three extra days. The Gregorian calendar therefore removes three leap days every 400 years, which is the length of its leap cycle. This is done by removing February 29 in the three century years (multiples of 100) that cannot be exactly divided by 400.[6][7] The years 1600, 2000 and 2400 are leap years, while 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200 and 2300 are common years. By this rule, the average number of days per year is 365 + ​1⁄4 − ​1⁄100 + ​1⁄400 = 365.2425.[8] The rule can be applied to years before the Gregorian reform (the proleptic Gregorian calendar), if astronomical year numbering is used.[9] This graph shows the variations in date and time of the June Solstice due to unequally spaced "leap day" rules. Contrast this with the Iranian Solar Hijri calendar, which generally has 8 leap year days every 33 years. The Gregorian calendar was designed to keep the vernal equinox on or close to March 21, so that the date of Easter (celebrated on the Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that falls on or after March 21) remains close to the vernal equinox.[10][11] The "Accuracy" section of the "Gregorian calendar" article discusses how well the Gregorian calendar achieves this design goal, and how well it approximates the tropical year. Algorithm The following pseudocode determines whether a year is a leap year or a common year in the Gregorian calendar (and in the proleptic Gregorian calendar before 1582). The year variable being tested is the integer representing the number of the year in the Gregorian calendar, and the tests are arranged to dispatch the most common cases first. Care should be taken in translating mathematical integer divisibility into specific programming languages. if (year is not divisible by 4) then (it is a common year) else if (year is not divisible by 100) then (it is a leap year) else if (year is not divisible by 400) then (it is a common year) else (it is a leap year) Leap day A Swedish pocket calendar from 2008 showing February 29

View Blog:

10 Little-Known Interesting Facts About Cranes (Bi

View Blog:

Raja Dahir

Raja Dahir Raja Dahir Maharaja of Sindh 3rd and last Maharaja of Sindh Predecessor Chandar Successor Kingdom abolished (annexed by the Umayyad Caliphate) Born 663 AD Alor, Sindh (present-day Rohri, Sindh, Pakistan) Died 712 AD (aged 49) Indus River, Raor, Sindh (near present-day Nawabshah, Sindh,Pakistan) Issue Surya Devi Premala Devi Jodha Devi Full name Raja Dahar Sen House Brahmin Dynasty Father Chach Mother Rani Suhanadi (Former wife of Rai Sahasi) Religion Hinduism Monism Raja Dahar (Sindhi: راجا ڏاھر‎; Sanskrit: राजा दाहिर, IAST: Rājā Dāhir; 663 – 712 CE) was the last Hindu ruler of Sindh. He presided over the Pushkarna Brahmin Dynasty of Sindh region of the Indian subcontinent, which included territories that now constitute parts of the modern-day states of Afghanistan, the Balochistan region of Pakistan, and parts of Punjab region of India and Pakistan. In 711 CE, his kingdom was conquered by Muhammad bin Qasim, an Arab general, for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was killed at the Battle of Aror at the banks of the Indus River, near modern-day Nawabshah.   Contents   [hide]  1Reign in the Chach Nama 2War with the Umayyads 3Three women from Chachnama 4See also 5Footnotes 6Sources    Reign in the Chach Nama The Chach Nama is the oldest chronicles of the Arab conquest of Sindh. It was translated in Persian by an Arab Muhammad Ali bin Hamid bin Abu Bakr Kufi in 1216 CE[1] from an earlier Arabic text believed to have been written by the Thaqafi family (relatives of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi). Dahir's kingdom was invaded by King Ramal of Kannauj. According to legend Raja Dahir granted refuge to a disloyal Muslim betrayer Muhammad Haris Allafi, who killed the Muslim governor of Makran. He also fought for Dahir during attack over Sindh by ruler of Kannauj in 687 CE.[2] Following the footsteps of his father Chandar of Sindh who dispatched an army against the Umayyads referred to as Hussaini Brahmins to the Battle of Karbala to protect Husayn ibn Ali, Dahir allied himself with Ali ibn al-Husayn the chief of the Aliids and Bani Hashim, referred to as the Alawi in Arabic and Alafi in Sindhi. According to legends, the Alafi warriors (who were exiled from the Umayyad caliph) were recruited; they led Dahir's armies in repelling the invading forces, remaining as valued members of Dahir's court. In a later war with the caliphate, however, Alafi served as a military adviser but refused to take an active part in the campaign; as a result, he later obtained a pardon from the caliph. G. M. Syed writes in his Sindhi language book "Sindhu Ji Saanjah" that Raja Dahir refused the Umayyad demand for handing over of Muhammad Bin Allafi,

View Blog:

Beauty in Nature by M.Yaseen Khan

Beauty in Nature   “I declare this world is so beautiful that I can hardly believe it exists.”  The beauty of nature can have a profound effect upon our senses, those gateways from the outer world to the inner, whether it results in disbelief in its very existence as Emerson notes, or feelings such as awe, wonder, or amazement.  But what is it about nature and the entities that make it up that cause us, oftentimes unwillingly, to feel or declare that they are beautiful? One answer that Emerson offers is that “the simple perception of natural forms is a delight.”  When we think of beauty in nature, we might most immediately think of things that dazzle the senses – the prominence of a mountain, the expanse of the sea, the unfolding of the life of a flower.  Often it is merely the perception of these things itself which gives us pleasure, and this emotional or affective response on our part seems to be crucial to our experience of beauty.  So in a way there is a correlate here to the intrinsic value of nature; Emerson says: the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves Most often, it seems to me, we find these things to be beautiful not because of something else they might bring us – a piece of furniture, say, or a ‘delicacy’ to be consumed – but because of the way that the forms of these things immediately strike us upon observation. In fact, one might even think that this experience of beauty is one of the bases for valuing nature – nature is valuable because it is beautiful. Emerson seems to think that beauty in the natural world is not limited to certain parts of nature to the exclusion of others. He

View Blog:

Hamun Lake

Hamun Lake Hāmūn-e Helmand Hāmūn-e Helmand Location southeast Iran Coordinates 30°50′N 61°40′E Primary inflows Helmand River Basin countries Afghanistan / Iran   Surface area ~ 2,000–4,000 km2 (770–1,540 sq mi) depending on a Helmand river flood[1] (including Hāmūn-e Sabariand Hāmūn-e Puzak) Lake Hāmūn (Persian: دریاچه هامون‎ Daryācheh-ye Hāmūn) or Hamoun Oasis (Persian: دریاچه هامون‎) is a term applied to wetlands in endorheic Sīstān Basin on the Irano-Afghan border in the Sistan region. In Iran, it is also known as Hāmūn-e Helmand, Hāmūn-e Hīrmand, or Daryācheh-ye Sīstān (“Lake Sīstān”).[2] Hāmūn is generic term which refers to shallow lakes (or lagoons), usually seasonal, that occur in deserts of southeast Iran and adjacent areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan as product of snowmelt in nearby mountains in spring. The term Hāmūn Lake (or Lake Hāmūn) is equally applied to Hāmūn-e Helmand[2] (entirely in Iran), as well to shallow lakes Hāmūn-e Sabari and Hāmūn-e Puzak, which extend into territory of present-day Afghanistan with latter being almost entirely inside Afghanistan. The Hamun is fed by numerous seasonal water tributaries; the main tributary is the perennialHelmand River, which originates in Afghanistan Hindu Kush mountains. In modern times, and prior to the existence of the dams for agricultural irrigation, spring floods would bring into existence much larger lakes. Geography A A G G

View Blog:

Skardu Fort

Skardu Fort Skardu Fort قلعہ سکردو‬ A view of fort from the foot of Mont Kharpocho Location Skardu, Gilgit-Baltistan Built 16th Century CE Location of Skardu Fort قلعہ سکردو‬ in Gilgit Baltistan Show map of Gilgit BaltistanShow map of PakistanShow all General view of Skardu Fort in 1850 Skardu Fort or Kharpocho (Balti: 

View Blog:

Most Beautiful Places in China by M.Yaseen Khan

Most Beautiful Places in China China's vast and diverse territory endows the country with some of the most beautiful natural scenery on earth. From the picturesque karst landscape in Guilin and Yanshuo to the precipitous pillars in Zhangjiajie, from the colorful lakes in Jiuzhaigou to the Rainbow Mountains in Zhangye, China's diverse natural beauty is as impressive as its splendid culture. 1. Zhangye's Danxia Landscape — Rainbow Mountains The Danxia landscape in Zhangye is vividly named "Rainbow Mountains" by many due to its dazzlingly colors. Danxia (丹霞 /dan-sshya/) means 'red, red clouds'. In China's remote northwest, Zhangye is ignored by ordinary travelers, but deeply loved by photographers. The landscape is composed of curvy, layered, multihued formations, most of which are several hundred meters high. When the sun shines on them, their colors appear in full vibrancy. It looks like an oil painting when the vast red rock formations are simply set against a pure blue sky. Also read The 7 Most Spectacular Landscapes in China for Photographers. 2. The Yellow Mountains — Sunrises and Seas of Cloud An image of a twisting pine tree growing from a curiously-curved rock pops into Chinese minds when they hear of the Yellow Mountains. These mystical and mist-ical mountains are the most beautiful and most famous in China. Their classic attractions are grand dawns and their "four natural wonders": peculiar pines, oddly-shaped rocks, seas of clouds, and hot springs. Also read Photography Tips for the Yellow Mountains. Recommended tour: 3-Day Essence of Huangshan Tour. 3. Hong Village — Nine Centuries Quaint Hongcun is a picturesque village with beautiful watery scenes round its lotus ponds and bridges, as well as charmingly crafted architecture. Villagers have diverted water into "house gardens" and "water yards", which exist only in this village. The village, in its breathing-taking setting, looks like a Chinese painting. The village attracts many Chinese art students to practice their skills. Hongcun was a setting for "the best Chinese film of all time" — Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Also read 

View Blog:

Top Attractions in China

Top Attractions in China With a vast territory and a long history, China offers so much to see and explore. China Highlights has listed for you the top 10 attractions or  1. The Great Wall of China in Beijing — Ten-Thousand-Li-Long Wall In the eyes of most travelers, you haven't been to China if you haven't climbed the Great Wall. One of the iconic symbols of China, the Great Wall is the longest wall in the world, an awe-inspiring feat of ancient defensive architecture. Its winding path over rugged country and steep mountains takes in some great scenery. It deserves its place among "the New Seven Wonders of the World" and the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in China. The wall spans from China's western frontier to the east coast, totaling around 5,000 km (3,100 miles), but the most integrated and best preserved sections are close to Beijing. So this is what people usually mean when mentioning the Great Wall of China.  The Terracotta Army in Xi'an — Emperor Qin's Buried Battalions The Terracotta Army has laid underground for more than 2,000 years. However, in 1974, farmers digging a well uncovered one of the greatest archaeological sites in the world. In 1987 it became World Cultural Heritage. It is significant because the hundreds of detailed life-size models represent the army that triumphed over all other Chinese armies in the Warring States Period (475–221 BC), and who were the decisive factor in forming a united China. It raises interesting questions about why it was made, which await your consideration when you come face-to-face with soldiers of the past. . The Forbidden City in Beijing — Imperial Palace for 24 Emperors It was once a "palace city" where ordinary people were forbidden entry. An extravagant demonstration of ancient Chinese architecture, over 8,000 rooms with golden roofs are elegantly designed and painted in red and yellow. The Forbidden City was the imperial palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties for 560 years till 1911. 24 emperors lived there. World Cultural Heritage, and now known as ‘the Palace Museum' among Chinese, it is a treasure house of Chinese cultural and historical relics. It is recognized as one of the five most important palaces in the world (with the Palace of Versailles in France, Buckingham Palace in the UK, the White House in the US, and the Kremlin in Russia).

View Blog:

The 8 Healthy Foods You Should Eat Every Day

The 8 Healthy Foods You Should Eat Every Day These nutritious foods are packed with antioxidants, protein, and omega-3s that can be added to your diet for better sex, a clearer head, and a longer life Eat This, Not That! Topics:  Healthy Eating, superfoods, fall foods           Foods to Eat Every Day 1 OF 9 ALL PHOTOS Ever have one of those stressful days where your skin breaks out, you feel bloated, or you’d rather watch a marathon of Gilmore Girls on Netflix than have sex? It’s easy to blame it all on life’s pressures. But in fact, you may be eating the wrong foods. At Eat This, Not That!, we’ve discovered the 8 key eats that lead to better sex, a clearer head and a longer life. Bonus: They’re all amazingly delicious. And we’ve provided a long list of substitutes, so even picky eaters can get better right now. PHOTO: ISTOCK Blueberries 2 OF 9 ALL PHOTOS Host to more antioxidants than any other North American fruit, blueberries can help prevent cancer, diabetes, and age-related memory changes (hence the nickname “brain berry”). Studies show that blueberries, which are rich in fiber and vitamins A and C, also boost cardiovascular health. Aim for 1 cup fresh blueberries a day, or 1/2 cup frozen or dried. An easy way to get it in as you start your day is our amazing blueberry smoothie! Substitutes: Acai berries, purple grapes, prunes, raisins, strawberries Get your fix: Blueberries maintain most of their power in dried, frozen, or jam form. Whip this up: Acai, an Amazonian berry, has even more antioxidants than the blueberry. Try acai juice from Sambazon or add 2 tablespoons acai pulp to cereal, yogurt, or a smoothie.

View Blog:

11 Essential Nutrients Your Body Needs

11 Essential Nutrients Your Body Needs    With so much information circulating out there about nutrition, it can be challenging to make sure you’re getting the nutrients you need each day. In fact, with some sources listing as many as 90 essential nutrients, following a balanced diet can quickly become overwhelming. However, getting all the nutrients you need doesn’t have to be complicated. In fact, by just being mindful about a few specific nutrients, eating a healthy diet full of nutrient-dense foods can be pretty simple. Breaking it down into essential versus nonessential nutrients can help simplify and streamline your diet, making it easier than ever to achieve better health. But what are those nutrients, and what do nutrients do, anyway? Let’s take a look at the 11 essential nutrients your body needs, why and how to obtain them. What Are Nutrients? According to the dictionary, the official nutrients definition is “a substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.” This encompasses the broad spectrum of micronutrients, fatty acids, amino acids and other substances that your body needs to function, survive and thrive. Most of these are obtained through the things you eat, drink or supplement in your diet. However, this nutrients definition doesn’t differentiate between essential and nonessential nutrients. While there are thousands of specific nutrients, each with its own unique benefits and functions, there are a few specific nutrients that you should be especially mindful about incorporating into your day. The 11 Essential Nutrients Your Body Needs 1. Carbohydrates Despite being demonized as “unhealthy” or “fattening,” carbohydrates are critical to the function of your body. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is the primary source of fuel for your body and brain. Not only do they provide energy for the body, but they also help stabilize blood sugar levels and preserve muscle mass by preventing the breakdown of proteins for energy. Plus, some of the world’s healthiest foods fall into the category of carbohydrates. Fruits and vegetables, for instance, are incredibly nutrient-dense and loaded with important vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Even on a low-carb or ketogenic diet, you’re still taking in a few grams of carbohydrates here and there, making carbohydrates an important part of any diet. Complex carbohydrates take longer to break down, which can help you feel fuller for longer and keep blood sugar levels regular. Whole grains, fruits and vegetables are a few examples of healthy complex carbohydrates that can fuel your body and supply you with a megadose of nutrients. 2. Protein It’s no secret that protein is critical to good health. From forming muscle to creating new enzymes and hormones, getting enough protein in your diet is key. Proteins are made up of building blocks called amino acids, which are composed of even smaller units called peptides. There are 20 types of amino acids, all of which are important. However, nine of these are considered essential amino acids because they can’t be produced by your body. The nine essential amino acids include: Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine While animal proteins provide adequate amounts of all essential amino acids, plant-based proteins are typically lacking in one or more. The best way to ensure adequate protein intake is to include a variety of protein foods in your diet, such as meat, eggs, dairy, nuts and beans. 3. Fat Much like carbohydrates, dietary fat has earned an undeservedly bad reputation because of its association with body fat. Fat is an essential nutrient that provides energy, boosts the absorption of certain vitamins and helps protect your organs from damage. Some types of fat are better than others, however. Trans fats, for example, are a type of fat found in processed foods, baked goods and shortening. This type of fat has been shown to significantly increase the risk of heart disease and should be avoided at all costs. (1) Unsaturated fats, on the other hand, can actually help protect the heart and aid in the prevention of heart disease. (2) Healthy sources of fat include nuts, avocados, salmon, olive oil, flaxseed and nut butters. Including a few servings of these foods per day can help provide the fats your body needs and protect against disease. 4. Water The human body can survive for long periods of time without food. In fact, there have been case studies reporting on some extreme cases of people who have successfully gone without eating for 382 days under medical supervision with no negative side effects. (3) Of course, I’d never recommend such extreme fasting — I simply point

View Blog:

7-Day Heart-Healthy Meal Plan: 1,200 Calories

7-Day Heart-Healthy Meal Plan: 1,200 Calories     Help keep your heart in tip-top shape with this delicious heart healthy meal plan. It has long been understood that a healthy diet and lifestyle are the best weapons to protect against heart disease. Research shows that eating healthfully, exercising more, maintaining a healthy weight and not smoking can help reduce heart disease-related deaths by 50 percent. Adopting heart-healthy eating habits just got easier with the help of this delicious 7-day, 1,200-calorie meal plan. The meals and snacks in this plan incorporate heart-healthy foods: fiber-rich fruits, vegetables and whole grains, lean protein and heart-healthy fats like olive oil and avocado. Dishes are seasoned with just a little salt and lots of herbs and spices, to keep things flavorful without adding too much sodium. We made sure that each day is within the recommended limits established by the American Heart Association for sodium, saturated fat and added sugars—nutrients to limit in a heart-healthy diet. Reducing your risk of heart disease is about more than just your diet. Talk to your doctor about adding in an exercise program and other healthy lifestyle factors (think, not smoking or decreasing daily stress). Not sure if this is the plan for you? We offer a variety of meal plans for different health conditions, needs and diets. See all of our healthy meal plans here!   Day 1 Pictured Recipe: Seared Salmon with Green Peppercorn Sauce Breakfast (266 calories) Egg Toast • 1 slice whole-wheat bread, toasted • 1 large egg, cooked in 1/4 tsp. olive oil or coat pan with a thin layer of cooking spray (1-second spray). Season with a pinch each of salt and pepper. • 2 Tbsp. salsa Top toast with egg and salsa. • 1 medium banana A.M. Snack (63 calories) • 3/4 cup blueberries Lunch (319 calories) Chickpea & Veggie Salad • 2 cups mixed greens • 3/4 cup veggies of your choice (try cucumbers and tomatoes) • 2/3 cup chickpeas, rinsed • 1 Tbsp. almonds, chopped Combine ingredients and top salad with 1 Tbsp. red-wine vinegar, 2 tsp. olive oil and freshly ground pepper. P.M. Snack (62 calories) • 1 medium orange Dinner (470 calories) • 1 serving Seared Salmon with Green Peppercorn Sauce • 1 cup steamed green beans • 1 baked medium red potato, drizzled with 1/2 Tbsp. olive oil and a pinch each of salt and pepper.   Day 2 Pictured Recipe: Roasted Tofu & Peanut Noodle Salad Meal Prep Tip Pack up the leftovers from dinner tonight to take for lunch on Day 3. Breakfast (287 calories) • 1 cup bran cereal • 1 cup skim milk • 1/2 cup blueberries A.M. Snack (95 calories) • 1 medium apple Lunch (330 calories)

View Blog:

Top 10 Paradise Islands In Vietnam You Have To Go

Top 10 Paradise Islands In Vietnam You Have To Go Once In The Lifetime   Vietnam is home to lots of paradise islands. Some are really well-known like Phu Quoc, Cat Ba, but others are still hidden gems that need discovering. For nature lovers, you have to visit one of these top 10 paradise islands at least once in your lifetime. 1. Phu Quoc Island Speaking of beautiful islands in Vietnam, people never forget to mention Phu Quoc. Coming here you will enjoy the fresh air, spacious peaceful atmosphere and cool breeze far from the hustles of daily life. The crystal- clear sea, white sand, beautiful sunshine and green coconut trees will always give you the greatest experiences. 2. Nam Du Island Nam Du (KienGiang) promises to be an extremely "hot" destination in this summer thanks to clear blue water, shady coconut trees on the sandy shores. Especially, if you go from Saigon, the cost of the whole trip only reaches 2 million VND. Waking up a little earlier to hire a “xeôm” (motorbike with a driver) for 80k and make a trip to the lighthouse. Here, you can admire the full paradise beauty of Nam Du Island, discover new angles and capture the most stunning pictures of your KienGiang discovery voyage.   3. Con Dao

View Blog:

6 Amazing Benefits And Uses Of... by M.Yaseen Khan

6 Amazing Benefits And Uses Of Pine Nuts    A delicious evening snack that can help you with weight management too? Sounds too good to be true. But it’s true! Tasty and nutritious, pine nuts can aid weight loss along with providing a plethora of health benefits for your body     Pine nuts have been a popular source of nutrition since the Paleolithic times. Crunchy and delicious, pine nuts are small seeds of the pine cone. Botanically, the tree belongs to the Pinaceae family. Pine nut is known by several names like cedar nuts, pinon nuts, pinyon nuts and pignoli. It is called chilgoza in Hindi. Chilgoza is found commonly in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The seeds are small and elongated, measuring one to two inches in length.     Pine Nuts Benefits: Let us have a glimpse at the various health benefits of pine nuts 1. Improves cardiovascular health: Pine nuts are rich in monounsaturated fats that help to lower cholesterol in the blood. Regular consumption of pine nuts increases good cholesterol and reduces bad cholesterol in the body. Oleic acid in pine nuts helps the liver to remove triglycerides from the body. It also favors a healthy blood lipid profile, preventing coronary artery diseases and strokes. 2. Weight loss: Eating a handful of pine nuts can help in weight management. A study has found that swapping healthy unsaturated fats for saturated fats can help you to lose weight without reducing your calorie intake. Pine nuts are very effective in suppressing appetite. Pinolenic acid stimulates CCK (cholecystokinin), a hormone that signals the brain that the stomach is full. This curbs the appetite, keeping you full for a longer time. Pine nuts can decrease food intake by 37%. 3. Antioxidants: Pine nuts are extremely high in antioxidants. These antioxidants kill free radicals that encourage the development of cancer and other types of diseases. It also helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and viruses. Pine nut is also known for its ability to slow down the ageing process due to its high antioxidant content. 4. Improves eye health: Pine nuts contain beta-carotene and antioxidants, which are very beneficial for the health of the eyes. Lutein in pine nuts helps the eyes to filter UV light, preventing macular damage. It also prevents our eyesight from deteriorating with age. 5. Energy: Pine nuts are an excellent option for evening snacking. It contains protein that provides an instant source of energy. It also helps to repair and build the muscle tissues. Protein is a slow burning fuel that provides a long lasting energy boost which does not result in burnout. It also helps to improve the body’s use of oxygen, increasing the energy levels. 6. Skin health: Vitamin E in pine nuts is required for maintaining the integrity of the cell membranes. It also protects the skin from the harmful UV rays. The emollient properties of pine nut oil keep the skin well moisturized. Pine nut oil: Pine nut is often pressed to extract its oil. The oil has a delicate flavor and a sweet aroma. It has been used in traditional medicinal application since ancient times. It is used as carrier oil in aromatherapy and in the cosmetic industry. It is also used in cooking and for salad dressings. Pine nut oil has been used since ancient times to soothe an irritated digestive tract. It is very useful in curing erosive stomach and duodenal ulcers. Nutritional Value of Pine Nuts: Pine kernels are a good source of several essential nutrients. It contains Vitamin A, B, C, D and E. It is an excellent source of B complex vitamins like thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, folate and pyridoxine. Pine nuts are rich in minerals like manganese, potassium, calcium, zinc, selenium and iron. They are rich sources of pinolenic and oleic acid that are very beneficial for the stimulation of hormones. 100 grams of pine nuts contain 675 calories. Pine nuts, raw, Nutritional value per 100 g. (Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)

View Blog:

Meal Plan Will Help You Melt Away Fat In 4 Weeks

Meal Plan Will Help You Melt Away Fat In 4 Weeks Choose from 39 delicious dishes in this healthy meal plan designed to help you lose weight and boost your heart health. GETTY IMAGES     BY KAREN ANSEL, RD Dec 28, 2017 7.1k       The latest word on eating to protect your ticker isn't about clearing your fridge of all fat—it's about focusing on the right type. "Choosing foods with omega-3 fatty acids and mono- and polyunsaturated fats (like salmon, avocado and peanut butter) can help lower blood pressure and cholesterol—even more than limiting the cholesterol you eat," says Penny Kris-Etherton, PhD, RD, a professor of nutrition at Penn State University. Which is why this eating plan is packed with these good-for-you foods. HOW THE PLAN WORKS   GETTY IMAGES Each day, pick one breakfast, one lunch and one dinner. Choose three sweets, treats or snacks (two if you're trying to lose weight). For items with a *, swap in a new fruit, vegetable, whole grain or protein from the Swap It! list whenever you want. Per the American Heart Association guidelines, about 30% of your daily calories will come from fat (mainly the heart-healthy type, with less than 7% from saturated fat), and you'll have no more than 300 mg cholesterol or 1,500 mg sodium. BREAKFAST: 300 CALORIES

View Blog:

FATA by M.Yaseen Khan

View Blog:

Most Amazing Destinations in

Most Amazing Destinations in Eastern Russia Most visitors who travel to Russia spend their time in the western portion of the country. While cities such as Moscow and St. Petersburg have a lot to offer, don’t miss out on all that can be found in Eastern Russia. This is the place to be if you’re interested in the rugged outdoors, as the Far East of Russia is home to countless national parks, volcanoes and snow-covered mountain peaks. Islands off the coast let you see a unique side of Russia, and the Far East can even be a great starting point for international trips to China or Mongolia. From Yakutsk, the coldest city on Earth, to Wrangel Island, known as Polar Bear Island, Russia’s Far East is an incredible destination well worth visiting. 1. Vladivostok wikipedia/vladi-kobzar Vladivostok is a major port city on the Pacific, and it also just 130 km (80 miles) from the border with North Korea. Many travelers are familiar with Vladivostok because it is the terminus for the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia. Head to the water for some of the best views, and start at Golden Horn Bay to see the fleet of the Russian Navy. If it’s warm, take a swim in Sportivnaya Harbor, or walk across the ice if it happens to be winter. You can also do some souvenir shopping at the enormous Sportivnaya Market, tour the Museum Vladivostok Fortress, or stroll through the botanical gardens. 2. Wrangel Island flickr/Yukon White Light Wrangel Island is located within the Arctic Circle, and visitors can expect cold weather and a tundra landscape. Despite the climate and the difficulty getting to the island, Wrangel is a world-famous spot for nature lovers. If you have ever wanted to see Arctic wildlife, this may be your best opportunity to do exactly that. Some of the land mammals on Wrangel Island include polar bears, Arctic foxes, reindeer and walruses. Countless polar bear dens mean that with a trained guide, it’s nearly a guarantee that you’ll spot polar bears in their natural habitat. You can also spot grey whales from the coast or from boats right offshore. 3. Kuril Islands

View Blog:

Best Places to Visit in the Netherlands

Best Places to Visit in the Netherlands No visit to Holland is complete without a visit to the capital city, Amsterdam; however, there are so many more thrilling sites to see in the Netherlands. From the classic windmills and magnificent fields of flowers to historic town centers laden with museums and sights, Holland has much to offer visitors. These places to visit in the Netherlands are not to be missed, and most are easily accessible. 1. Amsterdam  flickr/Lennart Tange One of Europe’s most popular tourist destinations, Amsterdam is widely known for its party atmosphere, cannabis practice and the red light district. With over 1500 fabulous monumental buildings and just as many bridges, visitors to Amsterdam spend much of their time exploring the eccentricities and marvelous museums dotting the 60 miles of canals across the city. The Anne Frank House and the Rijksmuseum Museum are the most popular stops for history and art seekers, while the Prinsengracht area is one of the best places for shopping, gallery viewing, pub crawling, and checking out the unique coffee shops in Amsterdam. 2. Leiden  flickr/habaneros The picturesque city of Leiden is a great place to visit for its scenic, tree-lined canals that are marked with old windmills, wooden bridges and lush parks. A boat ride down one of these lovely canals makes for an unforgettable experience. Attractions in Leiden include the numerous museums that range from science and natural history to museums dedicated to windmills and Egyptian antiquities. The Hortus Botanicus offers sprawling botanical gardens and the world’s oldest academical observatory. Visitors can also admire the beautiful architecture of the 16th century Church of St. Peter and check out its association with several historic people, including the American pilgrims. 3. Delft  flickr/AJ4141

View Blog:

Beautiful One Day Picnic Spots Near Lahore

Beautiful One Day Picnic Spots Near Lahore Pakistan is full of beautiful places and tourist destinations. Although Northern areas appeal masses for the natural beauty and are the first choice of many Pakistanis trekkers and amateurs visitors, but other developed cities also have their own attractions. People of Lahore are known for being extremely warm by heart and lively, the reason they love visiting various places around the country. When long trips are not possible and you have got a one whole day to hangout with friends or with to spend quality time family, there are several beautiful picnic spots around Lahore. Lahore itself has large number of attractions but times come when you just want to go out city for a kind of long drive along with your dear ones. Here is list of some of most beautiful places around Lahore that can choose for a one day picnic form Lahore. 1. Safari Park Woodland Wildlife Park, popularly known as Lahore Safari Park is 15km far from Lahore, located at Raiwind road Lahore. It was established in 1982 and it covers some 240 acres. The species housed here include Indian peafowl, Bengal tiger, common pheasant, emu, lion, mute swan, nilgai, ostrich and silver pheasant among a few others. You need a car (if you don’t want be to meal of animals) to visit the park. 2. Rana Resort This is some of the most favorite picnic spot of people living nearby Lahore. It has views

View Blog:

10 HEALTH BENEFITS OF CARROT JUICE

10 HEALTH BENEFITS OF CARROT JUICE At V8 we are big fans of carrots and carrot juice. You see, the humble carrot is more than just a side to your roast dinner, a crunchy stick to your hummus – it’s a nutritious and vitamin packed super food! However, the vibrant orange carrot you see today hasn’t always been that way. In fact, you could have found yourself drinking a deep purple or light yellow glass of carrot juice right now if it weren’t for a few 16th century Dutch growers! Carrots were originally purple, white and yellow in colour, and you can still get your hands on these today should your heart desire. As we love this simple vegetable so much – in solid and liquid form – we decided to put together a run down on some of the top health benefits of carrot juice. Enjoy!

View Blog:

The Sugar Cane Fields of Brazil

The Sugar Cane Fields of Brazil The sugar cane fields of Brazil are an interesting place. They can stretch out, unbroken for tens of miles and it is extremely easy to get lost in them. Naturally, when Team Boers and Team Ames were based in Lagoa Azeda, we opted to check them out: The only real gaps in the sugar cane fields come from towns or these small canyons that intersect the hilltops where the cane is grown:

View Blog:

Top Tourist Attractions in Phnom Penh

Top Tourist Attractions in Phnom Penh The Cambodian capital is known for both its beautiful architecture, both ancient and from French colonial times, as well as its recent violent history. Before the war in the seventies, Phnom Penh was called the Paris of the East, and hailed for its beautiful white facades interspersed with temples (wats) over a millennium old. Though the Khmer Rouge regime is long gone, the roughness of Phnom Penh is just slowly disappearing. The biggest charms of the city is that it has not been westernized to the level that some of its neighboring countries have been, and therein gives a more unspoiled Southeast Asian experience. Here is a look at the top tourist attractions in the Phnom Penh: 1. Phsar Thmei (Central Market) From beneath a shining central golden dome, four pearl-white wings full of busy vendors stretch into numerous corridors and a cloud of sounds, sights, and scents. This art deco relic of the French Colonial architectural era was once believed to be the largest market in Asia, and has continued to operate (except during war time) since it completed construction in 1937. No matter what they are looking for, shoppers are likely to find a bargain here. From burned CDs and DVDs to discount tees, from luscious batik and brocade textiles to gold and gemstones, there is something for every taste to find here. 2. Sisowath Quay flickr/kenner116 This riverside strip has been an important commercial public region for centuries. Bordering the Mekong River and abutted by the Royal Palace, this area is full of street vendors and shops, restaurants and hotels. It is one of the best locations to watch the boat races during Phnom Penh’s (and much of Southeast Asia’s) famed water festival, which takes place in mid April to celebrate the Buddhist new year. Sisowath Quay has a very westernized, multinational vibe, as it is home to several colonial-style buildings as well as a number of Embassies. For those planning a boat trip to Siem Reap, the ferry terminals leave from here. 3. Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum flickr/wbdo Converted in 1975 by the Khmer Rouge Regime from

View Blog:

10 Magnificent Angkor Temples

10 Magnificent Angkor Temples Situated between the Tonle Sap lake and the Kulen Mountains in Cambodia, Angkor contains the magnificent remains of several capitals of the Khmer Empire. Angkor served as the seat of the Khmer Empire, which flourished from approximately the 9th to 15th centuries. The hundreds of temples surviving today are but the sacred skeleton of the vast political, religious and social center of the ancient empire. At its zenith the city boasted a population of one million people, the largest preindustrial city in the world. After the fall of the Khmer empire the Angkor temples were abandoned and reclaimed by the jungle for centuries. Situated amid dense rainforest and rice paddies, many of the temples at Angkor have now been restored and welcome over two million tourists each year. 1. Angkor Wat Temple flickr/Peter Garnhum   Angkor Wat (meaning “City Temple”) is the most magnificent and largest of all Angkor temples. The structure occupies and enormous site of nearly 200 hectares (494 acres). A huge rectangular reservoir surrounds the temple which rises up through a series of three rectangular terraces to the central shrine and tower at a height of 213 meters (669 feet). This arrangement reflects the traditional Khmer idea of the temple mountain, in which the temple represent Mount Meru, the home of the gods in Hinduism. Built under the reign of king Suryavarman II in the first half of the 12 century, Angkor Wat is the pinnacle of Khmer architecture. The famous bas-reliefs encircling the temple on the first level depict Hindu epics including the mythical “Churning of the Ocean of Milk”, a legend in which Hindu deities stir vast oceans in order to extract the nectar of immortal life. The reliefs, including thousands of female dancers, are carved into the wall of the third enclosure of the temple. In the late 13th century, Angkor Wat gradually moved from a Hindu temple to a Theravada Buddhist one. Unlike other temples at Angkor which were abandoned after the fall of the Khmer empire in the 15th century, Angkor Wat remained a Buddhist shrine. 2. Bayon Temple flickr/huminiak The Bayon temple features a sea of over 200 massive stone faces looking in all direction. The curious smiling faces, thought by many to be a portrait of king Jayavarman VII himself or a combination of him and Buddha, are an instantly recognizable image of Angkor. Built in the 12th century by King Jayavarman VII as part of a massive expansion of his capital Angkor Thom, the Bayon is built at the exact center of the royal city. The Bayon is the only state temple at Angkor built primarily as a Mahayana Buddhist shrine dedicated to the Buddha. Following Jayavarman’s death, it was modified by later Hindu and Theravada Buddhist kings in accordance with their

View Blog:

Amazing Hindu Temples by M.Yaseen Khan

Amazing Hindu Temples Hinduism is one of the world’s oldest religions, and has over 900 million followers worldwide. Though most of the Hindus live in India there are substantial numbers present in Nepal, Bangladesh and Indonesia.   Temple construction in India started nearly 2000 years ago and marked the transition of Hinduism from the Vedic religion. The architecture of Hindu temples has evolved ever since resulting in a great variety of styles. They are usually dedicated to one primary Hindu deity and feature a murti (sacred image) of the deity. Although it is not mandatory for a Hindu to visit a Hindu temple regularly, they play a vital role in Hindu society and culture.   1. Angkor Wat Angkor is a vast temple complex in Cambodia featuring the magnificent remains of several capitalsof the Khmer Empire, from the 9th to the 15th century AD. These include the famous Angkor Wat temple, the world’s largest single religious monument, and the Bayon temple (at Angkor Thom) with its multitude of massive stone faces. During it’s long history Angkor went through many changes in religion converting between Hinduism to Buddhism several times. 2. Meenakshi Amman Temple The Meenakshi Amman Temple is one of the most important Indian Hindu temples, located in the holy city of Madurai. The temple is dedicated to Sundareswar (form of Lord Shiva) and Meenakshi (form of Goddess Parvati). The complex houses 14 magnificent towers including two golden Gopurams for the main deities, that are elaborately sculptured and painted. The temple is a significant symbol for the Tamil people, and has been mentioned for the last couple of millennia, though the present structure was built in the early 17th century. 3. Prambanan

View Blog:

Most Popular Attractions in Belgrade

Most Popular Attractions in Belgrade With its turbulent, war-torn past, Belgrade is like a phoenix rising from the ashes to become one of today’s hottest European capitals. Belgrade, home to two million people, is a pretty city sitting at the confluence of the Danube and Sava rivers. You’ll want to walk along the river banks, perhaps stopping for a drink or meal at a riverboat that’s been converted to a restaurant before visiting the attractions in Belgrade. The Serbian capital is fast becoming known as a center for international festivals; hosting more than 100 a year, for sure there will be one going on whenever you visit. 1. Belgrade Fortress Because of its strategic defensive location, people have lived at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers since Neolithic times. Then the invaders moved in, first the Celts and later the Romans, who built a palisade here, followed by the Huns and the Goths. It was a Serbian leader, however, in the 15th century who really beefed up the fortifications here. The fortress is remarkably intact, occupying a large chunk of the area. Besides the fortifications, the official fortress area includes a church, a museum and several popular parks. 2. Skadarlija Street flickr/ZeWaren Skadarlija Street may not be very long, just 400 meters (1,340 feet), but it’s the most famous street in Belgrade. Located in the Old Town, it connects Despot Stefan Boulevard with Dusanova Street. The street is lined with vintage buildings. With a bohemian atmosphere, Skadarlija Street is considered Belgrade’s version of Montmartre in Paris. In fact, it was known as the Gypsy quarter in the 19th century. It’s a place where poets gather for Skadarlija Evenings at the house of the late poet Dura Jaksic, and where the Children’s Street Theatre performs circus acts. The restaurants and outdoor cafes welcome diners, including celebrities, from all over. 3. Ada Ciganlija Ada Ciganlija is an island cum artificial peninsula in the Sava River/Lake that runs through central Belgrade. With its pretty beaches and sports facilities, Ada

View Blog:

Potala Palace in Tibet

Potala Palace in Tibet  The World’s Highest Palace In the autonomous region of Tibet in China is the city of Lhasa, where visitors can find several amazing historic attractions. Few are quite as fascinating, or as significant, as Potala Palace. The Buddhist building is enormous, and it is one of the most iconic destinations in all of Tibet. No visit to the area would be complete without entering into at least one of the 1,000 rooms that make up the Potala Palace. In approximately the 7th century, King Songtsen Gampo built a palace on the site where Potala now stands. The early fortress was created to be a home for the king’s two foreign wives. It wasn’t until the 17th century that the Dalai Lama begin construction of the large fortress and palace that is now visible. Construction allegedly took 50 years, which is no surprise when considering the scope of the palace and the incredible durability of the fortress walls, which still stand tall today. Initially, the Potala Palace was used as both a year-round and later a winter residence for the Dalai Lamas throughout history. The Potala Palace remained the residence of the Dalai Lama until the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India, after the Chinese invasion in

View Blog:

SHILAJIT BENEFITS AND SIDE EFFECTS

SHILAJIT BENEFITS AND SIDE EFFECTS Lost Empire Herbs » Shilajit Benefits and Side Effects [cjtoolbox name=’PP HotJar’]Shilajit is thought to be one of the most popular “herbs” in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, and in this article we’ll take a closer look at numerous shilajit benefits and a few possible side effects too.   The uses of Shilajit encompass plenty of benefits in various medical conditions. This highly sought unconventional medicinal substance became popular after gaining celebrity endorsement from Oprah, Deepak Chopra and many others. It is expected to take the much bigger spotlight in coming years. Most of its benefits are yet to be discovered and confirmed by science, but that’s because there are so many different ones. From ‘Shilajit: A Natural Phytocomplex with Potential Procognitive Activity” Table of Contents 1 Shilajit Benefits 1.1 Shilajit Benefits for Men 2 Shilajit Side Effects 3 Different Forms of Shilajit Shilajit Benefits Anti-Aging properties – First of all, the main health benefits of shilajit is its able to help slow down the aging process in various ways. It keeps the calcium in the bones and consequently makes them stronger. Shilajit also serves as a natural anti-oxidant, containing more than 85 minerals in their ionic form, keeping the diseases away and the immune system strong. The above chart showcases some of the shilajit’s benefits and constituents. Sexual properties

View Blog:

31 January 2018 — Total Lunar Eclipse

31 January 2018 — Total Lunar Eclipse The total phase of this lunar eclipse will be visible in large parts of US, northeastern Europe, Russia, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific, and Australia. Follow our LIVE eclipse coverage! Was this Total Lunar Eclipse visible in Faisalabad? What This Lunar Eclipse Looked Like The animation shows approximately what the eclipse looked like from the night side of the Earth. Penumbral Eclipse Starts Partial Eclipse Starts Full Eclipse Starts Maximum Eclipse Full Eclipse Ends Partial Eclipse Ends Penumbral Eclipse Ends Where the Eclipse Was Seen Detailed eclipse path map 3D globe map Try our new interactive eclipse maps.Zoom in and search for accurate eclipse times and visualizations for any location. Regions seeing, at least, some parts of the eclipse:North/East Europe, Asia, Australia, North/East Africa, North America, North/West South America, Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Arctic, Antarctica.

View Blog:

Rain by M.Yaseen Khan

Rain Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts. If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) which can organize into narrow rainbands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation which forces moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall along the sides of mountains. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by downslope flow which causes heating and drying of the air mass. The movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes. The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Global warmingis also causing changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions across eastern North America and drier conditions in the tropics.[citation needed] Antarctica is the driest continent. The globally averaged annual precipitation over land is 715 mm (28.1 in), but over the whole Earth it is much higher at 990 mm (39 in).[1] Climate classificationsystems such as the Köppen classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Rainfall is measured using rain gauges. Rainfall amounts can be estimated by weather radar. Rain is also known or suspected on other planets, where it may be composed of methane, neon, sulfuric acid, or even iron rather than water. Formation Water-saturated air   Falling rain Rain falling on a field, in southern Estonia Air contains water vapor, and the amount of water in a given mass of dry air, known as the mixing ratio, is measured in grams of water per kilogram of dry air (g/kg).[2][3] The amount of moisture in air is also commonly reported as relative humidity; which is the percentage of the total water vapor air can hold at a particular air temperature.[4] How much water vapor a parcel of air can contain before it becomes saturated (100% relative humidity) and forms into a cloud (a group of visible and tiny water and ice particles suspended above the Earth's surface)[5] depends on its temperature. Warmer air can contain more water vapor than cooler air before becoming saturated. Therefore, one way to saturate a parcel of air is to cool it. The dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated.[6] There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, and evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air rises and expands.[7] The air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain (orographic lift). Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface,[8] usually by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath.[9] Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation.[10] The main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion,[11] precipitation or virga falling from above,[12] daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet land,[13] transpiration from plants,[14] cool or dry air moving over warmer water,[15] and lifting air over mountains.[16] Water vapor normally begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust, ice, and salt in order to form clouds. Elevated portions of weather fronts (which are three-dimensional in nature)[17] force broad areas of upward motion within the Earth's atmosphere which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.[18] Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can also form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions.[19] Coalescence and fragmentation

View Blog:

Qaumi Taranah

Qaumi Taranah Qaumi Taranah قومی ترانہ English: National Anthem of Pakistan National Anthem National anthem of  Pakistan Lyrics Hafeez Jullundhri, June 1952 Music Ahmad G. Chagla, 21 August 1949 Adopted 13 August 1954 Relinquished Present   Audio sample MENU     0:00   Qaumi Taranah (Instrumental) file help v t e Ahmad G. Chagla composed the music of the National Anthem of Pakistan in 1949 Ahmed Rushdi recorded the National Anthem of Pakistan in 1954 The Qaumi Taranah (Urdu: قومی ترانہ‬‎, Qaumī Tarānah pronounced [ˈqɔː.mi ˈt̪ə.rɑː.nɑ], lit. “National Anthem”), also known as Pāk Sarzamīn (Urdu: پاک سرزمین‬‎, pronounced 

View Blog:

Best Beaches in Thailand

Best Beaches in Thailand Thailand is famous for its beautiful white sand beaches and stunning, clear blue seas. With over 2,000 miles of coastline and 8,000 tropical islands, Thailand offers visitors a wide variety of beaches to choose from, including quiet, secluded coves and stretches of sand that are filled with wild partying tourists. An overview of the best beaches in Thailand: 1. Phra Nang Beach  flickr/plusgood Phra Nang Beach is located at the southern tip of Railay, a peninsula on the Andaman Coast. Framed by stunning limestone cliffs and blessed with clear, emerald waters and beautiful white sands, it is considered one of the most beautiful beaches in Thailand. It is also popular with climbers who enjoy scaling Railay’s massive limestone rocks. Travelers interested in learning how to scale these rocks will find a number of instructors in the area willing to literally show them the ropes. Phra Nang, which can be reached by long-tail boat from Ao Nang, is quite popular and so can be crowded at times. 2. Maya Bay  This gorgeous site on Ko Phi Phi Leh is now famous for being the location of Leonardo DiCaprio’s film “The Beach.” Today, tourists from all over the world come to this sheltered bay, which is framed on three sides by tall cliffs, to see and enjoy this beautiful location for themselves. Ko Phi Phi is also well-known for its excellent diving and snorkeling. Because Phi Phi Leh is a national park, travelers must pay a 200 baht fee to enter. However, tourists who enter with a group will typically pay this fee as part of their tour price. Accommodation can be found on the larger Ko Phi Phi Don, which is just as stunning. 3. White Sand Beach 

View Blog:

Best Places to Visit in Oman

 Best Places to Visit in Oman On the edge of the Arabian Peninsula, you’ll find the Sultanate of Oman. Often overlooked by travelers, Oman is an exotic destination filled with incredible attractions and cities. The capital of Muscat is by far the most popular destination, but it only contains a small part of what makes Oman great. If you’re thrilled by desert landscapes, incredible mountain ranges, historic forts and warm beaches throughout the year, then make Oman the next destination on your travel bucket list. An overview of the best places to visit in Oman:   1. Muscat If you only visit one place in Oman, it is likely to be Muscat. This city is home to forts, palaces, museums and markets, offering something for everyone. While you can’t visit the interior of the Qasr Al Alam Royal Palace, you can head to the harbor to get a close view of the amazing structure. Standing guard over the palace are the twin forts of Al Jalali and Al Mirani, which have been converted to museums and are open to the public. Non-Muslim travelers can also visit the breathtaking Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque on most mornings, admiring features like an enormous crystal chandelier, marble wall panels and the second largest Persian carpet in the world. 2. Nizwa In the sixth and seventh centuries, the city of Nizwa served as the capital for Oman. Today, the city is best known for its incredible fort, which was built in the 17th century under the direction of Sultan Bin Saif Al Ya’ribi. However, some parts of the fort date all the way back to the ninth century. The highlight of the Nizwa fort is the enormous cylindrical tower. The fort also has some interesting defense mechanisms, including honey traps and unusually shaped windows for shooting approaching enemies. The fort is also a museum, showcasing 17th century life in Oman. While you’re in Nizwa, you can also check out the souk, or outdoor market, as well as the unusual goat market held two days each week in the city center. 3. Wahiba Sands flickr/Juozas Salna

View Blog:

34 Lost Cities Forgotten by Time

34 Lost Cities Forgotten by Time It’s hard to imagine how an entire city can get lost but that’s exactly what has happened to the lost cities on this list. There are actually many reasons why a city has to be abandoned. War, natural disasters, climate change and the loss of important trading partners to name a few. Whatever the cause, these lost cities were forgotten in time until they were rediscovered centuries later.  1. Machu Picchu One of the most famous lost cities in the world, Machu Picchu was rediscovered in 1911 by Hawaiian historian Hiram after it lay hidden for centuries above the Urubamba Valley. The “Lost City of the Incas” is invisible from below and completely self-contained, surrounded by agricultural terraces and watered by natural springs. Although known locally in Peru, it was largely unknown to the outside world before being rediscovered in 1911. 2. Angkor Angkor is a vast temple city in Cambodia featuring the magnificent remains of several capitals of the Khmer Empire, from the 9th to the 15th century AD. These include the famous Angkor Wat temple, the world’s largest single religious monument, and the Bayon temple (at Angkor Thom) with its multitude of massive stone faces. During its long history Angkor went through many changes in religion converting between Hinduism to Buddhism several times. The end of the Angkorian period is generally set as 1431, the year Angkor was sacked and looted by Ayutthaya invaders, though the civilization already had been in decline. Nearly all of Angkor was abandoned, except for Angkor Wat, which remained a Buddhist shrine. 3. Tikal Between ca. 200 to 900 AD, Tikal was the largest Mayan city with an estimated population between 100,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. As Tikal reached peak population, the area around the city suffered deforestation and erosion followed by a rapid decline in population levels. Tikal lost the majority of its population during the period from 830 to 950 and central authority seems to have collapsed rapidly. After 950, Tikal was all but deserted, although a small population may have survived in huts among the ruins. Even these people abandoned the city in the 10th or 11th centuries and the Guatemalan rainforest claimed the ruins for the next thousand years. 4. Petra Petra, the fabled “rose red city, half as old as time”, was the ancient capital of the Nabataean kingdom. A vast, unique city, carved into the side of the Wadi Musa Canyon in southern Jordan centuries ago by the Nabataeans, who turned it into an important junction for the silk and spice routes that linked China, India and southern Arabia with Egypt, Greece and Rome. After several earthquakes crippled the vital water management system the city was almost completely abandoned in the 6th century. After the Crusades, Petra was forgotten in the Western world until the lost city was rediscovered by the Swiss traveler Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812. 5. Teotihuacan In the 2nd century BC a new civilization arose in the valley of Mexico. This civilization built the flourishing metropolis of Teotihuacán and it’s huge step pyramids. A decline in population in the 6th century AD has been correlated to lengthy droughts related to the climate changes. Seven centuries after the demise of the Teotihuacán empire the pyramids of the lost city were honored and utilized by the Aztecs and became a place of pilgrimage. 6. Pompeii On August 24, 79 AD, the volcano Vesuvius erupted, covering the nearby town Pompeii with ash and soil, and subsequently preserving the city in its state from that fateful day. Everything from jars and tables to paintings and people were frozen in time. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum, were abandoned and eventually their names and locations were forgotten. They were rediscovered as the results of excavations in the 18th century. The lost cities have provided an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of people living two thousand years ago. 7. Tiwanaku Located near the south-eastern shore of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, Tiwanaku is one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire. During the time period between 300 BC and 300 AD Tiwanaku is thought to have been a moral and cosmological center to which many people made pilgrimages. The community grew to urban proportions between the 7th and 9th centuries, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. At its maximum extent, the city had between 15,000–30,000 inhabitants although recent satellite imaging suggest a much larger population. Around 1000 AD, after a dramatic shift in climate, Tiwanaku disappeared as food production, the empire’s source of power and authority, dried up. 8. Palenque Palenque in Mexico is much smaller than some of the other lost cities of the Mayan, but it contains some of the finest architecture and sculptures the Maya ever produced. Most structures in Palenque date from about 600 AD to 800 AD. The city declined during the 8th century. An agricultural population continued to live here for a few generations, then the lost city was abandoned and was slowly grown over by the forest. 9. Ani Situated along a major east-west caravan route, Ani first rose to prominence in the 5th century AD and had become a flourishing town and the capital of Armenia in the 10th century. The many churches built there during this period included some of the finest examples of medieval architecture and earned its nickname as the “City of 1001 Churches”. At its height, Ani had a population of 100,000 to 200,000 people. It remained the chief city of Armenia until Mongol raids in the 13th century, a devastating earthquake in 1319, and shifting trade routes sent it into an irreversible decline. Eventually the city was abandoned and largely forgotten for centuries. The ruins are now located in Turkey. 10. Hvalsey Hvalsey was a farmstead of the Eastern Settlement, the largest of the three Viking settlements in Greenland. They were settled in approximately 985 AD by Norse farmers from Iceland. At its peak the site contained approximately 4,000 inhabitants. Following the demise of the Western Settlement in the mid-fourteenth century, the Eastern Settlement

View Blog:

Most Beautiful Islands in Panama

Most Beautiful Islands in Panama As the country that connects South America to Central America, Panama is an incredible destination with plenty of historic and geographic significance. Many people know Panama for its famous canal that connects the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean, but that is just a small part of what makes the country so fascinating. On both the Caribbean and Pacific side, several beautiful tropical islands in Panama can be found that boast stunning beaches and amazing wildlife. On your next trip to Panama, be sure to include a few of these incredibleislands on your travel itinerary. 1. San Blas Islands  East of the Panama Canal, and north of the Isthmus of Panama, you’ll find the San Blas Islands. This archipelago is made up of more than 300 islands and cayes, although only 50 are inhabited. The primary residents of the San Blas Islands are the Kuna People, and they self-govern their archipelago. This makes the islands feel very different from the rest of Panama, right down to the language spoken in San Blas, which is called Tulekaya. On your visit, you can admire the colorful local dress and relax on scenic beaches. Island hopping tours are a great way to see some of the uninhabited and undeveloped islands within the archipelago. 2. Isla Colon Within the Bocas del Toro Archipelago is Isla Colon. The main destination on Isla Colon is its one town, called Bocas Town, which is easily accessible by foot and home to a few waterfront restaurants and souvenir shops. If you would rather enjoy the natural beauty of the island, admire some of the local flora at the Finca Los Monos Botanical Garden, or take a stroll along the beautiful Playa Estrella. At the dolphin preserve, you can also spot dolphins right from the coast. If you have time, set off on a boat tour, and pick one suited to your interests. You can find tours for dolphin spotting, scuba diving or fishing. 3. Coiba 

View Blog:

10 Top Tourist Attractions in Bern

10 Top Tourist Attractions in Bern The capital of Switzerland is a historic destination in Switzerland. Offering a combination of palaces, parks and gardens, Bern is a truly scenic city. It is hard to imagine a more picturesque destination! The River Aare is a prime feature of the city, providing waterfront views from thousands of vantage points. Whether you’re a science nerd, an art fan or a nature lover, you can be sure there is a tourist attraction in Bern available and waiting. 1. Altstadt Bern’s Old Town is one of the most charming in all of Switzerland. It’s cobbled lanes, lined with sandstone arcaded buildings, have changed little in five hundred years and you’ll be able to explore some of the oldest and most significant attractions in Bern. The Altstadt is surrounded on three sides by the Aare river, creating a natural boundary for this historic area. The medieval neighborhood boasts fountains from the 16th century and arcades from the 15th century. Trams pass through the Altstadt for a quick view of the river and the most beautiful fountains and their sculptures, but walking is the best way to admire as many as possible. 2. Zytglogge  flickr/brainstorm1984 One of the most recognizable landmarks in Switzerland is the Zyglogge, a 13th century clock tower found in the heart of Bern’s Altstadt. The clock does far, far more than just tell you the time. A few minutes before the hour, every hour, a jester starts drumming and the music begins. When the clock strikes the start of the hour, characters depicting the king and his bears pop out from the clock and begin captivating the audience below. This is a treat for kids, but adults will also appreciate the longevity of this clock and its role in Bern’s history. Look for the clock’s display that shows the month and even the current zodiac symbol. 3. Bern Minster Although construction began on the Bern Minster all the way back in the 15th century, the Swiss Reformed Cathedral was only completed in 1893. It is the tallest

View Blog:

Hoopoe by M.Yaseen Khan

  Hoopoe Hoopoes /ˈhuːpuː/ are colourful birds found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for their distinctive "crown" of feathers. Three living and one extinct species are recognized, though for many years all were lumped as a single species—Upupa epops. Taxonomy and systematics Upupa and epops are respectively the Latin and Ancient Greek names for the hoopoe; both, like the English name, are onomatopoeic forms which imitate the cry of the bird.[1][2] The hoopoe was classified in the clade Coraciiformes, which also includes kingfishers, bee-eaters, and rollers.[3] A close relationship between the hoopoe and the woodhoopoes is also supported by the shared and unique nature of their stapes.[4] In the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, the hoopoe is separated from the Coraciiformes as a separate order, the Upupiformes. Some authorities place the woodhoopoes in the Upupiformes as well.[5] Now the consensus is that both hoopoe and the wood hoopoes belong with the hornbills in the Bucerotiformes.[6] The fossil record of the hoopoes is very incomplete, with the earliest fossil coming from the Quaternary.[7] The fossil record of their relatives is older, with fossil woodhoopoes dating back to the Miocene and those of an extinct related family, the Messelirrisoridae, dating from the Eocene.[5] Species Formerly considered a single species, the hoopoe has been split into three separate species: the Eurasian hoopoe, Madagascan hoopoe and the resident African hoopoe. One accepted separate species, the Saint Helena hoopoe, lived on the island of St Helena but became extinct in the 16th century, presumably due to introduced species.[7] The genus Upupa was created by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758. It then included three other species with long curved bills:[8] U. eremita (now Geronticus eremita), the northern bald ibis U. pyrrhocorax (now Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), the red-billed chough U. paradisea Formerly, the greater hoopoe-lark was also considered to also be a member of this genus (as Upupa alaudipes).[9] Distribution and habitat Hoopoe nesting at Ganden Monastery, Tibet Combined distribution of all species of Upupa: Light green Upupa africana(African Hoopoe) Orange, blue, dark green Upupa epops (Eurasian Hoopoe) Brown Upupa marginata(Madagascar Hoopoe) Hoopoe with insect Hoopoes are widespread in Europe, Asia, and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar.[10] Most European and north Asian birds 

View Blog:

Ranjit Singh by M.Yaseen Khan

  Ranjit Singh Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780 –1839)[4][5] was the leader of the Sikh Empire, which ruled the northwest Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century. He survived smallpox in infancy but lost sight in his left eye. He fought his first battle alongside his father at age 10. After his father died, he fought several wars to expel the Afghans in his teenage years and was proclaimed as the "Maharaja of Punjab" at age 21.[4][6] His empire grew in the Punjab regionunder his leadership through 1839.[7][8] Prior to his rise, the Punjab region had numerous warring misls (confederacies), twelve of which were under Sikh rulers and one Muslim.[6] Ranjit Singh successfully absorbed and united the Sikh misls and took over other local kingdoms to create the Sikh Empire. He repeatedly defeated invasions by Muslim armies, particularly those arriving from Afghanistan, and established friendly relations with the British.[9] Ranjit Singh's reign introduced reforms, modernisation, investment into infrastructure and general prosperity.[10][11] His Khalsa army and government included Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims and Europeans.[12] His legacy includes a period of Sikh cultural and artistic renaissance, including the rebuilding of the Harimandir Sahib in Amritsar as well as other major gurudwaras, including Takht Sri Patna Sahib, Bihar and Hazur Sahib Nanded, Maharashtra under his sponsorship.[13][14]He was popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab, or "Lion of Punjab". Biography Early life Birthplace of Ranjit Singh in Gujranwala, Pakistan. Ranjit Singh was born on 13 November 1780, to Maha Singh Sukerchakia and Raj Kaur – the daughter of Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind, in Gujranwala, in the Majha region of Punjab (now in Pakistan).[4][15] His birth name was Buddh Singh, after his ancestor who was a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh, a Khalsa, and whose descendants created the Sukerchakia misl before the birth of Ranjit Singh, which became the most powerful of many small Sikh kingdoms in northwestern Southern Asia in the wake of the disintegrating Mughal Empire.[16] The child's name was changed to Ranjit (literally, "victor in battle") by his father to commemorate his army's victory over the Muslim Chatha chieftain Pir Muhammad.[4][17] In his teens, Ranjit Singh took to alcohol, a habit that intensified in the later decades of his life, according to the chronicles of his court historians and the Europeans who visited him.[21][22] However, he neither smoked nor ate beef,[4] and required all officials in his court, regardless of their religion, to adhere to these restrictions as part of their employment contract.[22] Wives   Maharaja Ranjit Singh's family genealogy Ranjit Singh married many times, in various ceremonies, and had twenty wives.[23][24] Some scholars note that the information on Ranjit Singh's marriages is unclear, and there is evidence that he had many mistresses. According to Khushwant Singh in an 1889 interview with the French journal Le Voltaire, his son Dalip (Duleep) Singh remarked, "I am the son of one of my father's forty-six wives".[25] At age 15, Ranjit Singh married his first wife Mehtab Kaur,[16] the only daughter of Gurbaksh Singh Kanhaiya and his wife Sada Kaur, and the granddaughter of Jai Singh Kanhaiya, the founder of the Kanhaiya Misl.[4] This marriage was pre-arranged in an attempt to reconcile warring Sikh misls, wherein Mahtab Kaur was betrothed to Ranjit Singh. However, the marriage failed, with Mehtab Kaur never forgiving the fact that her father had been killed by Ranjit Singh's father and she mainly lived with her mother after marriage. The separation became complete when Ranjit Singh married his second wife Raj Kaur of Nakai Misl in 1798.[26]Mehtab Kaur died in 1813.[25] Raj Kaur (renamed Datar Kaur), the daughter of Sardar Ran Singh Nakai, the third ruler of Nakai Misl, was Ranjit Singh's second wife and the mother of his heir, Kharak Singh.[20] She changed her name from Raj Kaur to avoid confusion with Ranjit Singh's mother. Throughout her life she remained the favourite of Ranjit Singh, who called her Mai Nakain.[27] Like his first marriage, the second marriage brought him a strategic military alliance.[20] His second wife died in 1818.[25] Maharaja Ranjit Singh with some of his wives. Ratan Kaur and Daya Kaur were wives of Sahib Singh Bhangi of Gujrat (a misl north of Lahore, not to be confused the state of Gujarat).[28] After Sahib Singh's death, Ranjit Singh took them under his protection in 1811 by marrying them via the rite of chādar andāzī, in which a cloth sheet was unfurled over each of their heads. Ratan Kaur gave birth to Multana Singh in 1819, and Daya Kaur gave birth to Kashmira Singh in 1819 and to 

View Blog:

White Nile by M Yaseen Khan

White Nile The White Nile (Arabic: النيل الأبيض‎ an-nīl al-'abyaḍ) is a river in Africa, one of the two main tributaries of the Nile; the other is the Blue Nile. The name comes from colouring due to clay carried in the water.[2] In the strict meaning, "White Nile" refers to the river formed at Lake No, at the confluence of the Bahr al Jabal and Bahr el Ghazal Rivers. In the wider sense, "White Nile" refers to all the stretches of river draining from Lake Victoriathrough to the merger with the Blue Nile. These higher stretches being named the "Victoria Nile" (via Lake Kyoga to Lake Albert), the "Albert Nile" (to the South Sudan border) and then the "Mountain Nile" or "Bahr-al-Jabal" (down to Lake No).[3] "White Nile" may sometimes include the headwaters of Lake Victoria, the most remote of which being 2,300 miles (3,700 km) from the Blue Nile.[1] The 19th century search by Europeans for the source of the Nile was mainly focused on the White Nile, which disappeared into the depths of what was then known as "Darkest Africa". The White Nile's true source was not discovered until 1937, when the German explorer Burkhart Waldecker traced it to a stream in Rutovu, at the base of Mount Kikizi.[4]   Headwaters of Lake Victoria The Rusumo Falls The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder river for Lake Victoria, although sources do not agree on which is the longest tributary of the Kagera and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself.[5] The source of the Nile can be considered to be either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi,[6] near Bukirasaz or the Nyabarongo, which flows from Nyungwe Forestin Rwanda.[7] The two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border. The falls are notable because of an event on 28–29 April 1994, when 250,000 Rwandans crossed the bridge at Rusumo Falls into Ngara, Tanzania in 24 hours, in what the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

View Blog:

The Northern Lights by M Yaseen Khan

The Northern Lights In Norse mythology the Valkyries (immortal, war-like virgins) would come galloping across the night sky upon their horses equipped with helmets, spears and armor that would glow and shimmer in the darkness. These lights, colored red, blue, violet and green, would spread in curtains from horizon to horizon, amazing the mortals below. This is how the Vikings explained a phenomenon we now call the aurora borealis, or the Northern Lights. The lights are usually visible in the sky from the northern latitudes though under unusual conditions they can be seen as far south as Florida and Mexico. A similar phenomenon known as the aurora australis (or the Southern Lights) can be appreciated from the southern latitudes. Historically these have been less easily observed by people, however, because of the smaller land mass and lower populations in the area of the South pole when compared to the North pole. Seven Quick Facts Height: Between 600 (969km) and 60 miles (96km) in altitude Colors: Mostly green, with red, pink, blue and violet. Name: Aurora comes from the Roman God of dawn and Boreas is the Greek word for the north wind Discovered: Kristian Birkeland developed the first correct theory of the phenomenon in 1908. Location: The aurora borealis is visible in the northern latitudes and its counterpart, aurora australis, is visible in Earth's southern latitudes Caused By: Electrons from the solar wind follow magnetic field lines to the poles where they excite gases in the atmosphere to glow Other: Strong solar flares can cause a geomagnetic storm which causes the lights to be seen much further south than usual

View Blog:

Talking bird by M Yaseen Khan

Talking bird Talking birds are birds that can mimic the spoken language of humans. There is debate within the scientific community over whether some talking parrots also have some cognitive understanding of the language. Birds have varying degrees of talking ability: some, like the corvids, are able to mimic only a few words and phrases, while some budgerigars have been observed to have a vocabulary of almost 2,000 words. The hill myna, a common pet, is well known for its talking ability and its relative, the European starling, is also adept at mimicry.[1] Wild cockatoos in Australia have been reported to have learned human speech by cultural transmission from ex-captive birds that have integrated into the flock.[2] The earliest reference to a talking bird comes from Ctesias in the 5th century BC. The bird which he called Bittacus,[3] may have been a plum-headed parakeet.[4] Process The young of some birds learn to communicate vocally by social learning, imitating their parents, as well as the dominant birds of their flock. Lacking vocal cords, birds are thought to make tones and sounds using throat muscles and membranes – the syrinx in particular.[5] There are likely to be limitations on the sounds that birds can mimic due to differences in anatomical structures, such as their lacking lips. However, it has been suggested that mimicry amongst birds is almost ubiquitous and it is likely that eventually, all species will be shown to be able to have some ability to mimic extra-specific sounds (but not necessarily human speech).[6] Songbirds and parrots are the two groups of birds able to learn and mimic human speech.[5][7] Pet birds can be taught to speak by their owners by mimicking their voice. If then introduced to wild birds, the wild birds may also mimic the new sounds. This phenomenon has been observed in public parks in Sydney, Australia, where wild parrots utter phrases such as "Hello darling!" and "What's happening?"[5] Captivity Mimicking human speech is not limited to captive birds. Wild Australian magpies, lyrebirds and bowerbirds that interact with humans but remain free can still mimic human speech.[6] Types Parrots The eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) is a strong talker, although these abilities depend entirely on training from an early age.[8] The Abyssinian lovebird (Agapornis taranta) can talk if trained at an early age; however, they only rarely develop into competent talkers. [9] Amazon parrots Many species of the genus Amazona are talkers, including the yellow-headed amazon (Amazona oratrix), yellow-crowned amazon (Amazona ochrocephala), yellow-naped amazon (Amazona auropalliata), blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), white-fronted amazon (Amazona albifrons), lilac-crowned amazon (Amazona finschi), orange-winged amazon (Amazona amazonica), Panama amazon (Amazona ochrocephala panamensis) and mealy amazon (Amazona farinosa).[8][10][11][12][13][14][15]They tend to relate sounds to relationships more than the African grey parrots, and therefore outperform the African grey parrots in more social environments.[citation needed] African grey parrot The African grey parrots (Psittacus) are particularly noted for their advanced cognitive abilities and their ability to talk. There are two commonly kept species of which the Timneh African grey (Psittacus timneh) tends to learn to speak at a younger age than the Congo African grey (Psittacus erithacus).[8] Pet Congo African greys may learn to speak within their first year, but many do not say their first word until 12–18 months old.[16] Timnehs are generally observed to start speaking earlier, some in their late first year.[17] Cockatoos Australian galahs (Eolophus roseicapilla) can talk, although not as well as some other parrots. Male galahs are reportedly easier to teach than females.[18] The yellow-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea) is rated as a fair-to-good talker.[19][20] The long-billed corella (Cacatua tenuirostris) is described as being able to talk "very clearly".[21] Parakeets The budgerigar, or common parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus), are popular talking-bird species because of their potential for large vocabularies, ease of care and well-socialized demeanor.[22] Between 1954 and 1962, a budgerigar named Sparkie Williams held the record for having the largest vocabulary of a talking bird; at his death, he knew 531 words and 383 sentences.[3] In 1995, a budgerigar named Puck was credited by Guinness World Records as having the largest vocabulary of any bird, at 1,728 words.

View Blog:

Top 10 Beauty Tips for Face by M Yaseen Khan

Top 10 Beauty Tips for Face In today’s competitive world everyone of us dreams of having a beautiful, smooth, soft and clear face and skin, without any discrimination of a male or female. Why are you concerned about your skin? And why you spend a lot of bucks for a spotless glowing face? Because face and skin both indicate how healthier, good looking and younger you are, in front of others as well as for your self-confidence.   Do you crave to have a skin like the celebrities?   There are thousands of skin care products available in markets, claiming every solution to your skin problems. But to be very honest, does your skin really deserves chemicals of all sort? We are determined and working 24/7 to provide you all homemade natural remedies for all ailments. Since your health and beauty is the top priority for us. Top10 Beauty Tips for Face According to a famous saying Every affliction can be treated by the Nature except for Death To follow that golden rule, here are the ” Top 10 Beauty Tips For Face ” in particular and for skin in general. No: 1 Beauty Tips for Spotless Face Lemon Juice Lemon is a citrus-rich fruit and has cleansing, lightening dark spots and smoothing properties for our skin. Contains enzymes to remove dead skin cells. Best cleanser for those who have oily skin. Lemon juice is a natural astringent to make our skin less oily, leaving it smooth and soft. To get rid of dark spots and for having  smooth skin you have to Squeeze a fresh lemon juice with squeezer or hand ( only for face and neck ) Apply squeezed lemon juice onto your face and neck where you are having dark spots Let it on for at least 10 minutes Wash out with lukewarm water My recommendation is to do this treatment every day until you see noticeable result in fading of dark spots Do not use lemon juice available in markets because they include preservatives and chemicals

View Blog:

10 Super Simple All Natural Be... by M.Yaseen Khan

10 Super Simple All Natural Beauty Tips The world would have us believe that there are no simple and inexpensive natural beauty tips and tricks. What makes me say that?  Well, did you know that the beauty industry is a nearly $300 BILLION dollar empire? And that the average woman spends about $15,00 on just makeup in her lifetime! (source) And according to a UK survey, women will spend well over a year of their life applying that makeup. (source) Ouch. That, of course, says nothing of the toxic chemicals so commonly found (with almost zero regulation) in beauty products. Yep. Seems like the world is telling us that we need to spend lots of time, lots of money, and risk our health to be beautiful. Don’t believe it. For starters, let’s get real about the idea of beauty. To me it’s about unmasking the real person, not covering it up. And there are lots of simple ways to thank your body, feel more beautiful, and not have to pay an arm and a leg for it. Here are just 10. They are easy. They are all natural. And yet, still luxurious. Enjoy.   1. Banana and Egg Hair Treatment Looking for a little more shine in your hair? Simply mix one egg and a mashed up banana. Apply it as a thick paste to your hair and leave it on for 10 – 30 minutes. Wash it our doing your usual hair washing ritual (if you usually use a store-bought conditioner you’ll probably only need to condition the ends). And voila! Super simple, and all natural, beauty tip.

View Blog:

Muhammad bin Qasim by M.Yaseen Khan

  Muhammad bin Qasim Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-Thaqafī (Arabic: عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي‎; c. 695 – 715[citation needed]) was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part of Pakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was born and raised in the city of Ta'if (in modern-day Saudi Arabia). Qasim's conquest of Sindh and southern-most parts of Multan enabled further Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent. A member of the Thaqif tribe of the Ta'if region, Muhammad bin Qasim's father was Qasim bin Yusuf, who died when Muhammad bin Qasim was young, leaving his mother in charge of his education and care. Umayyadgovernor Al-Hajjaj Ibn Yusuf Al-Thaqafi, Muhammad bin Qasim's paternal uncle, was instrumental in teaching Muhammad bin Qasim about warfare and governance. Muhammad bin Qasim married his cousin Zubaidah, Al-Hajjaj's daughter, shortly before going to Sindh. Due to his close relationship with Al-Hajjaj, Bin Qasim was executed after the accession of Caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik. Umayyad interest in Sindh Map of expansion of Umayyad Caliphate According to Berzin, Umayyad interest in the region occurred because of attacks from Sindh Raja Dahir on ships of Muslims and their imprisonment of Muslim men and women.[1] They had earlier unsuccessfully sought to gain control of the route, via the Khyber Pass, from the Kabul Shahi of Gandhara.[1] But by taking Sindh, Gandhara's southern neighbour, they were able to open a second front against Gandhara; a feat they had, on one occasion, attempted before.[1] According to Wink, Umayyad interest in the region was galvanized by the operation of the Meds (a tribe of Scythians living in Sindh) and others.[2] Meds had pirated upon Sassanid shipping in the past, from the mouth of the Tigris to the Sri Lankan coast, in their bawarij and now were able to prey on Arab shipping from their bases at Kutch, Debal and Kathiawar.[2] At the time, Sindh was the wild frontier region of al-Hind, inhabited mostly by semi-nomadic tribes whose activities disturbed much of the Western Indian Ocean.[2] Muslim sources insist that it was these persistent activities along increasingly important Indian trade routes by Debal pirates and others which forced the Arabs to subjugate the area, in order to control the seaports and maritime routes of which Sindh was the nucleus, as well as, the overland passage.[3] During Hajjaj's governorship, the Meds of Debal in one of their raids had kidnapped Muslim women travelling from Sri Lanka to Arabia, thus providing a casus belli to the rising power of the Umayyad Caliphate that enabled them to gain a foothold in the Makran, Balochistan and Sindh regions.[2][4] The Umayyad Caliphate on the eve of the invasions of Spain and Sindh in 710. Also cited as a reason for this campaign was the policy of providing refuge to Sassanids fleeing the Arab advance and to Arabrebels from the Umayyad consolidation of their rule. These Arabs were imprisoned later on by the Governor Deebal Partaab Raye. A letter written by an Arab girl who escaped from the prison of Partab Raye asked Hajjaj Bin Yusuf for help. When Hajjaj asked Dahir for the release of prisoners and compensation, the latter refused on the ground that he had no control over those. Al-Hajjaj sent Muhammad Bin Qasim for action against the Sindh in 711.[citation needed] The mawali; new non-Arab converts; who were usually allied with Al-Hajjaj's political opponents and thus were frequently forced to participate in battles on the frontier of the Umayyad Caliphate — such as Kabul, Sindh and Transoxania.[5] An actual push into the region had been out of favor as an Arab policy since the time of the Rashidun Caliph Umar bin Khattab, who upon receipt of reports of it being an inhospitable and poor land, had stopped further expeditionary ventures into the region.[citation needed] The campaign A map of Muhammad bin Qasim's expedition into Sindh in 711 AD. Hajjaj had put more care and planning into this campaign than the second campaign [5] under Badil bin Tuhfa.[citation needed]Hajjaj superintended this campaign from Kufa by maintaining close contact with Muhammad bin Qasim in the form of regular reports for which purpose special messengers were deputed between Basra and Sindh.[5] The army which departed from Shiraz in 710 CE under Muhammad bin Qasim was 6,000 Syrian cavalry and detachments of mawali from Iraq.

View Blog:

10 Best Places to Visit in Indonesia

10 Best Places to Visit in Indonesia With 18,330 islands, 6,000 of them inhabited, Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. Indonesia is home to 167 active volcanoes, far more than any other country. Hardly surprisingly in the world’s largest archipelago, beaches are also a major draw. Aside from the obvious like Bali and Lombok, there are many other wonderful beaches in off-the-beaten-track locations. This island nation has some of the largest remaining tracts of tropical forest anywhere in the world, and is home to several beautiful scuba diving and snorkeling spots as well. An overview of the best places to visit in Indonesia: 1. Bali  flickr/Riza Nugraha Bali is one of the world’s most popular island destinations and one which consistently wins travel awards. The varied landscape, rugged coastlines, tropical beaches, lush rice terraces and volcanic hillsides all provide a picturesque backdrop to its colorful, deeply spiritual and unique Hindu culture. The combination of friendly people, a magnificently visual culture infused with spirituality and spectacular beaches with great surfing and diving have made Bali the most popular tourist destination in Indonesia. 2. Yogyakarta  Yogyakarta is a bustling town of some 500,000 people and the most popular tourist destination on Java, due to its proximity to the famous temples of Borobudur and Prambanan. The city itself is a center of art and education, offers some good shopping and has a wide range of tourist facilities. Yogyakarta lies in one of the most seismically active parts of Java and has thus repeatedly been struck by earthquakes and volcano eruptions. In 2006 an earthquake flattened over 300,000 houses while in 2010 the nearby volcano of Mount Merapi erupted, spewing lava over nearby villages.

View Blog:

Jaltarang

Jaltarang 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

View Blog:

Swing (seat)

Swing (seat) A swing is a hanging seat, often found at playgrounds for children including adults, at circus for acrobats, or on a porch for relaxing, although they may also be items of indoor furniture, such as Latin American hammock or the Indian oonjal. The seat of a swing may be suspended from chains or ropes. Once a swing is in motion, it continues to oscillate like a pendulum until external interference or drag brings it to a halt. Swing sets are very popular with children. On playgrounds, several swings are often suspended from the same metal or wooden frame, known as a swing set, allowing more than one child to play at a time. Such swings come in a variety of sizes and shapes. For infants and toddlers, swings with leg holes support the child in an upright position while a parent or sibling pushes the child to get a swinging motion. Some swing sets include play items other than swings, such as a rope ladder or sliding pole. For older children, swings are sometimes made of a flexible canvas seat, of a rubberized ventilated tire tread, of plastic, or of wood. A common backyard sight is a wooden plank suspended on both sides by ropes from a tree branch.   Types of swings  Tire swings are a form of swing made from a whole tire. These are often simply a new or used tirehanging from a tree on a rope. On commercially-developed playground swing sets, oversized new tires are often reinforced with a circular metal bar to improve safety and are hung on chains from metal or wooden beams. They may hang vertically or hang flat, suspended from three or more points on one side. The flat version can hold three or more children. Pumping is achieved by using one or two of the three chains attached to the swing, and two (or more) children can pump in turn.[1] Tire swings can also be used in spinners, where the occupants use their feet to propel the tire. Natural swings may be created by lianas (creeper plants) in a subtropical wild forest like Aokigaharaforest near Mount Fuji. Rope swings are swings created by tying one end of a length of rope to a tree branch, bridge, or other elevated structure. A knot or loop is usually put on the other end to prevent fraying and help the swinger stay on. Rope swings are often situated so that those swinging on them can let go and land in water deep enough to cushion the fall and to be swum around in. The incorporation of a shortboard such as a skateboard in which the rider stands is called swing boarding. It is made safer by the use of an attached board and a harness for the rider. Baby swings are swings with a bucket shape with holes for the child's legs, or a half-bucket shape and a safety belt, that is intended to reduce the likelihood of a very young child from falling out, however, there have been a large number of well-publicized incidents in which children and adults have become stuck in these swings.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Porch swings are swinging, conventionally painted wood, bench-like seats intended primarily for adults. The swing's suspension chains are permanently mounted to the porch ceiling; and the seat is typically large enough to seat about three people, with an armrest at each end. Porch swings are an alternative to using rocking chairs or gliders outdoors. Canopy swings are similar to porch swings, but they are hung on a separate frame and are usually portable. The name is derived from a canopy installed as a sunshade.

View Blog:

Greatest Waterfalls in the World

Greatest Waterfalls in the World Few geographical features exemplify the beauty and power of nature as dramatically as majestic waterfalls. The sight of tons of water spilling over the edge of a cliff or cascading over rocks never fails to impress. While the grandest falls deserve a prominent place on any bucket list, a waterfall doesn’t have to be the tallest, widest or most voluminous to make it a worthwhile travel destination. From powerful cataracts plunging over steep precipices to multi-step cascades tumbling gently into a series of pools, here are some of the world’s most amazing waterfalls.  1. Iguazu Falls One of the great natural wonders of the world, Iguaçu Falls is situated on the border between Brazil and Argentina. The waterfall system consists of 275 falls along the Iguazu River. The majority of the falls are about 64 metres (210 ft) in height. The most impressive of them all is the Devil’s Throat a U-shaped, 82 meter high (269 ft), 150 meter (492 ft) wide and 700 meter (2300 ft) long waterfall. 2. Victoria Falls The Victoria Falls (indigenous name: Mosi-oa-Tunya meaning “The Smoke That Thunders”) are located on the border between Zimbabwe and Zambia. Victoria Falls is often called the largest waterfall in the world, although it is neither the highest nor the widest. It has a width of 1.7 kilometers (1 miles) and height of 108 meters (360 ft), roughly twice the height of North America’s Niagara Falls. In combined height and width Victoria Falls is rivaled only by South America’s Iguazu Falls. 3. Niagara Falls Probably the most famous waterfall in the world, The Niagara Falls are located between the twin cities of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and Niagara Falls, New York. Niagara Falls is actually three different falls, the American Falls, Bridal Veil Falls and Horseshoe Falls. Horseshoe Falls is located on the Canadian side while the other are located in New York. With more than 14 million visitors each year it is one of the most visited tourist attraction in the world. 4. Angel Falls Angel Falls or Salto Ángel is the world’s highest waterfall, dropping a total of 978 meter from the summit of the Auyan Tepuy, and with an 807meter uninterrupted drop. Because the falls are located in an isolated jungle region of Venezuela the only access to Canaima National Park, the gateway to Angel Falls, is by air. 5. Kaieteur Falls Kaieteur Falls is located on the Potaro River in the centre of Guyana’s rainforest. It is one of the most powerful waterfalls in the world, averaging

View Blog:

10 Best Places to Visit in France by M.Yaseen Khan

10 Best Places to Visit in France For more than two decades, France has reigned as the world’s most popular tourist destination, receiving 82 million foreign tourists annual. People from all over the world are drawn to France’s sophisticated culture, dazzling landmarks, exquisite cuisine, fine wines, romantic chateaux and picturesque countryside. An overview of the best places to visit in France: 1. Paris  Attracting more than 45 million visitors annually, Paris is the world’s most popular tourist destination. Dubbed various nicknames like the City of Lights, City of Love and Capital of Fashion, Paris is the capital city of France, known for its romantic ambiance and command in industries like business, entertainment, gastronomy, fashion and art and culture. In addition to iconic landmarks like the Eiffel Tower, Arc de Triomphe and Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris is also home to some of the world’s finest museums that include the Louvre Museum and Musee d’Orsay. 2. French Riviera  flickr/Artur Staszewski Located on the French coast of the Mediterranean Sea, the French Riviera (Cote d’ Azur) is the playground for the rich, famous and hordes of international tourists. Although the Riviera is famous for the glamour of St. Tropez, Monaco or the Cannes Film Festival, there are many other less well known destinations, such as the perched villages of Eze and Saint-Paul de Vence, and the perfumeries of Grasse to name a few. The region enjoys a wonderfully mild to warm climate all year round, despite being one of the more northerly coasts on the whole Mediterranean. 3. Dordogne

View Blog:

How to by M.Yaseen Khan

How to Live a Healthy Lifestyle Being healthy involves more than eating an occasional salad or going for a short walk once every few weeks, but while you'll need to put in some effort, your health is well worth it. To live a healthy lifestyle, consistently choose healthy foods, fit more exercise and physical activity into your daily routine, and practice good hygiene. You'll also need to avoid unhealthy habits, like fad dieting and neglecting sleep. Making lifestyle improvements may require some gradual adjustment, but improved health is readily accessible once you commit to it. [1]   Part1 Choosing Healthy Foods 1 Choose food that contain minimal amounts of unhealthy fats. Unhealthy fats include both trans fats and saturated fats. These fats will raise your LDL cholesterol, and elevated LDL cholesterol often correlates with an increased risk for heart disease.[2] Foods that are high in trans fats include foods made with "partially hydrogenated oils," such as shortening or margarine. Baked goods, fried foods, frozen pizza, and other highly processed foods often contain trans fats.[3] Foods that are high in saturated fats include pizza, cheese, red meat, and full-fat dairy products.[4] Coconut oil is also high in saturated fat, but may also increase good cholesterol, so it's okay to use in moderation.[5] 2 Eat healthy fats in moderation. Poly-unsaturated, mono-unsaturated and omega-3 fats are all good lifestyle choices.These good fats lower your LDL cholesterol and raise your HDL cholesterol, which correlates with decreased risk for heart disease.[6] Choose oils such as olive, canola, soy, peanut, sunflower, and corn oil.[7] Fish are high in omega-3 fatty acids. Choose fish including salmon, tuna, trout, mackerel, sardines, and herring. You can also get omega-3s from plant sources, like flaxseed, plant oils, and nuts and seeds, although your body doesn't process the fats from these as effectively.[8] 3 Select foods that are low in both sugar and highly refined carbohydrates.Minimize your consumption of sweets, soft drinks, sugary fruit juices, and white bread. Choose whole fruits, freshly-squeezed juices, and whole grain bread instead.[9] 4 Eat a variety of different whole foods instead of eating processed foods.[10]Whole foods offer a balance of healthy carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and other nutrients. Eat fruits and vegetables for their high vitamin and mineral content. Try to eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables, rather than canned ones that often contain added sugar or salt. Choose lean meat, beans and tofu for their protein content. Enjoy whole grains such as whole wheat bread, whole wheat pasta, brown rice and quinoa. Eat low-fat dairy products. Skim milk and reduced fat cheeses will reduce your fat intake while ensuring that you receive enough calcium. 5 Incorporate organic foods. Shop at a natural food store or buy food from your local farmer's market. Organic foods are not more nutritious for you, but they don't contain as much pesticide residue or food additives. They are generally more eco-friendly, too.[11] If price is a factor for you, consider buying only certain foods organic, such as apples, berries, stone fruits (peaches, nectarines, etc.), grapes, celery, bell peppers, greens, potatoes, and lettuce.[12] These foods often have much higher pesticide use than other produce when grown conventionally.

View Blog:

45 Tips To Live a Healthier Life by M.Yaseen Khan

45 Tips To Live a Healthier Life This article is available for download as a free ebook. Click on the button to join my free newsletter and download the ebook. (Image: ElenaGaak) How healthy are you? Do you have a healthy diet? Do you exercise regularly? Do you drink at least 8 glasses of water a day? Do you get enough sleep every day? Do you live a healthy lifestyle? Our body is our temple and we need to take care of it. Do you know that over 70% of Americans are either obese or overweight?[1] That’s insane! Think of your body as your physical shell to take you through life. If you repeatedly abuse it, your shell will wear out quickly. Life is beautiful and you don’t want to bog yourself down with unnecessary health problems. Today, your vital organs may be working well, but they may not be tomorrow. Don’t take your health for granted. Take proper care of your body. Good health isn’t just about healthy eating and exercise — it’s also about having a positive attitude, a positive self-image, and a healthy lifestyle. In this article, I share 45 tips to live a healthier life. Bookmark this post and save the tips, because they will be vital to living a healthier life. 🙂 Drink more water. Most of us don’t drink enough water every day. Water is essential for our bodies to function. Do you know over 60% of our body is made up of water? Water is needed to carry out body functions, remove waste, and carry nutrients and oxygen around our body. Since we lose water daily through urine, bowel movements, perspiration, and breathing, we need to replenish our water intake. Furthermore, drinking water helps in losing weight. A Health.com study carried out among overweight or obese people showed that water drinkers lose 4.5 more pounds than a control group. The researchers believe that it’s because drinking more water helps fill your stomach, making you less hungry and less likely to overeat. The amount of water you need depends on your age, weight, humidity level, and your physical activity. There used to be a recommendation to drink 8 glasses of water, but in 2004 this recommendation was removed and healthy adults are recommended to use thirst to determine their fluid needs.[2] Bear in mind that food intake contributes to our fluid intake too — fruits, soups, juices have high water content. How to tell if you need water: if you have dry lips, dry mouth, or little urination, you’re probably not hydrated enough. Go get some water first before you continue with this article! Get enough sleep. When you don’t rest well, you compensate by eating more — usually junk food. Get enough rest and you don’t need to snack to stay awake. Also, lack of sleep causes premature aging and you don’t want that! Read: Having Insomnia? How to Sleep Soundly Every Night Meditate. Meditation quietens your mind and calms your soul. If you don’t know how to meditate, don’t worry — learn to meditate in 5 simple steps. Exercise. Movement is life. Research has shown that exercising daily brings tremendous benefits to our health, including an increase in lifespan, lowering of risk of diseases, higher bone density, and weight loss. Increase activity in your life. Choose walking over transport for close distances. Climb the stairs instead of taking the lift. Join an aerobics class. Take up a sport of your liking (see tip #5). Pick exercises you enjoy. When you enjoy a sport, you naturally want to do it. Exercise isn’t about suffering and pushing yourself; it’s about being healthy and having fun at the same time. Adding variation in your exercises will keep them interesting. Work out different parts of your body. Don’t just do cardio (like jogging). Give your body a proper workout. The easiest way is to engage in sports since they work out different muscle groups. Popular sports include basketball, football, swimming, tennis, squash, badminton, Frisbee, and more. Eat fruits. Fruits have a load of vitamins and minerals. Do you know that oranges offer more health benefits than Vitamin C pills? Satisfy your palate with these nutritious fruits: Watermelon, Apricots, Avocado (yes, avocado is a fruit!), Apple, Cantaloupe, Grapefruit, Kiwi, Guava, Papaya, Strawberries. If you intend to consume a lot of fruits at one go, consume fruit with some fats — such as a dressing, almond butter, olive oil, or avocado — to reduce the glycemic load. More on glycemic load in tip #29. (Image: ElenaGaak) Eat vegetables. Vegetables are important for good health with many important vitamins and minerals. Onion, leek, and garlic are prebiotics — essential food for good gut bacteria. Spinach, kale, swiss chard, and turnip greens are dark leafy greens with high mineral content. Consume a variety of different vegetables for a large diversity of good gut bacteria, which improves your immune system. How can you include more vegetables in your diet today? Eat fermentable fibers. When we eat, we aren’t just eating for ourselves — we are eating for the bacteria in our gut too. In order for the good bacteria to flourish, we need fermentable fiber, which is food for the good gut bacteria. There are two types of fermentable fiber: the soluble type and the insoluble type. All fruits and vegetables contain some form of soluble and insoluble fiber. Resistant starch is an important insoluble fiber (found in unripe bananas and cooked and cooled rice/potatoes) that helps lower blood sugar levels and improves insulin sensitivity. It is important to consume naturally occurring fiber from whole food plant sources. Avoid or cut down on cereal grains which are regarded as a toxin. Be careful about eating excessive amounts of fiber as it can cause digestion and constipation issues, especially for people with existing gut problems. Excessive fiber intake can cause slow down colonic transit time (due to bulkier stools), make it more difficult to move your bowels, which leads to constipation, piles, anal fissure. It can also cause gas and abdominal bloating.[3] In extreme cases, it may even result in intestinal bacteria overgrowth and diverticulosis.[4] Read: Myths and Truths About Fiber Pick different-colored fruits/vegs. Fruits/Vegetables with bright colors are usually high in anti-oxidants. Anti-oxidants are good for health because they remove free radicals that damage our cells. Eat fruits/vegetables of different colors: White (Bananas), Yellow (Pineapples, Mango), Orange (Orange, Papaya), Red (Apple, Strawberries, Tomatoes, Watermelon), Green (Avocado, Lettuce, Cucumber), Purple/Blue (Blackberries, Prunes). Here’s a full list under the color wheel. (Image: wasaitax) Get your macro-nutrients. Macro-nutrients are nutrients needed in bulk amounts to ensure normal growth, metabolism, and well-being of our bodies. The 3 macro-nutrients needed by humans are carbohydrates (sugar), proteins (amino acids), and fats (lipids). There are many funky diets today from high/low carb to high/low protein to high/low fat. We need carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (known as macro-nutrients) for a healthy body. Carbs give us immediate energy. Proteins help repair tissues, heal wounds, and create enzymes and hormones. Fat is needed to build cell membranes; for blood clotting, muscle movement, and inflammation; and to absorb certain vitamins and minerals. Be careful of fad diets. Eat a diet with a well-rounded distribution of macro-nutrients (40% carbs, 30% proteins, 30% fats, vs. being skewed to one particular group). In a study of pre-diabetics, those on a “high protein” diet (defined as 40% carb, 30% protein, 30% fat) resulted in 100% remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance, while those on a high carb diet (defined as 55% carb, 15% protein, 30% fat) resulted in only 33% remission.[

View Blog:

Gilgit-Baltistan by M.Yaseen Khan

Gilgit-Baltistanl Gilgit is located in the north eastern part of Pakistan in the northerly regions that have an autonomous status in Pakistan. Nowadays this region is known as Gilgit-Baltistan, the capital of this region is Gilgit. India does not recognize this region as part of Pakistan and classifies it as being part of the Indian province of Kashmir. This has given rise to one of the largest conflicts between these two countries. Gilgit is an old city which has been an important trading post for centuries because of its situation on the silk route.   Nowadays the city has a population of more than 200,000. Gilgit is often used as a stop over by travelers that are on their way to the Himalayans or the Karakoram mountain range. Because Gilgit is situated in the vicinity of the border with China Chinese culture has left its mark in the city.   Climate The Climate of Gilgit varies from region to region; surrounding mountain ranges creates sharp variations in weather. The eastern part has the moist zone of the western Himalayas, but going towards Karakoram and Hindu Kush the climate dries considerably. Gilgit is hot during the day in summer yet cold at night and valleys like Astore, Khalpu, Yasin, Hunza and Nagar where the temperature is cold even during the summer.   At an altitude of 1,500 meters Gilgit has a desert climate with warm summers and cold winters. During the summer temperatures above 30 degrees Celsius are uncommon. Winters are cold longer periods with subzero temperatures are not uncommon. Precipitation figures are low all year round. During the winter precipitation often falls in the form of snow or hail.   Culture & Heritage Gilgit is home to a number of diversified cultures, ethnic groups, languages and various backgrounds. It is home to people belonging to all regions of Gilgit as well as from other cities of Pakistan and aboard. This multitude of cultures is because of the strategic location of Gilgit. Being the headquarters of the Gilgit-Baltistan almost of the key offices are located in Gilgit.   Language Urdu and English are the official languages

View Blog:

History of Kohinoor Diamond by M.Yaseen Khan

History of Kohinoor Diamond The Kohinoor is one of the oldest and most famous diamonds in the world. The history of Kohinoor diamond goes back in history to more than 5000 years ago. The current name of the diamond, Koh-i-noor is in Persian and means “Mountain of Light”. Below you will find a timeline of this priceless diamond. Up to 1500 It is believed that the diamond was first mentioned more than 5000 years ago in a Sanskrit script, where it was called the Syamantaka. Syamantaka It is worth mentioning that there is only speculation that the Syamantaka and the Kohinoor are the same diamond. After this first written mention, for over 4,000 years the diamond is not mentioned. Maharajah Ranjit Singh Up until 1304 the diamond was in the possession of the Rajas of Malwa, but back then, the diamond was still not named

View Blog:

Why sabudana should be

Why sabudana should be your baby's first food   It's loaded with calcium, helps digestion and is an instant source energy. No mother can be as worried as one whose baby has just started eating solid foods. As babies have immature digestive systems (and no teeth), it becomes an uphill task to look for ingredients that are easy-to-digest, nutritious and easy-to-swallow for the baby every single day. While sooji or rawa is a good option and one that is loaded with the right amount of carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals for your baby, a better choice that is easy to digest would be sabudana or sago. Obtained from the tapoica (cassavva root or arbi in Hindi) root, sabudana is considered to be an excellent first foods for your baby due to the numerous health benefits that it has. Dr Priya Bharma, chief nutritionist at Sri Balaji Action Medical Institute, New Delhi, says, "There are vast benefits of sabudana or tapioca as sabudana is rich in protein, vitamin K, calcium, potassium amongst all. Sabudana is a source of protein, vitamin K and metallic nutrients such as calcium and iron which is necessary for a baby to grow. It plays a vital role in the growth, nourishment and healing of muscles whereas the rest are responsible for maintaining the bone's health and flexibility. It can definitely be your baby's first food."

View Blog:

The Strange Beauty of Salt Mines

View Blog:

HIMALAYAN PINK SALT SUSTAINABILITY

HIMALAYAN PINK SALT SUSTAINABILITY At SaltWorks®, we are dedicated to producing the SAFEST, highest quality gourmet salts available. We are serious about the safety and SUSTAINABILITY of our sea, mineral and bath salts. Since 2001, we've carefully cultivated partnerships with salt suppliers, harvesters and miners across the globe. We've built an extensive network of reputable, trusted production partners who are all registered with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are in full compliance with the Bioterrorism Act of 2002. We are often asked about the source and sustainability of our Ancient Ocean® HIMALAYAN PINK SALT. Here you'll find information on the history and sustainability of Ancient Ocean Himalayan Pink Salt and the community, environmental and economic impacts of salt mining. Is Himalayan Salt Sustainable? There are many rooms in the mine where we source Ancient Ocean® Himalayan Pink Salt. Tunnels in the mine extend two miles into the mountain. The short answer is yes. Himalayan salt is a natural product containing trace minerals that are also present in our bodies. The salt is mined by hand by skilled workers using traditional methods, so there's little to no pollution or waste byproducts from manufacturing. Though Himalayan pink salt was formed millions of years ago, the six mines where the salt is harvested each contain vast supplies. The total number is disputed, but by some estimates the largest mine, Khewra, holds 6.7 billion tons, of which about 220 million tons is currently accessible. Khewra harvests about 400,000 tons per year, which means one mine could continue harvesting at a similar rate, without expansion, for about 550 more years! If tunnels and mining expanded further into the mountains, the supply could be nearly infinite.

View Blog:

Zamzam Well

Zamzam Well The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم‎) is a well located within the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba,[1] the holiest place in Islam. According to Islamic mythology, it is a miraculously generated source of water from God, which sprang thousands of years ago when Abraham's (Ibrāhīm) infant son Ishmael (ʼIsmāʻīl) was left with his mother Hagar (Hājar) in the desert, where he was thirsty and kept crying. Millions of pilgrims visit the well each year while performing the Hajj or Umrah pilgrimages, in order to drink its water. However, safe consumption is questionable due to possible elevated levels of carcinogenic substances in Zamzam water. Traditional origin[edit] Islamic tradition states that the Zamzam Well was revealed to Hagar, the second wife of Abraham[2]and mother of Ishmael.[3] By the instruction of God, Abraham left his wife and son at a spot in the desert and walked away. She was desperately seeking water for her infant son, but she could not find any, as Mecca is located in a hot dry valley with few sources of water. Hajar ran seven times back and forth in the scorching heat between the two hills of Safa and Marwah, looking for water. Getting thirstier by the second, the infant Ishmael scraped the land with his feet, where suddenly water sprang out. There are other versions of the story involving God sending his angel, Gabriel (Jibra'il), who kicked the ground with his heel (or wing), and the water rose.[4] A similar story about a well is also mentioned in the Bible.[5] The name of the well comes from the phrase Zomë Zomë, meaning "stop flowing", a command repeated by Hagara during her attempt to contain the spring water.[1] According to Islamic tradition, Abraham rebuilt the Bayt Allah ("House of God", cognate of the Hebrew-derived place name Bethel) near the site of the well, a building which had been originally constructed by Adam (Adem), and today is called the Kaaba, a building toward which Muslims around the world face in prayer, five times each day. The Zamzam Well is located approximately 20 m (66 ft) east of the Kaaba.[1] In other Islamic tradition, Muhammad's heart was extracted from his body, washed with the water of Zamzam, and then was restored in its original position, after which it was filled with faith and wisdom.[6] History

View Blog:

Best Places to Visit in Alaska

Best Places to Visit in Alaska Although it is physically separate from the rest of the United States, Alaska is one of the most scenic and fascinating parts of the country. Its seclusion only adds to the beauty and mystery of the 49th state, making it an appealing getaway spot for intrepid travelers and nature lovers. Along with the major cities like Anchorage, it is important to get out and experience the natural landmarks and attractions that make Alaska so beloved. As you plan your next trip’s itinerary, be sure to include as many of the following best places to visit in Alaska as possible. 1. Denali National Park  One of the famous and most popular places to visit in Alaska is the Denali National Park. Home to the iconic and towering peak of Mount McKinley, which is the country’s highest mountain, Denali National Park is a protected wilderness area where all kind of wildlife can be seen. Spot bears, moose, wolves and more while walking along the Savage River, admiring the stillness of Wonder Lake or hiking through Polychrome Pass. Hiking, whitewater rafting and back-country camping are popular ways to explore the national park, but there are also bus tours for a climate-controlled and safer way to get around. Short, ranger-led trail walks are available from the Denali Visitor Center, where you’ll also find informative and educational exhibits. 2. Katmai National Park In Southwestern Alaska is the Katmai National Park, a scenic retreat close to both Homer and Kodiak Island. At the heart of the park is the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, an enormous ash flow that remained after the 1912 eruption of the Novarupta Volcano. Also in the Katmai National Park are incredible opportunities to get up close and personal with the local wildlife. In particular, you can spot brown bears who feed on the local salmon. Fishing is also a popular pastime thanks to the abundance of rainbow trout and salmon. 3. Kenai Fjords National Park

View Blog:

Best Places to Visit in Utah

Best Places to Visit in Utah   Utah, boasting natural beauty, five national parks, 43 state parks, and vast areas of breathtaking wilderness, is one of the most popular states in the country for tourism. Along with what is recognized as the best snow on earth, visitors to Utah are also able to enjoy outdoor recreation, scenic vistas, and world-class shopping and dining. Thanks to Utah’s ideal location, this lovely state presents the best of the Desert Southwest and the Rocky Mountains. An overview of the best places to visit in Utah: 1. Zion National Park  Even among America’s National Parks, few can match the stunning beauty of Zion National Park. Situated near Springdale in southern Utah, the park protects a series of incredible rock formations and high sandstone cliffs, and is a favorite spot for hiking, backpacking, canyoneering and climbing. Unlike many other parks in the American Southwest, where visitors look down from the rim of a canyon, visitors to Zion walk on the canyon floor and look up. In addition to the magnificent monoliths and cliffs, the park is known for its desert landscape of sandstone canyons, mesas, and high plateaus. 2. Bryce Canyon National Park Situated in southwestern Utah, Bryce Canyon National Park features a collection of massive natural amphitheaters (and not a canyon despite the name), nestled alongside the Paunsaugunt Plateau. Visitors to the park are able to enjoy a spectacular kaleidoscope of varied colored rocks. Originally settled by Mormon pioneers during the mid-19th century, Bryce Canyon became a national monument in 1923 and was later designated as a national park. The park features tremendous biodiversity and is home to more than 400 native species of plants in three life zones based on elevation. Visitors to the park are able to enjoy 13 viewpoints looking out over the amphitheaters and various hiking trails. 3. Arches National Park

View Blog:

What is Earth Energy?

What is Earth Energy? Terms and Abbreviations COP – coefficient of performance EER – energy efficiency rating EES – Earth Energy System GSHP – ground-source heat pump Ton = 3.5 kW of energy Earth energy (often generalized as geothermal energy) is thermal energy, either heat or cold depending on what is desired, derived from the earth (geo). The thermal energy is contained in the sub-surface materials (rock/sand/gravel/soil), groundwater aquifers, and stable surface water bodies, all of which are referred to as “ground” in the term, “ground-source heat pump”. In some areas the ground is much hotter than average. This is most apparent where geysers are present. The heat energy can be used for direct heating or, if it is hot enough, even electricity production. This form of energy is also called geothermal energy, but for clarification purposes, it will be called high-temperature earth energy. However, in most areas, the earth temperature is in the 5 to 15°C range. There is still a way to harness this low-temperature earth energy. This is possible because the temperature of the earth is warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer than the outside air. The resource can be tapped into between the temperature range of 4°C to 38°C using a ground-source heat pump. What is a Ground-Source Heat Pump? A ground-source heat pump can be used to provide space heating/cooling for homes and offices. In heating mode, it transfers the thermal energy stored in the ground (subsurface, groundwater, or surface water) into a building using the same principle as a refrigerator that extracts heat from food and rejects that heat into the kitchen. A ground-source heat pump takes heat from the ground at a low temperature, passes it into a liquid that vapourizes at a low temperature, raises that temperature by compressing the vapour, passes that higher heat to water, and distributes it throughout the building. The vapour condenses as it loses its heat and it re-circulated to the heat pump. Typically, the energy supplied to the pump (in electricity) is returned in thermal energy at a rate of 1: 3. In cooling mode the heat pump works in reverse. The relatively cool temperatures from the ground help condense the vapour, which absorbs heat, thus removing it from a building. In many cases, however, the cooling can happen without the need for the heat pump because the temperature of the ground is cool enough to use directly to cool the building. Heat pumps are measured in “tons,” whereby one ton is equal to 3.5 kW (12000 Btu/h) of energy. It is important to know the heat demand of a building to properly size the heat pump;

View Blog:

Keeping Kids Healthy

  Keeping Kids Healthy    What food from 8-12 months? By 8 or 9 months, you can start to offer your baby their solids before breast milk or formula. By now your baby is probably having 3-4 meals a day, 1-2 snacks, and 2-3 breast (or formula) feeds. What food from 8-12 months? What food 8-10 months: Video transcript By the time your baby is 12 months, they're ready to eat a little of what the rest of the family is eating but remember to be careful about foods that can cause choking.           Try mashed vegetables mixed with minced or finely chopped tender cooked meat, chicken, kai moana, egg or slightly mashed cooked legumes (such as lentils). You could also add chopped up noodles or pasta or whole rice. Add chopped soft fruit to yoghurt or custard.

View Blog:

103 Ways to Live a Happier Life by M.Yaseen Khan

103 Ways to Live a Happier Life   103 Ways to Live a Happier Life 12 comments   For the first 34 years of my life I was a pretty unhappy person. I didn’t realize it at the time because I just thought this is who I was. Don’t get me wrong, I had a lot of happiness throughout my life but I would always default back to the negative. That’s just the way my mind wants to work. It wants me to focus on the negative. Throughout my life I have had times where I have had nothing and also times where I have had everything (or at least what I had thought was everything). It didn’t matter. Stuff doesn’t matter. It’s all about what’s inside. Today, at age 37, I am a happy and content person (most of the time). So what changed? Did I win the lottery? Did I become a monk? Nope. I just became willing to change and every day I make a conscious decision to seek happiness and serenity in my life. I want to become a better person each day. I want to be happier. The happier I am, the more useful I am to myself and everyone around me. The more I can (and actually want to) help other people. I’m far from perfect at any of this. Most of these things were learned by doing the opposite or by going through a lot of pain. I still go through times when I revert back to being negative and thus become unhappy. But I keep trying and work to become just a little bit better each day. Do you want to be happier? Do you want more serenity (peace in between your ears)? Here are some of these things that have worked for me. (For a printable copy, click here) Really listen when people talk to you. Don’t just wait for them to finish their sentence so you can talk. Do something nice for someone each day. Do it without looking for credit. Write a gratitude list everyday. Even if it’s just one item long. Stretch. Even if it’s just for 2 minutes. Meditate. Giving your mind a break and allowing some stillness in your life is so important. Get rid of your ego. Your ego hates you and wants to keep you apart from other people. Don’t let it. Read something positive each day. It doesn’t matter if it’s just a paragraph long. Don’t waste time reading negative stuff. Spend quality time with your family each day. Take a walk. Call or meet with at least one close friend each day. Floss. I have found that if I can’t commit to something as simple but important as flossing, it usually means that I am letting other areas of my life lag as well. Don’t gossip. Accept things as they are. Strive for more but be content with less. Read a book/blog/article on a subject that you know nothing. Keep a daily journal and commit to writing in it each day. Even if you just write “Today was good. I don’t know what else to write.” Be passionate about everything you do. If you’re doing something everyday that you’re not passionate about, try to figure out how to cut it out of your life. Eat real food. Give back. Nothing brings more fulfillment to me than the feeling of helping someone else. Have a plan for each day. Get the most out of the hours you are going to work so that you can get the most out of the hours outside of work. Surround yourself with positive people. Wake up early. It’s amazing how much more alive you feel when you get up early and start getting things done. Don’t work so much. Don’t think that working so much is something you should be proud of or brag about. No one on their death bed ever thought “I wish I spent more time on that PowerPoint…”16 Laugh. A lot. Offer to help someone each day. Don’t have an ulterior motive. Stop caring so much about what other people think. Stop worrying so much. Most of the terrible things that we think are going to happen, never do. 

View Blog:

SELF by M.Yaseen Khan

  SELF 15 ways to make your life happy 1. Make your own happiness a priority. Your happiness matters. We tend to put other people's happiness before our own and make excuses for the reasons why we neglect our needs - we are too busy, too skint, too stressed out. If you don't value your own happiness then no one else will. It is entirely possible to look out for your own needs and still care about your friends and family. If you are happy, you are more likely to spread happiness and care for those around you. Think about what makes you happy. Now what would make me delirious would be to wake late, eat cake, drink wine and spend the day sunbathing somewhere on a hot and beautiful beach. That's not realistic at this point in my life as I think my kids would have something to say about it! But what does make me happy is writing, fresh linen, watching a good film, open fires, sauvignon blanc, walking in the woods with the dog, my chickens, a good meal with awesome friends, a lie in with my husband, dancing... There are a LOT of things that make me happy that cost little or nothing and those things I make time for. It's easy to neglect your own desires but so important that you don't. 2. Spend time with people who make you happy Who are the people that you enjoy spending time with? Who makes you happy, who loves, respects and appreciates you and who makes you want to be a better person? If you surround yourself with negative people then your life will be filled with negativity, and the opposite is true also, being around positive, happy people make you aspire to be positive and happy. Sometimes we can't help whom we have to spend time with, we may have work colleagues or family members who are Debbie Downers and we have to hang out with them at times. But in our social lives it is so important to keep awesome and positive people around us, the ones who make us laugh, who are joyous to be around. Some of the people who make me happy are filthy minded, raucous and quite dark! But they are interesting and make me feel good about myself. 3. Take responsibility for your own life This is a biggy for me, the trait I hate the most in people is refusing to take responsibility for their own lives. People who have constant excuses for their bad behaviour, who think it is always someone or something else's fault. People who say "its alright for you because..." Own your life. Own your mistakes. Live, learn and move on. The world doesn't

View Blog:

26 Foods High in Zinc for Over... by M.Yaseen Khan

26 Foods High in Zinc for Overall Good Health   Zinc is an important mineral for the body, and a Zinc deficiency can result in hair loss and diarrhea. The National Institute of Health says that adult males should be getting 11 milligrams of Zinc each day, and adult females need 8 milligrams. It’s important to keep in mind that this is cumulative throughout the day, so you shouldn’t try to meet that requirement in one sitting, or with one food. The list of foods below will help give you an idea of how you can incorporate different foods into your diet that will help you meet your Zinc needs. 1. Spinach Spinach may not be the food with the most Zinc in it, but it holds its own considering that it’s a plant source. It’s just one of the many vitamins and minerals that spinach is known for, and one more reason to eat it more often. Having a salad with spinach as the base is an easy way to start getting more Zinc into your diet, especially when you top that salad with other Zinc-containing foods. Serving Size (100 grams), Zinc (0.53 milligrams), 23 calories. 2. Beef Beef is a great food for upping your Zinc levels because ounce for ounce it has m